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Peshmerga (Central Kurdish: پێشمەرگە‎, translit. Pêşmerge, lit. 'Before death', IPA: [peːʃmɛɾˈɡɛ]) are the military forces of the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan. The overall formal head of the Peshmerga is the President of Iraqi Kurdistan. The Peshmerga force itself is largely divided and controlled separately by the Democratic Party of Kurdistan and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, although both pledge allegiance to the Kurdistan Regional Government. Efforts are under way to gather the entire force under the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs.[4] Peshmerga forces are responsible for defending the land, people and institutions of Iraqi Kurdistan.[5]

Peshmerga
پێشمەرگه
Pêşmerge
Flag of Kurdistan.svg
The flag of Kurdistan which Peshmerga uses as their emblem, uniform patch, and battle flag alongside the Iraqi flag.
Active Early 1920s–present
Allegiance Iraqi Kurdistan
Branch Army
Size 200,000 (2017 estimation)[1]
Headquarter Erbil
March Ey Reqîb
Engagements
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief Masoud Barzani
Minister of Peshmerga Affairs Mustafa Qadir Mustafa Aziz
Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Jabar Yawar
Notable
commanders

Because the Iraqi Army is forbidden by law from entering Iraqi Kurdistan,[6][7] the peshmerga, along with other Kurdish security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the Kurdish Region.[8][9][10] These subsidiaries include Asayish (official intelligence agency), Parastin u Zanyarî (and Dzha Terror) (assisting intelligence agency) and the Zeravani (military police).

In 2003, during the Iraq War, peshmerga were said to have played a key role in the mission to capture Saddam Hussein.[11][12] In 2004, they captured key al Qaeda figure Hassan Ghul, who revealed the identity of Osama Bin Laden's messenger, which eventually led to Operation Neptune Spear and the death of Osama Bin Laden.[13][14]

Following a large-scale Islamic State offensive against Iraqi Kurdistan in August 2014, peshmerga and Kurdish forces from neighboring countries have been waging war against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in both Iraq and Syria.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Mustafa Barzani was the primary political and military leader of the Kurdish cause until his death in 1979

The Kurdish warrior tradition of rebellion has existed for thousands of years along with aspirations for independence, and early Kurdish warriors fought against the various Persian empires, the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.[15] However, the term "peshmerga" was only coined in the mid-20th century, by the Kurdish writer Ibrahim Ahmad.[16] Peshmerga means "one who confronts death" or "one who faces death". "Pesh" means to stand in front of (loosely translated as to confront or face) while "merga" means death.[17][18]

Historically the Peshmerga existed only as guerilla organizations, but under the self-declared Republic of Mahabad (1946–1947), the peshmerga led by Mustafa Barzani became the official army of the republic.[19][20] After the fall of the republic and the execution of head of state Qazi Muhammad, peshmerga forces reemerged as guerilla organizations that would go on to fight the Iranian and Iraqi governments for the remainder of the century.[21]

In Iraq, most of these peshmerga were led by Mustafa Barzani of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.[20] In 1975 the peshmerga were defeated in the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Jalal Talabani, a leading member of the KDP, left the same year to revitalize the resistance and founded the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. This event created the baseline for the political discontent between the KDP and PUK that to this day divides peshmerga forces and much of Kurdish society in Iraqi Kurdistan.

After Mustafa Barzani's death in 1979, his son Masoud Barzani took his position.[20] As tension increased between KDP and PUK, most peshmerga fought to keep a region under their own party's control, while also fighting off Iraqi Army incursions. Following the First Persian Gulf War, Iraqi Kurdistan saw the Kurdish Civil War between the two major parties, the KDP and the PUK, and peshmerga forces were used to fight each other. The civil war officially ended in September 1998, when Barzani and Talabani signed the Washington Agreement establishing a formal peace treaty.[22] In the agreement, the parties agreed to share revenue and power, deny the use of northern Iraq to the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), and not allow Iraqi troops into the Kurdish regions. By then, around 5,000 had been killed on both sides, and many more had been evicted for being on the wrong side.[23] In the years after, tension remained high, but both parties moved towards each other and in 2003 they both took part in the overthrowing of the Baathist regime as part of the Iraq War. They remained on good terms, forming a government of Iraqi Kurdistan. Unlike other militia forces, the peshmerga were never prohibited by Iraqi law.[24]

In 2015, for the first time, peshmerga soldiers received urban warfare and military intelligence training from foreign trainers, the Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve.[25]

StructureEdit

 
Peshmerga special unit near the Syrian border on June 23, 2014

The number of troops affiliated with the Kurdish Peshmerga forces has exceeded 200,000 members.[1] These forces are organized into 36 military brigades, controlled separately with little to no inter-coordination, by the KDP, PUK and Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs.[26]

The peshmerga force, like much of Iraqi Kurdistan, is plagued by frequent allegations of corruption, partisanship, nepotism, and fraud.[27][28][29][30][31][32] These allegations include giving high-ranking military positions only to fellow clansmen and/or party members, fighting for political parties rather than the Kurdish people as a whole, and the use of "ghost soldiers" to gain peshmerga benefits and salary. Much of this is due to the fact that peshmerga forces are still unofficially divided along the main party lines, although with arguably less tension than during the Kurdish Civil War. Peshmerga with ties to the Kurdistan Democratic Party are responsible for the Dohuk Governorate and Erbil Governorate, while those with ties to the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan oversee the security in Sulaymaniyah Governorate.[33] Following the June 2014 ISIS invasion of Iraq and the retreat of the Iraqi Army, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) filled the void and took control of almost all disputed areas.[34] These areas have since also been divided between KDP and PUK peshmerga.

As a result of the split nature of the peshmerga force, there is no central command center in charge of the entire force, and peshmerga units instead follow separate military hierarchies depending on political allegiance.[35] Efforts have since been made to minimize partisanship, including the banning of partisan flags from the battlefield.[36] A political reform is also currently underway to place the entire force under the single command of the regional government.[4] As of January 2015, 14 brigades have reportedly been put under the control of the KRG, with the remaining of peshmerga forces still controlled by the regions' two main parties.[37]

Due to limited funding and the vast size of the peshmerga forces, the KRG has long planned to greatly downsize its forces from large numbers of low-quality forces to a smaller but much more effective and well-trained force.[38][39] Consequently, in 2009, the KRG and Baghdad engaged in discussions about incorporating parts of the peshmerga forces into the Iraqi Army, in what would be the 15th and 16th Iraqi Army divisions.[40][41] However, after increasing tension between Erbil and Baghdad regarding the disputed areas, the transfer was largely put on hold. Some peshmerga were already transferred but reportedly deserted again, and there are allegations that former peshmerga forces remain loyal to the KRG rather than their Iraqi chain of command.[42][43]

 
Peshmerga soldier with his M16A3

While the majority of the peshmerga forces are Muslims, there are also Assyrian Christian and Yezidi units fighting under the direction of peshmerga forces, such as the Êzîdxan Protection Force.[44][45]

Although almost entirely made up of men, peshmerga forces have been known to include small numbers of women since its formation, and currently have 600 women in their ranks.[46] In the KDP, these female peshmerga have so far been refused access to the frontline and are mostly used in logistics and management positions,[47] but female PUK peshmerga are deployed in the front lines and are actively fighting ISIS.[48][49]

As of January 2017, the peshmerga forces are still divided among three entities: the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs, KDP, and PUK.

The units under command of the Ministry of Peshmerga:

  • 14 Regional Guard Brigades (RGB) are under the command of the ministry of peshmerga: 42,000 fighters.
  • Êzîdxan Protection Force HPÊ, led by Haydar Shesho: 4000 fighters
  • Shingal commandment led by Qasem Shesho (Yazidis): 10,000 fighters

The units under command of the KDP politburo, unofficially called Yakray 80:

  • 80 Force units, technically part of Peshmarga ministry: 58,000 fighters.[1]
  • Zeravani units, administratively supported by the Ministry of the Interior: 51,000 fighters.

The units under command of the PUK politburo, unofficially called Yakray 70:

  • 70 Force units, technically part of Peshmarga ministry: 56,000 fighters.
  • Defense emergency force, technically under the ministry of interior of KRG: 10,000 fighters.

EquipmentEdit

 
Peshmerga on a T-55 tank outside Kirkuk in June 2014

The peshmerga arsenal is limited and confined by restrictions because the Kurdish Region is not an independent state. Due to disputes between the KRG and the Iraqi government, arms flow from Baghdad to Iraqi Kurdistan has been almost nonexistent, as Baghdad fears Kurdish aspirations for independence.[50][51] Peshmerga forces instead largely rely on old arms captured from the old Iraqi Army during the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, in which peshmerga forces were active.

Before that, some weapons were also captured during the 1991 Iraqi uprisings.[52] Following the retreat of the new Iraqi Army during the June 2014 ISIS offensive, peshmerga forces reportedly again managed to get hold of some weapons left behind by the Army.[53] Since August 2014, peshmerga forces have also captured some weapons from ISIS.[54]

After the ISIS offensive of August 2014, multiple governments decided to arm the peshmerga with some light equipment, such as light arms, night goggles and ammunition.[55][56][57] However, Kurdish officials and peshmerga have stressed that they are not receiving enough. They also stress that Baghdad is blocking even small arms from reaching the KRG, emphasizing the need for weapons to be sent directly to the KRG and not through Baghdad.[58][59]

Small armsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
NATO Standard
Walther P1   Germany Pistol 9×19mm 8,000 supplied by Germany[60]
Walther P99   Germany Pistol 9×19mm 1
SIG Sauer P226    Switzerland Pistol 9×19mm
Browning Hi-Power   Belgium Pistol 9×19mm
Glock   Austria Pistol 9×19mm 1
Beretta 92   Italy Pistol 9×19mm
Beretta M1951   Italy Pistol 9×19mm
HS2000   Croatia Pistol 9×19mm
Smith & Wesson M&P   United States Pistol 9×19mm
M1911 pistol   United States Pistol 11.43×23mm
Ruger P-Series   United States Pistol 9×19mm
MP5   Germany Submachine Gun 9×19mm 12
Beretta M12   Italy Submachine Gun 9×19mm
Sterling submachine gun   United Kingdom Submachine Gun 9×19mm
PM-98 Glauberyt   Poland Submachine Gun 9×19mm
M4A1   United States Carbine 5.56×45mm 123
G36[61]   Germany Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 12,000 supplied by Germany[60][62][63][64]
HS Produkt VHS[65]   Croatia Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 20,000 bought from Croatia 123
M16A4[66]   United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 123
AR-15   United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 1
Heckler & Koch G3   Germany Battle rifle 7.62×51mm 12,000 supplied by Germany[60]1
FAMAS   France Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 1
FN FAL   Belgium Battle rifle 7.62×51mm 1
FN SCAR   Belgium Battle rifle 7.62×51mm 1
Franchi SPAS-12   Italy Combat shotgun 18.5×70mm 1
Benelli M4   Italy Combat shotgun/Semi-automatic shotgun 18.5×70mm 1
Mossberg 500   United States Shotgun 18.5×76mm 1
Winchester Model 1200   United States Pump-action shotgun 18.5×76mm
SAP6   Turkey Pump-action shotgun 18.5×76mm
FN Minimi   Belgium Light machine gun 5.56×45mm 1
M249   United States Light machine gun 5.56×45mm 123
Mk 48   Belgium /   United States Light machine gun 7.62×51mm
M60   United States General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm
M240   United States General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 123
MG 42   Germany General-purpose machine gun 7.92×57mm
Rheinmetall MG 3[61]   Germany General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 47 supplied by Germany [67]123
Beretta MG 42/59   Italy General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 100 supplied by Italy [68]1
M2 Browning   United States Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm +100 supplied by Italy, France and the United Kingdom 123
M-40   United States Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
M-24   United States Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
Mk 14 EBR   United States Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm
M110   United States Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm
G28   Germany Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm 1
PSG1   Germany Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
Steyr SSG 69   Austria Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
L96A1   United Kingdom Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm 1
Barrett M82A1   United States Anti-materiel sniper rifle 12.7×99mm 123
Bushmaster BA50 Rifle   United States Anti-materiel sniper rifle 12.7×99mm 12
Steyr HS .50   Austria Anti-materiel sniper rifle 12.7×99mm 123
RT-20   Croatia Anti-materiel sniper rifle 20×110mm
Karabiner 98k   Germany Rifle 7.92×57mm 1
Lee–Enfield   United Kingdom Rifle .303 Mk VII SAA Ball
Soviet Standard
Makarov pistol   Soviet Union Pistol 9×18mm
TT pistol   Soviet Union Pistol 7.62×25mm Tokarev
CZ 75   Czechoslovakia Pistol 9×19mm
Zastava CZ 99   Serbia Pistol 9×19mm
Škorpion vz. 61   Czechoslovakia Submachine Gun 9×18mm
PM-63 RAK   Poland Submachine Gun 9×18mm
PPSh-41   Soviet Union Submachine Gun 7.62×25mm
PPS   Soviet Union Submachine Gun 7.62×25mm
Zastava M92   Serbia Carbine 7.62×39mm 12
AKS-74U   Soviet Union Carbine 5.45×39mm
AK-47   Soviet Union Assault rifle 7.62×39mm Standard Assault Rifle (along with AKM) of the peshmerga
AKM   Soviet Union Assault rifle 7.62×39mm Standard Assault Rifle (along with AK-47) of the peshmerga
AK-74   Soviet Union Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
AK-74M   Russia Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
AK-103   Russia Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
Type 56   China Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 123
Sa vz.58   Czechoslovakia Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 1
PM md. 63/65   Socialist Republic of Romania Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 12
Kbk wz. 1988 Tantal   Poland Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
MPi-KM   East Germany Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
Zastava M70   Yugoslavia Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
AK-63   Hungary Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
AMD 65   Hungary Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
RPD machine gun   Soviet Union Light machine gun 7.62×39mm
RPK   Soviet Union Light machine gun 7.62×39mm 1
Zastava M72   Yugoslavia Light machine gun 7.62×39mm
PK   Soviet Union General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Pecheneg machine gun   Russia General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Zastava M84   Yugoslavia General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR 123
Type 67 machine gun   China General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Type 80 machine gun   China General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Saiga-12   Russia Shotgun 12×70
Norinco HP9-1   China Combat shotgun 18.5×70mm 1
DShK   Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 12.7×108mm 1, 2
NSV machine gun   Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 12.7×108mm
KPV heavy machine gun   Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 14.5×114mm
SKS   Soviet Union Semi-automatic rifle 7.62×39mm
Mosin–Nagant   Soviet Union Rifle 7.62×54mmR
vz. 98/22   Czechoslovakia Rifle 8×57mm IS
SVD Dragunov   Soviet Union Designated marksman rifle 7.62×54mmR 12
Tabuk Sniper Rifle   Iraq Sniper rifle 7.62×39mm 1
Dragunov SVU   Russia Designated marksman rifle 7.62×54mmR
Orsis T-5000   Russia Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
PSL   Socialist Republic of Romania Sniper rifle 7.62×54mmR 12
Zastava M91   FR Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.62×54mmR
Zastava M76   Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.92×57mm Mauser 1
Zastava M98   FR Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.92×57mmR 1
KSVK 12.7   Russia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm
OSV-96   Russia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm
Zastava M93 Black Arrow   Serbia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 123
AMR-2   China Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 1
Zijiang M99   China Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 1

Anti-tank weaponryEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
RPG-7   Soviet Union Rocket-propelled grenade 40mm
RPG-29   Soviet Union Rocket-propelled grenade 105 mm
RPG-32   Russia Rocket-propelled grenade 105 mm
Type 69 RPG   China Rocket-propelled grenade 40mm 123
RB M57   Yugoslavia Rocket-propelled grenade 44mm
Panzerfaust 3[61][69]   Germany Rocket-propelled grenade 60mm 400 Units with 5,800 missiles.[70][71]
M72 LAW   United States Anti-tank weapon 66mm
AT4   Sweden /   United States Anti-tank weapon 84mm 1,000 units [72]1
Carl Gustaf[60]   Sweden /   Germany Anti-tank weapon 84mm 40 Units with 1,000 Shells.
M79 Osa   Yugoslavia Anti-tank weapon 90mm
M80 Zolja   Yugoslavia Anti-tank weapon 64mm
FGM-148 Javelin   United States Anti-tank weapon 127 mm 1
HJ-8[73]   People's Republic of China Anti-tank missile 120mm
AT-4 Spigot   Soviet Union Anti-tank missile 120mm
AT-14 Spriggan   Russia Anti-tank missile 152mm 123
AT-5 spandrel   Russia Anti-tank missile 115mm 122
AT-3 Sagger   Soviet Union Anti-tank missile 1
MILAN[69][71][74][75]   France /   Germany Anti-tank missile 115mm 60 Units with 1,200 missiles.
BGM-71 TOW   United States Anti-tank missile 152mm
M40 recoilless rifle[76]   United States Recoilless Rifle 106mm
SPG-9   Soviet Union Recoilless Rifle 73mm 1
Breda Folgore[77]   Italy Recoilless Rifle 80mm 1

Grenade launchersEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
Denel Y3 AGL   South Africa grenade launcher 40×53mm 1
QLZ-87   China grenade launcher 35x80mm 123
GL-06    Switzerland grenade launcher 40×46mm 123
AGS-30   Soviet Union grenade launcher 30x29mmB 1
AGS-17   Soviet Union grenade launcher 30x29mmB 12
Mk 47 Striker   United States grenade launcher 40×53mm 1
Mk 19   United States grenade launcher 40×53mm 1
M203 grenade launcher   United States grenade launcher 40×46mm SR 123
M79 grenade launcher   United States grenade launcher 40×46mm SR 12
GP-25   Russia grenade launcher 40 mm

MortarsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber
Vasilek   Soviet Union Mobile Mortar 82mm
M224   United States Mortar 60mm
M252   United Kingdom Mortar 81mm
M-29   United States Mortar 81mm
M1938 mortar   Soviet Union Mortar 120mm

Man-portable air-defence systemsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber
SA-7 Grail   Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-16 Gimlet   Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-18 Grouse   Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-24 Grinch   Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
FIM-92 Stinger   United States MANPADS 70.1mm
FN-6   China MANPADS 72mm

VehiclesEdit

Armored vehiclesEdit

Name Country of origin Type Quantity Notes
T-72[78][79]   Soviet Union Main battle tank < 30 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
T-62   Soviet Union Main battle tank 150-170 100–120 with PUK peshmerga forces, and 50 with KDP peshmerga forces.[80] Ammunition is limited.
T-54/T-55[78] / Type 69/79   Soviet Union /   China Main battle tank 95/215 95 in active service as of 2011, and 120 in need of an overhaul.[80]
PT-76   Soviet Union Light tank < 70 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
BMP-1   Soviet Union Infantry fighting vehicle < 30 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
BRDM-2   Soviet Union Armored Car < 10 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
MT-LB   Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier < 80 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
BTR-80   Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier
YW701   China Armoured personnel carrier < 30 12
EE-9   Brazil Armored car 12
EE-11 Urutu   Brazil Infantry fighting vehicle 123
M1117   United States Armored Car < 45 Seized from the deserting Iraqi Army.
ILAV MRAP   United States Armoured personnel carrier 45 + 30-40 seized from the deserting Iraqi Army. Delivered by USA.
MRAP   United States Armoured personnel carrier Seized from the deserting Iraqi Army.
M113 APC   United States Armoured personnel carrier Seized from the deserting Iraqi Army.
International MaxxPro   United States armored fighting vehicle
Dingo   Germany Armoured personnel carrier 20 20 delivered by Germany. 1 destroyed in 2014 war.[81][82][83]
Reva   South Africa Armoured personnel carrier (4x4 7,8-tons) 123
Spartan Armored personnel carrier
Guardian[84] Armored personnel carrier In use by anti-terror forces

Logistics and utility vehiclesEdit

Name Country of origin Type Number Notes
Ural-5323   Russia Heavy Transport (8x8 10-tons)
Mack-Granite Axle Back   United States Heavy Transport (4x6 10-tons) 25-40 Purchased from US originally for civilian use.
Mercedes-Benz Atego   Germany Medium Transport (4x4 5-tons) 5-25 Purchased from Germany.
Mercedes-Benz Zetros   Germany Medium Transport (4x4 7-tons) 123
Navistar 7000   United States Medium Transport (4x4 7-tons) 12
KrAZ-6322   Ukraine Light Transport (6x6 7-tons) 1
GAZ-33097   Russia Light Transport (4x4 2-tons)
GAZ-66   Soviet Union Light Transport (4x4 2-tons)
Ural-4320   Soviet Union Heavy Transport (6x6 7-tons) 1
UAZ   Soviet Union Light Utility Vehicle 1
UAZ-469   Soviet Union Military light utility vehicle
UNIMOG   Germany Light Transport (4x4 2-tons) 40 Delivered by Germany.
Cougar   United States Infantry mobility vehicle (4x4) 12
Humvee[85]   United States Light Utility Vehicle
M1151   United States Light Utility Vehicle
M939 Truck   United States Six-wheel drive (6x6 5-tons)
MTVR   United States Heavy cargo truck Seized from the deserting Iraqi Army.
WZT-2   Poland Armoured recovery vehicle
LKW Wolf   Germany Light Utility Vehicle 60 (includes 20 lightly armored type) Delivered by Germany.
Land Rover Defender   United Kingdom Light Utility Vehicle
Nissan Titan   Japan Light Utility Vehicle
Toyota Hilux   Japan Light Utility Vehicle
Toyota Landcruiser[76]   Japan Light Utility Vehicle

ArtilleryEdit

Name Country of origin Type Notes
2S1   Soviet Union 122mm self-propelled artillery
BM-21 Grad   Soviet Union 122mm multiple rocket launcher
M-198   United States 155mm howitzer 1
M101 howitzer   United States 105mm howitzer 1
85 mm divisional gun D-44   Soviet Union 122mm Field gun
D-30   Soviet Union 122mm howitzer
M-30   Soviet Union 122mm howitzer
D-20   Soviet Union 152mm gun-howitzer 1
M-46   Soviet Union 130mm field gun 1
D-74 122 mm field gun   Soviet Union 122mm Field gun
Ordnance QF 25-pounder[86]   United Kingdom 87.6mm gun-howitzer 12
Type 63   China 107mm multiple rocket launcher

Anti-aircraft gunsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Notes
ZSU-23-4   Soviet Union 23mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
ZSU-57-2   Soviet Union 57mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun 12
Type 63   China[87] 37 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun1
ZPU   Soviet Union 14.5mm anti-aircraft gun 12
20mm Mle F2   France[88] 20mm anti-aircraft gun1
ZU-23-2   Soviet Union 23mm anti-aircraft gun1[
KS-30   Soviet Union 130mm anti-aircraft gun]]
S-60   Soviet Union 57mm anti-aircraft gun pictures
37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)   Soviet Union 37mm anti-aircraft gun
Type-65 37mm AAA   China 37mm anti-aircraft gun 1

HelicoptersEdit

Name Country of origin Type Notes
MD 530F[89]   United States Utility helicopter 12 ordered
MD 902 Explorer[89]   United States Utility helicopter 2 ordered
Mil Mi-8[89]   Soviet Union Transport helicopter
Mil Mi-17[89]   Soviet Union Transport helicopter 2 borrowed from Iraq
Eurocopter EC120 Colibri[89]   France Utility helicopter
Eurocopter EC135[89]   Germany Utility helicopter
Bell 206[89]   United States Utility helicopter
Bell OH-58 Kiowa[citation needed]   United States Helicopter
Sikorsky S-333[90][91][92]   United States Utility helicopter

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Over 150,000 enlisted as Peshmerga troops in Kurdistan Region, official data shows". 3 April 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  2. ^ Quil Lawrence (2009). Invisible Nation: How the Kurds' Quest for Statehood Is Shaping Iraq and the Middle East. p. xiii. 
  3. ^ "Remembering Leader Jabar Farman on his 9th Death Anniversary". PUK. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Nawzad, Mahmoud (25 August 2014). "Sources: Barzani Orders Peshmerga Forces Reformed, United". Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "Summary of the most important tasks of the Ministry of Peshmerga". Ministry of Peshmerga. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "Iraqi PM criticizes Kurdish region for barring army from Syrian border area". Xinhua News Agency. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "Information about Kurdistan". Kurdistan Development Organization. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Newton-Small, Jay (31 December 2012). "Destination Kurdistan: Is This Autonomous Iraqi Region a Budding Tourist Hot Spot?". Time. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  9. ^ Druzin, Heath (29 September 2013). "Rare terrorist attack in peaceful Kurdish region of Iraq kills 6". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  10. ^ Krajeski, Jenna (20 March 2013). "The Iraq War Was a Good Idea, If You Ask the Kurds". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  11. ^ Rai, Manish (6 October 2014). "Kurdish Peshmerga Can Be A Game Changer In Iraq And Syria". Khaama Press. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  12. ^ "Operation Red Dawn's eight-month hunt". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 December 2003. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  13. ^ Ambinder, Marc (29 April 2013). "How the CIA really caught Bin Laden's trail". The Week. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  14. ^ Roston, Arom (9 January 2014). "Cloak and Drone: The Strange Saga of an Al Qaeda Triple Agent". Vocativ. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  15. ^ Lortz, Michael G. (28 October 2005). "Willing to Face Death: A History of Kurdish Military Forces – the Peshmerga – from the Ottoman Empire to Present-Day Iraq". MA Thesis. Florida State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  16. ^ Stratton, Allegra (26 June 2006). "Hero of the people". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  17. ^ Koerner, Brendan (2003-03-21). "What does the Kurdish word peshmerga mean?". Slate.com. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  18. ^ From the Kurdish pêş (پێش) "before" and merg مەرگ "death".
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Further readingEdit

  • Chapman, Dennis P., Lieutenant Colonel USA, Security Forces of the Kurdistan Regional Government, Mohammed najat, Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2011. ISSN 0026-3141 Reviewed by Michael M. Gunter in Middle East Affairs, Vol. 65, No. 3, Summer 2011.

External linksEdit