Jundallah (Arabic: جندالله, lit. 'Soldiers of God'), also known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PRMI), is a Sunni terrorist organization based in Sistan and Baluchestan, a southeastern region of Iran, that claims to be fighting for "equal rights of Sunni Muslims in Iran".
|Jundallah (Soldiers of God)|
جنداللهParticipant in Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency
Logo of Jundallah
anti-Islamic Republic of Iran
|Leaders||Abdolmalek Rigi |
Muhammad Dhahir Baluch
|Area of operations||Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran|
Harakat Ansar Iran
|Allies||Allegedly (see below):|
|Battles and war(s)||2007 Zahedan bombings|
2009 Zahedan bombing
2009 Pishin bombing
2010 Zahedan bombings
2010 Chabahar suicide bombing
|Designated as a terrorist organisation by|
It was founded by Abdolmalek Rigi, who was captured and executed in Iran in 2010. It is believed to have between 700 to 2,000 fighters and, as of December 2014, is said to be responsible for killing 154 and injuring 320 Iranian citizens since 2003, while Jundullah commanders claim the group has killed up to 400 Iranian soldiers.
The group has been designated a terrorist organization by Iran, New Zealand and the United States and it has been linked to, and taken credit for numerous acts of terror, kidnapping and the smuggling of narcotics. According to many sources, the group is linked to al-Qaeda.
- 1 Background
- 2 Terrorist designation
- 3 Views and goals
- 4 International sponsorship
- 5 Timeline
- 6 Activities following Rigi's execution
- 7 In literature
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Jundallah is thought to have begun in 2003 and it is known for attacks against high-profile Iranian targets, both military and civilian. Its origin and structure remain unclear. It has been suggested that it might be an offshoot of Baluchi Autonomist Movement, which was created and supported by Saddam Hussein along with other militant groups like Mujahideen-e Khalq, to wage a proxy war on Iran during the Iran–Iraq War. There appears to be at least another militant organization with the name of Jundallah operating independently in Pakistan.
Iran accuses the United States and other foreign elements of backing Jundallah, possibly from Pakistani territory with Islamabad's support, despite Pakistan's alleged history of cooperation with Iran to suppress trans-border militants, whereas Jundallah denies any connections to al-Qaeda or the Taliban, as well as foreign governments such as the United States and Great Britain. The United States also denies any support or involvement with this group.
In an October 17, 2008 interview aired on Al-Arabiya TV, its leader Abdolmalek Rigi stated the group had given "over 2,000 men" military, political and ideological training but that the number of its members "in the mountains does not exceed 200." It has also been alleged that Jundallah is involved in smuggling Iranian diesel fuel to Afghanistan and Pakistan, the price of which is more than five times cheaper than the diesel fuel in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The diesel fuel is then bartered with opium, which is smuggled into Iran from Afghanistan and Pakistan to be sold in Iran.
Though the United States State Department under Hillary Clinton considered designating Jundullah as a terrorist organization in 2009, it wasn't until November 3, 2010, that it designated Jundallah as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, noting that Jundallah "has engaged in numerous attacks resulting in the death and maiming of scores of Iranian civilians and government officials. Jundallah uses a variety of terrorist tactics, including suicide bombings, ambushes, kidnappings and targeted assassinations." Iran hailed the decision.
Views and goalsEdit
Jundullah have been referred to as separatists by various media, and Iranian leaders have stated that Jundullah is proxy group used by the enemies of Iran to destabilise the Islamic Republic. The group's (now dead) leader Abdolmalek Rigi, however, always denied the organization had any separatist agenda, or foreign links, claiming that they "merely fight for equal rights for Sunni Muslims" in predominantly Shi'a Iran.
In an interview with Rooz (an Iranian online newspaper), Rigi declared himself an Iranian and stating Iran was his home, and that he merely aimed at improving the lives of Sunni Baluchis in a democratic Iran. Dan Rather's US cable channel HDnet's television news magazine Dan Rather Reports, also interviewed Rigi and showed a video of Rigi personally cutting off his brother in-law Shahab Mansouri's head. In the same interview, Rigi described himself as "an Iranian" and denied that his goal is to form a separate Baluch state. He claimed that his goal is to "improve conditions for ethnic Baluchis", and that his group is "fighting exclusively for the rights of Sunni Muslims in Iran".
In an October 17, 2008 interview aired on Al-Arabiya TV, Abdolmalek stated, "the only thing we ask of the Iranian government is to be citizens. We want to have the same rights as the Iranian Shiite people. That's it." He described his group as an Islamic awakening movement but denied any ties with Al Qaeda or the Taliban. He also told the interviewer that despite the fact that "many of us have been martyred ... we are prepared to reach an understanding with the Iranian government, Insha Allah."
United States and IsraelEdit
During 2007–2008, there were allegations that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was supporting Jundallah, but these claims were debunked by a subsequent investigation showing that the CIA "had barred even the most incidental contact with Jundallah." The rumors originated in an Israeli Mossad "false flag" operation; Mossad agents posing as CIA officers met with and recruited members of Jundullah in cities such as London to carry out attacks against Iran. President George W. Bush "went absolutely ballistic" when he learned of Israel's actions, but the situation was not resolved until President Barack Obama's administration "drastically scaled back joint U.S.-Israel intelligence programs targeting Iran" and ultimately designated Jundallah a terrorist organization in November 2010. Although the CIA cut all ties with Jundallah after the 2007 Zahedan bombings, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and United States Department of Defense continued to gather intelligence on Jundallah through assets cultivated by "FBI counterterrorism task force officer"; the CIA co-authorized a 2008 trip McHale made to meet his informants in Afghanistan. According to The New York Times: "Current and former officials say the American government never directed or approved any Jundallah operations. And they say there was never a case when the United States was told the timing and target of a terrorist attack yet took no action to prevent it."
After Rigi was arrested on 23 February 2010, Iran's intelligence minister Heydar Moslehi at a press conference in Tehran claimed that Rigi had been at a US base in Afghanistan 24 hours before his arrest. At a press conference, he flourished a photograph which he said showed Rigi outside the base with two other men, though he gave no details of where the base was, or how or when the photograph was obtained. Photographs were also shown of an Afghan passport and identity card said to have been given by the Americans to Rigi. Moslehi also alleged that Rigi had met the then NATO secretary-general, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, in Afghanistan in 2008, and had visited European countries. He said agents had tracked Rigi's movements for five months, calling his arrest "a great defeat for the US and UK". On February 25 Iranian state television broadcast a statement by Rigi stating he had had American support and that
The Americans said Iran was going its own way and they said our problem at the present is Iran… not al-Qaeda and not the Taliban, but the main problem is Iran. We don't have a military plan against Iran. Attacking Iran is very difficult for us (the US). They [Americans] promised to help us and they said that they would co-operate with us, free our prisoners and would give us [Jundullah] military equipment, bombs, machine guns, and they would give us a base.
BBC News carried a report on the statements, noting that "It is not possible to say whether Abdolmalek Rigi made the statement freely or under duress." The US has denied having links with Rigi's group, Jundullah. Reuters also reported that Geoff Morrell, Pentagon press secretary, dismissed claims by the Iranian government that Mr. Rigi had been at an American military base just before his arrest. Morrell called the accusations of American involvement "nothing more than Iranian propaganda."
Rigi's "confession" of American support was likely coerced. According to a former U.S. intelligence officer, Rigi was captured by Pakistani officials and delivered to Iran with U.S. support: "It doesn't matter what they say. They know the truth."
On November 3, 2010, the U.S. Department of State officially designated Jundallah as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, thereby making it a crime for any person in the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to knowingly provide material support or resources to Jundallah. 
Jundallah is also actively involved and conducts terrorist attacks having linked up with other banned religious groups since the start of 2011[update]. Pakistan has worked with Iran especially during the time of the Shah in fighting many of the separatist groups in Balochistan. Pakistan's assistance in the capture and arrest of Jundallah's leader. Despite denials, a few Iranian MPs have often even castigated Pakistan's efforts in tackling the Baloch-based insurgency. Hossein Ali Shahriari, Zahedan's representative in parliament, rhetorically asked, "Why does our diplomatic apparatus not seriously confront the Pakistani government for harboring bandits and regime's enemies? Why do security, military and police officials not take more serious action?". It has been claimed, Jundallah can not operate with at least some degree of support from within Pakistan and that elements from within Pakistani security establishment, particularly ISI with financial support of Saudi Arabia and its supplementation through the largest opium black market in the world have woven a complicated web of drug smugglers and terrorists to project power in the region and beyond. General Hasan Firoozabadi of Iranian Army said, one of the main bases of Jundallah has been identified and pointed out to Pakistan and Iran is awaiting for Pakistan's action on the matter. In a rare criticism Iranian Intelligence minister after the Saravan attack claimed Pakistan is not meaningfully cooperating with Iran on the issue of Jundallah.
Iran considers Jundallah as a group connected to Taliban and their opium revenues, getting financial as well as ideological support directly from Saudi Arabia in collusion with other hard-line elements within Pakistan and Afghanistan. Others alleged that United States has long supported Low intensity conflict and assassinations with Saudi money, especially against nationalists, socialists, and Shias.
2005 Attack on Iranian PresidentEdit
2006 Tasooki AttackEdit
On 16 March 2006, four days before Iranian new year, Jundallah blocked a road near Tasooki and killed 21 civilians. A thirteen-year-old student on his way to new year holidays was caught in the crossfire.
2007 Zahedan BombingEdit
On February 14, 2007, a car bomb and gunfire directed at a bus killed 18 members of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. Guards commander Qasem Rezaei said, "This blind terrorist operation led to the martyrdom of 18 citizens of Zahedan" and attributed the attack to "insurgents and elements of insecurity." Jundallah claimed responsibility for the attack on 15 February.
Iranian security forces also arrested five suspects, two of whom were carrying camcorders and grenades when they were arrested, while the police killed the main "agent" of the attack. Among the arrestees was Said Qanbarzehi, a Balochi, who was hanged in Zahedan prison on 27 May 2007. He had been sentenced to death at the age of 17 along with six other Balochi men—Javad Naroui, Masoud Nosratzehi, Houshang Shahnavazi, Yahya Sohrabzehi, Ali Reza Brahoui and Abdalbek Kahrazehi (also known as Abdalmalek)—in March 2007, despite the absolute international prohibition on the execution of child offenders. Two days later on Friday, Feb 16 2007, Jundallah bombed a girls school in city of Zahedan and the leader of the group took responsibility for it on the official TV of MEK.
On June 13, 2008, 16 police officers in southeastern Iran were abducted and brought into Pakistan. In September 2008, Jundallah released one of the hostages. In December 2008, it was revealed that Jundullah had killed the other 15 hostages.
On January 25, 2009, 12 Iranian policemen were ambushed and killed by Jundallah near Saravan.
Zahedan Mosque BlastEdit
A bomb blast on May 28, 2009 rocked a mosque in the south eastern Iranian city of Zahedan as mourners participated in a ceremony marking the death of the daughter of the prophet of Islam, which killed 25 people and injured 125 others, less than 3 weeks before the Iranian 2009 presidential elections. The Iranian government promptly accused the United States of having financed and orchestrated the attack in order to destabilize the nation in the lead up to its presidential election. Two days after the attack, three men were publicly hanged for smuggling the explosives used in attack into Iran from Pakistan. The trio were already in prison at the time of attack and had been tried for previous attacks by Jundallah including 2007 Zahedan bombings. Interior Minister Sadegh Mahsouli said in a statement posted on the internet Friday that "those who committed the Thursday bombing are neither Shia nor Sunni. They are Americans and Israelis." Abdel Raouf Rigi, the spokesman for Jundallah claimed responsibility on a Saudi Arabian state owned TV channel, Al-Arabiya.
2009 Pishin BombingEdit
On October 18, 2009, 42 people were killed in a suicide bombing in the Pishin region of Sistan-Baluchistan, including at least 6 officers in Iran's Revolutionary Guards such as the deputy commander of the Guards' ground force, General Noor Ali Shooshtari, and the Guards' chief provincial commander, Rajab Ali. Jundallah claimed responsibility.
Capture of RigiEdit
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)
On February 23, 2010 Iran captured Abdolmalek Rigi. On February 26, Rigi appeared on Iranian TV, claiming that the U.S. promised him financial and military aid to fight the Iranian government, which the U.S. denied. He was executed on June 20, 2010 in the Evin Prison in Tehran.
Activities following Rigi's executionEdit
2010 Zahedan BombingsEdit
On July 16, 2010, 27 people were killed in a double suicide bombing at the Jamia mosque in Zahedan. The blasts, timed 20 minutes apart to maximize injuries, are believed to have killed several members of the Revolutionary Guard.
December 2010 Chah Bahar bombingsEdit
Two bombs near a mosque in south-eastern Iran which killed an estimated 39 people at a Shia mourning ceremony. The Fars news agency said there were four bombers: two of them detonating explosives attached to their belts, a third was shot at by Iran's intelligence service; and the fourth was arrested. Iran blamed Pakistan and its intelligence services, the ISI, for the attacks.
October 2012 Chah Bahar bombingEdit
According to Voice of Russia, a suicide bomber attacked a mosque in south eastern Iran on 19 October 2012, killing one person and wounding several more worshippers who gathered for their Friday prayer. Later, Seyyed Baqer Husseyni, Majlis member, said that "the October 19th crime was committed by the same people who removed the Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO – opposition group) from the list of terrorists and who train mercenaries and use them against the people. They are guided by America and Israel." A Sunni group claimed responsibility for the attack, saying "We, the Mujahideen of Harakat Ansar Iran, proudly bring you the news of our first successful operation from our new series of operations code named Ra'ad (operation storm). In this operation, approximately 20 officers of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards (Pasadaran) were killed by an explosive-rigged van in the city of Chabhar, Iran, while one brother Mujahid, Hamza Saravani, was martyred."
The Scriptwriter is the first English language novel written about Jundallah by a writer from the Pakistan/Iran region.
- Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden
- Baluchi Autonomist Movement
- CIA activities in Iran
- Iran–Iraq War
- Irregular Warfare
- List of designated terrorist organizations
- Opium production in Afghanistan
- Persecution of Shia Muslims
- Religious terrorism
- Special Activities Division
- Sistan and Baluchistan Province
- Rigi's arresting operation
- Attack of Tasooki
- "Jundallah: Iran's Sunni rebels". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Asia Times Online - South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Asia Times Online - South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Iran calls for return of abducted border guards held in Pakistan". The Telegraph. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Not to be confused with People's Mujahedin of Iran.
- "YouTube". Archived from the original on 2014-07-07. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Preparing the Battlefield". The New Yorker. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Iran Offers Short-Term Solutions To Long-Term Problems Of Baluch Minority". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Iran 'militant' claims US support". BBC News. 2010-02-26.
- "Profile: Iran's Jundullah militants". BBC News. 2010-06-20.
- "Trouble brewing in Iranian Balochistan". Archived from the original on 2014-11-13. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "AXS TV". Archived from the original on 2008-01-06.
- "DAN RATHER REPORTS WATCH "THE MOST WANTED MAN IN IRAN"". Archived from the original on August 23, 2007. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
- "Iran Executes Insurgent Leader, Accused of Ties With American Intelligence". CNS News. Archived from the original on 2014-11-19. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Massoud, Ansari (January 16, 2006). "Sunni Muslim group vows to behead Iranians". Washington Times. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "US labels Iran's Jundallah a terrorist group - Latest News". Dawn.Com. 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "US lists Iran group Jundullah as terrorists". BBC News. 2010-11-03.
- "Former Pakistan general US supports Jundullah terrorists in Iran". Archived from the original on October 22, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- "Free Article for Non-Subscriber". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
-  Archived May 3, 2012, at the Stanford Web Archive
- "Free Article for Non-Members". Stratfor. 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases By Alex Peter Schmid, Albert J. Jongman, pp. 582–584
- "Free Article for Non-Members". Stratfor. 2009-05-29. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Clip Transcript". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia:The Iran-Saudi cold war". MENA Election Guide. Nov 10, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-12-27. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Diplomatic Courier – Diplomatic Community on World Affairs and Foreign Policy News". Diplomaticourier.org. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "اخبار ایران وجهان-کشف بزرگترين منبع مالي عبدالمالک ريگي در ايران". Iranhall.com. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Anti-Iran militia faces terrorist designation - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. 2009-05-30. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "US Designates Iran's Jundallah as Terrorist Organization" CNN.com. 3 Nov. 2010. Web. 03 Nov. 2010.
- "Manar TV - Live Broadcast". Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Why a Bombing in Iran Could Be Bad News for Obama". Time. 2009-10-19.
- "PressTV - Leader: Terrorist attack not to cause disunity". Edition.presstv.ir. 2009-10-19. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- Black, Ian (2010-07-16). "Iran accuses US and UK of supporting group behind mosque attacks". The Guardian. London.
- "Iran executes brother of Sunni rebel leader Rigi". Alarabiya.net. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "Iranian group makes kidnap claim". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "AXS TV". Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Perry, Mark (January 13, 2012). "False Flag". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Risen, James; Apuzzo, Matt (8 November 2014). "Getting Close to Terror, but Not to Stop It". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Spencer, Richard; Osborn, Andrew; Waterfield, Bruno (2010-02-23). "Iran arrests most wanted man after police board civilian flight". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "Iran Jundullah leader claims US military support". BBC News. 2010-02-26. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20100228155521/http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=119481§ionid=351020101. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010. Missing or empty
- "Iran Leader Concedes No Ground to Rivals". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". U.S. Department of State.
-  Archived July 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- 11 Guards killed in Iran bomb attack Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine Gulf Times
- تهران - خبرگزاریها،(العربیه.نت) (2009-05-30). "اخبار ايران | احضار سفیر پاکستان در تهران در پی تماس سخنگوی جندالله با "العربیه"". Alarabiya.net. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "BBC فارسی - ايران - عملیات انتحاری 'جندالله' در سراوان". BBC News. 8 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Iranian claims of US hand in mosque bombing may be true". International Political Will. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Zoglin, Richard (1987-10-12). "Did A Dead Man Tell No Tales? - Printout". TIME. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Fathi, Nazila (2007-02-15). "Car Bomb in Iran Destroys a Bus Carrying Revolutionary Guards". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "گروهك جندالله، خون آشام وهابی مردم زاهدان". Shafaf.ir. Archived from the original on 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "BBCPersian.com". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Report: Bomb kills 18 Revolutionary Guardsmen in Iran The Washington Post
- "Al-Qaeda gains Palestine foothold". The Scotsman. 22 May 2005. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
-  Archived September 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Iran - The last executioner of childrenaccessdate=October 2, 2007". Archived from the original on October 10, 2007.
- "2nd blast in 3 days hits Iranian city". CNN.com. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Iranian hostages freed after clash with militants". Dawn. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "16 Iranian police taken hostage". Presstv.ir. 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Iran rebels free kidnapped policeman". Lebanonwire.com. 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "Write better papers, faster!". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Iran Vows To Retaliate After Rebels Kill 16 Police - World". Javno. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Fathi, Nazila (2008-12-30). "Rare Suicide Bombing in Iran Kills 4". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "Jundullah responsible for Saravan bombing". tehran times. 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "Iran ready to hunt down bandits in Pakistan". Presstv.ir. 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Middle East | Iran executes three men for mosque bombing". BBC News. 2009-05-30. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Iran hangs 3 over mosque bombing". Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
- "Ahmadinejad Campaign Office Attacked in SE Iran: Jundallah Takes Credit for Yesterday's Blast | Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran". Campaigniran.org. 2009-05-30. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Middle East | Iranian commanders assassinated". BBC News. 2009-10-18. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "BBC News - Profile: Iran's Jundullah militants". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Profile: Iran's Revolutionary Guards". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Ian Black. "Iran captures Sunni insurgent leader Abdolmalek Rigi". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Broadcast May Be Intended to Undercut Support for Obama in Iran". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Iran hangs Sunni militant leader Abdolmalek Rigi". BBC News. 20 June 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Iran's militant Sunni group bootie has new leader". Al-Arab. 2010-02-27. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- "Sunni group claims Iran mosque blast killing 27". Archived from the original on July 19, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- "Iran mosque 'suicide bombers' kill 27 - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- Mark Tran. "Iran mosque bombing kills dozens". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Suicide attack on Chah Bahar mosque kills one - News - Society - The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video". The Voice of Russia. 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- ""US and Israel are behind the suicide bombing in Chahbahar"; Ansar Iran claims responsibility". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Iran calls for return of abducted border guards held in Pakistan". The Telegraph. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "The Scriptwriter eBook: Adeerus Ghayan: Kindle Store". Retrieved 2015-08-19.