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Al-Hasakah Governorate

Al-Hasakah Governorate (Arabic: محافظة الحسكة‎, translit. Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Kurdish: Parêzgeha Hesîçe‎, Classical Syriac: ܗܘܦܪܟܝܐ ܕܚܣܟܗ‎, translit. Huparkiyo d'Ḥasake, also known as Classical Syriac: ܓܙܪܬܐ‎, translit. Gozarto) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is located in the far north-east corner of Syria and distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature, and more than one hundred archaeological sites. It borders the Dohuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan. It was formerly known as Al-Jazira Province. Prior to the Syrian Civil War nearly half of Syria's oil was extracted from the region.[2]

Hasakah Governorate

پارێزگەھا حەسەکە
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Coordinates (Hasakah): 36°30′N 40°54′E / 36.5°N 40.9°E / 36.5; 40.9Coordinates: 36°30′N 40°54′E / 36.5°N 40.9°E / 36.5; 40.9
Country Syria
autonomous region Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
CapitalHesîçe
Districts4
Government
 • GovernorMajor General Jaiz Swadet al-Hamoud al-Musa
Area
 • Total23,334 km2 (9,009 sq mi)
Population
(31/12/2011)
 • Total1,512,000[1]
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
ISO 3166 codeSY-HA
Main language(s)Arabic, Kurdish, Syriac, Armenian
EthnicitiesKurds, Arabs, Assyrians, Armenians & Yazidis

Contents

HistoryEdit

Three soldiers were killed by armed militants in Al-Hasakah in an ambush during the Syrian Civil War on 24 March 2012.[3] About a year later, Kurdish forces launched the 2013 Al-Hasakah offensive.

After the battle of al-Hasakah in August 2016 between Kurds and the Bashar al-Assad regime, the area was mostly in Kurdish control.[4]

Demographics and populationEdit

The inhabitants of al-Hasakah governorate are composed of different ethnic and cultural groups, the larger groups being Arabs and Kurds in addition to a significant large number of Assyrians and a smaller number of Armenians.[5] The population of the governorate, according to the country's official census, was 1,275,118, and was estimated to be 1,377,000 in 2007, and 1,512,000 in 2011.

YearPop.±%
193144,153—    
193364,886+47.0%
193594,596+45.8%
193798,144+3.8%
1938103,514+5.5%
1939106,052+2.5%
1940126,508+19.3%
1942136,107+7.6%
1943146,001+7.3%
1946151,137+3.5%
1950159,300+5.4%
1953232,104+45.7%
1960351,661+51.5%
1970468,506+33.2%
1981669,756+43.0%
20041,275,118+90.4%
20111,512,000+18.6%

According to the National Association of Arab Youth, there are 1717 villages in Al-Hasakah province: 1161 Arab villages, 453 Kurdish villages, 98 Assyrian villages and 53 with mixed populations from the aforementioned ethnicities.[6]

Arab villages 1161
Kurdish villages 453
Assyrian villages 98
Mixed Arab-Kurdish villages 48
Mixed Arab-Assyrian villages 3
Mixed Assyrian-Kurdish villages 2
Total 1717

Censuses of 1943 and 1953Edit

Syrian censuses of 1943[7] and 1953[8] in Al-Jazira province
Religious group Population
(1943)
Percentage
(1943)
Population
(1953)
Percentage
(1953)
Muslims Sunni Muslims 99,665 68.26% 171,058 73.70%
Other Muslims 437 0.30% 503 0.22%
Christians Assyrians 31,764 21.76% 42,626 18.37%
Armenians 9,788 6.70% 12,535 5.40%
Other churches 944 0.65% 1,283 0.55%
Total Christians 42,496 29.11% 56,444 24.32%
Jews 1,938 1.33% 2,350 1.01%
Yazidis 1,475 1.01% 1,749 0.75%
TOTAL Al-Jazira province 146,001 100.0% 232,104 100.0%

Among the Sunni Muslims, mostly Kurds and Arabs, there were about 1,500 Circassians in 1938.[9]

In 1949, there were officially 155,643 inhabitants. The French geographers Fevret and Gibert estimated that there were about 50,000 Arabs, 60,000 Kurds, a few thousands Jews and Yezidis, the rest being Christians of various denominations.[10]

Cities, towns and villagesEdit

This list includes all cities, towns and villages with more than 5,000 inhabitants. The population figures are given according to the 2004 official census:[11]

English Name Kurdish Population District
Al-Hasakah Hesîçe 188,160 Al-Hasakah District
Qamishli Qamişlo 184,231 Qamishli District
Ras al-Ayn Serê Kaniyê 29,347 Ras al-Ayn District
Amuda Amûdê 26,821 Qamishli District
Al-Malikiyah Dêrika Hemko 26,311 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Qahtaniyah Dêrika Hemko 16,946 Qamishli District
Al-Shaddadi Şedaddeh 15,806 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Muabbada Girkê Legê 15,759 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Sabaa wa Arbain Sabba 14,177 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Manajir Menacîr 12,156 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Darbasiyah Dirbêsiyê 8,551 Ras al-Ayn District
Tell Tamer Girê Xurma 7,285 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Jawadiyah Çilaxa 6,630 Al-Malikiyah District
Mabrouka Mabrok 6,325 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Yaarubiyah Tilkoçer 6,066 Al-Malikiyah District
Tell Safouk Safok 5,781 Al-Hasakah District
Tell Hamis Til Hemîs 5,161 Qamishli District
Al-Tweinah Tweinah 5,062 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Fadghami Fadghami 5,062 Al-Hasakah District

Districts and sub-districtsEdit

The governorate has 4 districts (Mintaqa's). These are further divided into 16 sub-districts (nawahi):

ArchaeologyEdit

The Khabur River, which flows through al-Hasakah for 440 kilometres (270 mi), witnessed the birth of some of the earliest civilizations in the world, including those of Akkad, Assyria, the Hurrians and Amorites. The most prominent archaeological sites are:

  • Hamoukar:considered by some archaeologists to be the oldest city in the world
  • Tell Halaf: Excavations have revealed successive civilization levels, Neolithic glazed pottery and beautiful basalt sculptures.
  • Tell Brak: Situated halfway between al-Hasakah city and the frontier town of Qamishli. Excavations in the tell have revealed the Uyun Temple and King Naram-Sin's palace-stronghold.
  • Tell el Fakhariya
  • Tell Hittin: 15 layers of occupation have been identified.
  • Tell Leilan: Excavations began in 1975 and have revealed many artefacts and buildings dating back to the 6th millennium BC such as a bazaar, temple, palace, etc.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://cbssyr.org/yearbook/2011/Data-Chapter2/TAB-3-2-2011.htm[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Al Monitor, Syria's Oil Crisis, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2013/02/syria-oil-crisis.html# Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Fresh clashes break out in Damascus
  4. ^ Barnard, Anne (August 23, 2016). "Kurds Close to Control of Northeast Syria Province, Portending a Shift in the War". NYT. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
  5. ^ Syria - Sunnis
  6. ^ National Association of Arab Youth, 2012. Arab East Centre, London, 2012. Study of the demographic composition of al-Hasakah Governorate (in Arabic). Accessed on 26 December 2014.
  7. ^ Hourani, Albert Habib (1947). Minorities in the Arab World. London: Oxford University Press. p. 76.
  8. ^ Etienne, de Vaumas (1956). "La Djézireh". Annales de Géographie (in French). 65 (347): 64–80. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  9. ^ M. Proux, "Les Tcherkesses", La France méditerranéenne et africaine, IV, 1938
  10. ^ Fevret, Maurice; Gibert, André (1953). "La Djezireh syrienne et son réveil économique". Revue de géographie de Lyon (in French) (28): 1–15. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-10. Retrieved 2013-11-04.

External linksEdit

  • ehasakeh The First Complete website for Al-Hasakah news and services