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USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) is the fourth Nimitz-class nuclear powered aircraft carrier in the United States Navy. She is named in honor of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States. She is the fourth ship named in honor Theodore Roosevelt, three bearing his full name and a fourth with just his last name. Another three U.S. Navy ships have "Roosevelt" in their names in honor of members of the Roosevelt family. This carrier's radio call sign is "Rough Rider", the nickname of President Roosevelt's volunteer cavalry unit during the Spanish–American War. She was launched in 1984, and saw her first action during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71)
USS Theodore Roosevelt operations 150322-N-ZF573-140.jpg
USS Theodore Roosevelt underway in the Atlantic Ocean in March 2015.
History
United States
Namesake: Theodore Roosevelt
Ordered: 30 September 1980
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding Co.
Cost: U.S. $4.5 billion in 2007 dollars.[1]
Laid down: 31 October 1981
Launched: 27 October 1984
Commissioned: 25 October 1986
Homeport: NAS North Island, San Diego, California
Motto:
  • Qui Plantavit Curabit
  • (Latin: "He who has planted will preserve.")
Nickname(s): TR, Big Stick
Status: in active service
Badge: CVN-71 insignia.png
General characteristics
Class and type:
Displacement: 104,600 long tons (117,200 short tons)[2]
Length:
  • Overall: 1,092 feet (332.8 m)
  • Waterline: 1,040 feet (317.0 m)
Beam:
  • Overall: 252 feet (76.8 m)
  • Waterline: 134 feet (40.8 m)
Draft:
  • Maximum navigational: 37 feet (11.3 m)
  • Limit: 41 feet (12.5 m)
Propulsion:
Speed: 30+ knots (56+ km/h; 35+ mph)
Range: Unlimited distance; 20–25 years
Endurance: Limited only by food and supplies
Complement:
  • Ship's company: 3,200
  • Air wing: 2,480
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Armor: 63.5 mm Kevlar armor over vitals [3]
Aircraft carried: 90 fixed wing and helicopters

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Initially, President Gerald Ford cancelled the order for CVN-71 in 1976 and substituted two CVV-type medium-sized, conventional-powered carriers that were expected to operate V/STOL aircraft. The existing T-CBL design formed the basis for the new CVV, serving as a replacement for the aging Midway-class carriers, while capable of operating all existing conventional carrier aircraft. This capability to operate conventional aircraft proved important as the hoped-for supersonic V/STOL fighters did not come to fruition at the time. In any case, construction of the proposed CVV medium-sized carrier never took place.[4][5]

Authorization for CVN-71 was further delayed when President Jimmy Carter vetoed the 1979 Fiscal Year Department of Defense authorization bill because of the inclusion of this Nimitz-class nuclear supercarrier in the Navy's shipbuilding program.[5][6] As a result of the Iran hostage crisis which required the increased deployment of U.S. aircraft carrier battle groups to the Indian Ocean, President Carter reversed his stand on Nimitz-class nuclear supercarriers, and CVN-71 was subsequently authorized under the 1980 Fiscal Year authorization bill for the U.S. Department of Defense.[6]

Design and constructionEdit

Theodore Roosevelt was the first aircraft carrier to be assembled using modular construction, wherein large modules are independently constructed in "lay-down" areas, prior to being hoisted into place and welded together. Modular construction, made possible through the use of a huge gantry crane capable of lifting 900 tons, cut 16 months off Theodore Roosevelt's construction time, and the technique has been used on every aircraft carrier since. Theodore Roosevelt and those Nimitz-class vessels completed after her have slight structural differences from the earlier carriers (USS Nimitz, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, and USS Carl Vinson) and improved protection for ordnance storage in her magazines.[7]

Theodore Roosevelt's history began on 30 September 1980, when a contract was awarded for "Hull 624D" to Newport News Shipbuilding. Her keel was laid down on 31 October 1981, with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger initiating the first weld. On 3 November 1981, Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman announced that the carrier would be named for Theodore Roosevelt. The vessel's Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) was formed in February 1984, with Captain Paul W. Parcells named as Commanding Officer. On 27 October 1984, the ship was officially christened by Mrs. Barbara Lehman, wife of Secretary Lehman. On 25 October 1986, Theodore Roosevelt was commissioned to active service at Newport News.

Service historyEdit

Maiden deploymentEdit

 
Shock test of Theodore Roosevelt during sea trials in 1987

After sea trials and pre-deployment workups, Theodore Roosevelt started her maiden deployment on 30 December 1988 with Carrier Air Wing Eight (CVW-8) embarked. The ship patrolled the Mediterranean Sea prior to returning on 30 June 1989.She was awarded the 1989 Battle "E" from Commander, Naval Air Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet on 20 March 1990.

1990sEdit

Gulf WarEdit

On 28 December 1990, Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-8 deployed for Operation Desert Shield, arriving in the Persian Gulf on 16 January 1991. With the commencement of Operation Desert Storm on 15 January 1991, Theodore Roosevelt began combat operations; eventually flying over 4,200 sorties, more than any other carrier, and dropping more than 4,800,000 pounds (2,177,243.4 kg) of ordnance before the cease-fire on 28 February.[1]

 
Four U.S. Navy carriers form "Battle Force Zulu" following the 1991 Gulf War; Theodore Roosevelt (top right) cruises with Midway (top left), Ranger (bottom left) and America (bottom right)

When Iraqi forces turned on the Kurds, Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-8 were among the first coalition forces in Operation Provide Comfort, flying patrols over northern Iraq. After a 189-day deployment, with 176 days at sea, Theodore Roosevelt returned to Norfolk on 28 June 1991. On 14 February 1992, the ship won her second Battle "E". This was followed by the award of the Battenberg Cup for 1991 as the Atlantic Fleet's premier ship.[8]

Theodore Roosevelt began her third deployment on 11 March 1993, again with CVW-8 embarked. Also embarked was a Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force (SPMAGTF), in a test the concept of embarking a multi-purpose Marine force in a carrier. While the ship was still in the Virginia Capes operating area, President Bill Clinton flew aboard for several hours for his first visit to a U.S. Navy ship.[8] Theodore Roosevelt operated in the Adriatic as CVW-8 planes enforced Operation Deny Flight in the U.S. no-fly zone over Bosnia. In June, on the way to only her second port visit, Theodore Roosevelt was ordered instead to transit the Suez Canal en route to the Red Sea to participate in Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone over Iraq. Deployed for 184 days, Theodore Roosevelt spent 169 days under way prior to return in September 1993. For the accomplishments of her crew, the ship received her second Meritorious Unit Commendation.

From November 1993 to April 1994, Theodore Roosevelt conducted a Selected Restricted Availability (SRA) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard (NNSY), completing ahead of schedule. On 10 March 1994, Theodore Roosevelt received her third Battle "E". Then on 3 June, Theodore Roosevelt was awarded her second Battenberg Cup as the best ship in the Atlantic Fleet.

Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-8 began their fourth deployment in March 1995, operating in the Red Sea in support of Operation Southern Watch over Iraq, and Operations Deny Flight and Sharp Guard over the skies of Bosnia and in the Adriatic operating areas. Deny Flight evolved into Operation Deliberate Force, as CVW-8 aircraft led NATO strikes against strategic Bosnian Serb targets in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Theodore Roosevelt Battle Group returned to Norfolk, Virginia in September 1995 and was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for its Bosnia operations.[8]

USS Theodore Roosevelt - USS Leyte Gulf collsionEdit

On 14 October 1996, Theodore Roosevelt collided with USS Leyte Gulf (CG-55), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, while conducting operations off the coast of North Carolina. The incident occurred as the carrier, without prior warning, reversed her engines while Leyte Gulf was behind her and collided with the cruiser's bow. There were no injuries reported,[9] but the Theodore Roosevelt suffered more than $7 million damage to her stern, while damages to Leyte Gulf' now were assessed at $2 million.[10]

Theodore Roosevelt deployed for her fifth deployment on 25 November 1996, with CVW-3 embarked, in support of Operation Southern Watch in the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf. The ship returned from deployment in May 1997. On 8 July 1997, Theodore Roosevelt entered the Newport News Shipbuilding yard for a one-year Extended Drydock and Selected Restricted Availability (EDSRA), her first major overhaul since commissioning. Theodore Roosevelt returned to her homeport of Norfolk Naval Station on 2 July 1998.

 
Theodore Roosevelt underway in 1999

From 1 February to 4 March 1999 Theodore Roosevelt participated in exercise JTFEX / TMDI99 along with the Brazilian Navy and several NATO navies. During the exercise, Theodore Roosevelt was mock-sunk,[11]along with eight other U.S. ships, many of which were the carrier's escorts, by submarine HNLMS Walrus of the Royal Netherlands Navy.

 
A U.S. Navy corpsman aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt in May 1999.

Theodore Roosevelt began her sixth deployment on 26 March 1999 with CVW-8 embarked. They were immediately called to duty in the Ionian Sea to support NATO's Operation Allied Force. Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-8 aircraft conducted air strikes for two months over the skies of Kosovo against Serbian positions. Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-8 were then dispatched to support Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the "no-fly" zone over Southern Iraq. Theodore Roosevelt returned to her homeport of Norfolk, Virginia, on 24 September 1999.

2000sEdit

 
An air traffic controller watches his radar scope in the Carrier Air Traffic Control Center in 2002

On 10 January 2000, Theodore Roosevelt entered a Planned Incremental Availability (PIA) at the Norfolk Naval Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia for a six-month maintenance period.

September 11 attacksEdit

After the 11 September attacks, Theodore Roosevelt began her seventh deployment on 19 September 2001 with Carrier Air Wing One (CVW-1). On the night of 4 October 2001, Theodore Roosevelt and CVW-1 launched the initial strikes of Operation Enduring Freedom against al-Qaeda in Afghanistan from the North Arabian Sea. Theodore Roosevelt spent 159 consecutive days at sea, breaking the record for the longest period underway since World War II.[12] Theodore Roosevelt returned to her homeport 27 March 2002 and was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation, 2001 Battenberg Cup, and 2001 Battle "E".[13] From April to October 2002, Theodore Roosevelt conducted a Planned Incremental Availability maintenance period at Norfolk Naval Ship Yard.

 
Theodore Roosevelt receives cargo while pierside at the NATO Marathi Pier Facility in Crete.

Theodore Roosevelt got underway on 6 January for a scheduled month-long training period in the Puerto Rican Operating Area. Near the end of January, Theodore Roosevelt received orders to proceed across the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea. Strike Fighter Squadron 201, based at Naval Air Station Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, Texas, was ordered to active duty as a unit of Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 8, the first Naval Reserve squadron to deploy aboard an aircraft carrier since the Korean War.[14] Theodore Roosevelt arrived on station in the Eastern Mediterranean in February. On 22 March 2003 Theodore Roosevelt, along with USS Harry S. Truman, began launching air strikes into Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.[15] Theodore Roosevelt returned home on 26 May and was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation, the Navy Unit Citation, and the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal.

 
Theodore Roosevelt in the Elizabeth River in 2004

On 19 February 2004, Theodore Roosevelt entered a ten-month Docked Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) at NNSY in Portsmouth.[16] Major systems overhauled included AC systems, Steam and CHT (sewage) systems, 1MC (announcing) systems, communication, navigation, and detection suites, weapons elevator overhauls, propeller replacement, hull cleaning and painting, and sea valve replacement. Theodore Roosevelt came out of dry-dock in August and completed the maintenance availability on 17 December 2004.[17]

 
An F/A-18 Hornet from the "Sidewinders" of VFA-86 ignites its afterburners while preparing to be catapulted from the flight deck.

On 1 September 2005, Theodore Roosevelt deployed with CVW-8 embarked for a routine six-month mission to the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF),[18] transiting the Suez Canal on 27 September[19] and launching OIF missions beginning 6 October.[20] This deployment was the last cruise for the F-14 Tomcat before its retirement in 2006. Theodore Roosevelt carried two Tomcat squadrons, VF-31 (Tomcatters) and VF-213 (Black Lions).[21] Theodore Roosevelt returned to home port on 11 March 2006. Shortly after this cruise, Theodore Roosevelt earned the "Jig Dog" Ramage Carrier and Carrier Air Wing Operational Excellence Award, which is a Navy-wide award that is selected jointly by Type Commanders (TYCOM) and is presented to the Carrier/Air Wing team with the best performance as an integrated unit.

On 7 March 2007, Theodore Roosevelt began a nine-month Planned Incremental Availability (PIA) in Norfolk, which saw the addition of RAM-116 missiles among other upgrades.[22] The ship returned to Naval Station Norfolk on 28 November 2007.

CVW-8 and Theodore Roosevelt participated in Joint Task Force Exercise 08-4 Operation Brimstone off the coast of North Carolina between 21 and 31 July 2008. The British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, the amphibious assault ship Iwo Jima with associated units and the Brazilian frigate Greenhalgh and the French submarine Améthyste also participated in the event.[23]

Theodore Roosevelt left Norfolk on 8 September 2008 for a scheduled deployment to the Middle East with Carrier Air Wing Eight embarked.[24] On 4 October 2008, the ship stopped at Cape Town, South Africa. This was the first visit to Cape Town by a nuclear-powered vessel since the German cargo ship Otto Hahn in the 1970s.[25] Due to poor weather, approximately half of the ship's crew was unable to go ashore on liberty. Much of the crew that made it ashore were unable to return to Theodore Roosevelt due to the increasingly poor weather. The remaining crew was forced to remain on the pier till morning alongside the cruiser USS Monterey. The ship made four subsequent port stops in Jebel Ali, UAE, including one during the Christmas holiday. CVW-8 and CVN-71 supported Operation Enduring Freedom and flew more than 3,100 sorties and dropped more than 59,500 pounds of ordnance while providing Close Air Support for ISAF-forces in Afghanistan.

On 21 March 2009, Theodore Roosevelt was relieved by Dwight D. Eisenhower.[26] The carrier arrived at Norfolk on 18 April.[27] On 26 August 2009 defense contractor Northrop Grumman was awarded a 2.4 billion dollar contract for Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH) of Theodore Roosevelt at its Newport News shipyard, to be completed in 2013.[28]

2010sEdit

On 29 August 2013, Theodore Roosevelt returned to Norfolk Naval Station, Virginia, completing its post-overhaul sea trials that concluded its four-year mid-life RCOH.[29] On 14 September 2013, Theodore Roosevelt successfully completed flight deck certification which entailed completing a total of 160 carrier landings during daytime and night-time operations. Other certification drills included rigging the emergency barricade, flight deck firefighting evolutions, and crash and salvage operations.[30] On 17 September 2013, Theodore Roosevelt completed her first underway replenishment in over four years.[31]

Flight testing for the X-47B continued on board Theodore Roosevelt on 10 November 2013. During this phase, the X-47B's digitized carrier-controlled environment was tested which involved the interface between the unmanned aircraft and carrier personnel during launching, flight operations and recovery. The digital environment offered increased flexibility and enhanced safety for carrier operations.[32]

On 15 January 2014, the Navy announced that Theodore Roosevelt's homeport would move to San Diego, replacing USS Ronald Reagan when she relocated to Japan sometime in 2015 as part of the US Navy's preparation for the planned refueling of USS George Washington.[33]

On 4 March 2015, during a training exercise off Florida, Theodore Roosevelt was mock-sunk by the French Navy submarine Saphir [34][35]

On 11 March 2015,Theodore Roosevelt and Carrier Strike Group 12 departed Naval Station Norfolk for an around the world tour with deployments to the U.S. 5th, 6th and 7th Fleets as part the first deployment of Naval Integrated Fire Control-Counter Air (NIFC-CA) Carrier Strike Group, before arriving in their new homeport of San Diego, California.[36][37]

On 20 April 2015, Theodore Roosevelt, along with the cruiser USS Normandy (CG-60), was deployed off the coast of Yemen to intercept suspected Iranian weapons shipments intended for Houthi rebels, who are engaged in a civil war with Yemeni government forces.[38]

In early November 2015, Theodore Roosevelt along with the guided-missile destroyer USS Lassen (DDG-82), sailed to the South China Sea to assert freedom of navigation in the area claimed by China.

Theodore Roosevelt pulled into her new home port at San Diego on 23 November 2015, completing a deployment during which she circumnavigated the globe. The carrier launched 1,800 sorties against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria as part of Operation Inherent Resolve, totaling 10,618 flight hours and over one million pounds of ordnance employed through 1,085 guided munitions. Carrier Strike Group 12 traveled nearly 27,000 nmi (31,000 mi; 50,000 km) during the deployment, which also marked aviation milestones including the first operational use of the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye and the last active-duty operational deployment of the HH-60H Rescue Hawk and SH-60F Seahawk helicopters.[39]

On 6 October 2017, Theodore Roosevelt departed San Diego for her deployment to the United States Seventh Fleet and United States Fifth Fleet area of operations, accompanied with Carrier Strike Group 9 and Carrier Air Wing Seventeen.[40] On November 8th 2017, Theodore Roosevelt and her group started a 4-day exercise with two other carrier strike groups, led by carriers Ronald Reagan and Nimitz, in the Sea of Japan.[41]

Ship awardsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT – HISTORY". Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  2. ^ Polmar, Norman (2004). The Naval Institute guide to the ships and aircraft of the U.S. fleet. Naval Institute Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-59114-685-8.
  3. ^ Fontenoy, Paul E. (2006). Aircraft carriers: an illustrated history of their impact. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-85109-573-5.
  4. ^ Friedman, Norman (1983). Aircraft Carriers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 323–324, 329–333. ISBN 978-0-87021-739-5. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  5. ^ a b "CVV" (PDF). Naval Aviations News. Washington Navy Yard: Naval History & Heritage Command. July 1979. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b Polmar, Norman (2006). Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events, Volume 2. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books, Inc. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-57488-663-4. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Costing the CVN-21: A DID Primer". Defense Industry Daily. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  8. ^ a b c [1] Archived 13 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "USS Leyte Gulf at DCHM". Naval Sea Systems Command DC Museum. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
  10. ^ http://articles.dailypress.com/1996-11-23/news/9611230009_1_leyte-gulf-deck-officers-aircraft-carrier-theodore-roosevelt
  11. ^ Thompson, Roger (6 April 2007). "Lessons not learned: The U.S. Navy's status quo culture". ISBN 978-1-59114-865-4.
  12. ^ "Title unknown".[dead link]
  13. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Takes Battenberg Cup Archived 24 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  14. ^ VFA-201 "Hunters" Make History Aboard TR Archived 31 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  15. ^ America's Big Stick Launches Operation Iraqi Freedom Strikes Archived 6 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  16. ^ Seaman, Journalist. (23 March 2004) FOD Walkdown Marks End to Historic Chapter for TR Archived 24 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  17. ^ Fast Cruise Marks End of DPIA for 'Big Stick' Archived 24 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  18. ^ Theodore Roosevelt CSG Deploys in Support of Global War on Terrorism Archived 5 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  19. ^ USS Theodore Roosevelt Transits Through Suez Canal Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  20. ^ TR CSG Offers OIF Air Support Archived 7 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  21. ^ Tomcat Chapter Draws to a Close Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  22. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Moves to Shipyard Archived 20 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  23. ^ JTFEX 08-4 "Operation Brimstone" Flexes Allied Force Training. Navy.mil. Retrieved on 2012-05-26.
  24. ^ USS Theodore Roosevelt Deploys in Support of Maritime Security Operations Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy.
  25. ^ IOL, USS Theodore gets green light
  26. ^ ''Eisenhower'' Launches OEF Sorties. Navy.mil (21 March 2009). Retrieved on 2012-05-26.
  27. ^ Washington Times, "Carrier Returns To Navy Station", 19 April 2009, p. 7.
  28. ^ "DefenseLink: Contracts for Wednesday, 26 August 2009". US Department of Defense. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  29. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt Returns to Norfolk as a Ready for Tasking Carrier". NNS130829-16. USS Theodore Roosevelt Public Affairs. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012. and "Roosevelt Successfully Completes RCOH". NNS130829-20. PEO Carriers Public Affairs. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  30. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Heath Zeigler, USN (16 September 2013). "Theodore Roosevelt Completes Flight Deck Certification". NNS130916-14. USS Theodore Roosevelt Public Affairs. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  31. ^ Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Kris R. Lindstrom, USN (20 September 2013). "USS Theodore Roosevelt Completes First Underway Replenishment in Four Years". NNS130920-22. USS Theodore Roosevelt Public Affairs. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  32. ^ "X-47B Operates Aboard Theodore Roosevelt". Navy News Service. USS Theodore Roosevelt Public Affairs. 10 November 2013. NNS131110-02. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  33. ^ "Reagan to replace GW in Japan; Roosevelt to San Diego". Navy Times. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  34. ^ LV Quentin Savary (4 March 2015). "Le SNA Saphir en entrainement avec l'US navy au large de la Floride" (in French). Ministere de la defense. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  35. ^ "French delete evidence US carrier was 'sunk' by sub in drill". RT. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  36. ^ ALL HANDS update Headlines for Thursday, March 12, 2015.
  37. ^ "Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group to Depart for Middle East on Monday in First NIFC-CA Deployment". news.uni.org. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  38. ^ "US aircraft carrier sent to block Iranian shipments to Yemen". Fox News. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015.
  39. ^ Carrier Theodore Roosevelt returns from round-the-world deployment - Navytimes.com, 23 November 2015
  40. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group Departs for Deployment - Navy.mil, 7 October 2017
  41. ^ "Tri-Carrier Exercise". usni.org. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  42. ^ "America's Big Stick Wins 2nd straight Ney Award" Archived 30 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Navy .

External linksEdit