American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
An American-led intervention in Iraq started on 15 June 2014, when President Barack Obama ordered United States forces to be dispatched to the region, in response to offensives in Iraq conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). At the invitation of the Iraqi government, American troops went to assess Iraqi forces and the threat posed by ISIL.[third-party source needed]
|American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)|
|Part of the Military intervention against ISIL (Operation Inherent Resolve), the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017), Iraqi insurgency (2017–present), and the War on Terror|
An American F/A-18C Hornet aboard USS George H.W. Bush prior to the launch of operations over Iraq in 2014.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|
|Commanders and leaders|
Barack Obama (until 2017)
Barham Salih (since 2018)
Fuad Masum (until 2018)
Nouri al-Maliki (until 2015)
Adil Abdul-Mahdi (since 2018)
Haider al-Abadi (until 2018)
Masoud Barzani (until 2017)
Jaafar Sheikh Mustafa
Mustafa Said Qadir
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Self-proclaimed Caliph)
Sleiman Daoud al-Afari (POW) (ISIL chemical weapons chief)
|Casualties and losses|
In early August 2014, ISIL attacked Kurdish-held territory in northern Iraq, and captured three towns in northern Iraq, close to the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan. In response, on 5 August, the United States started supplying the Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga forces with weapons. On 7 August, the United States also started humanitarian aid air droppings of food, water, and medicine for civilians fleeing ISIL in the Sinjar Mountains. On the next day, 8 August, the United States began airstrikes against ISIL positions in Iraq. Since then, in coalition with the United States, nine countries have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq. These airstrikes have been operating more or less in concert with ground warfare by Kurdish and Iraqi government forces against ISIL. There were also sporadic clashes between ISIL fighters, and US and Canadian troops, several thousand of whom are acting in advisory and combat roles alongside Peshmerga and Iraqi forces. By April 2015, ISIL had lost significant amounts of territory to Iraqi and American-led Coalition forces. Compared to their peak in December 2014, ISIL had lost 25–30% of their territory, leaving them in possession of around 15,000 square miles of Iraq. American-led airstrikes escalated over the next years, resulting in tens of thousands of ISIL fighters being killed and massive territorial gains by the Iraqi Security Forces. This culminated in a battle at Mosul in which ISIL's territorial capital in Iraq was recaptured. By December 2017, ISIL had no remaining territory in Iraq, following the 2017 Western Iraq campaign.
In addition to direct military intervention, the American-led coalition provided extensive support to the Iraqi Security Forces via training, intelligence, and personnel. The total cost of coalition support to the ISF, excluding direct military operations, was officially announced at ~$3.5 billion by March 2019. 189,000 Iraqi soldiers and police officers received training from coalition forces. In total, the ISF and CJTF-OIR retook approximately 56,000 square kilometers of land containing 4.5 million Iraqi citizens.
Previous U.S. involvementEdit
In 2003, the United States led a controversial invasion of Iraq, which was based on flawed intelligence that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and links to al-Qaeda while under Ba'athist rule. By 2007, the number of U.S. forces in Iraq peaked at 170,000 soldiers. In 2011, the U.S. had withdrawn most of its troops from Iraq, and later kept 20,000 employees in its embassy and consulates, including dozens of U.S. Marine Embassy Guards and approximately 4,500 private military contractors.
After the 2003 invasion, the previous incarnations of ISIL (Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad [Jama'at], the Mujahideen Shura Council [MSC], and al-Qaeda in Iraq) interfered with occupation by the U.S.-led coalition. Jama'at and MSC started a campaign of terrorism in August 2003 in response to what resistance commander Abu Mohammed described as an occupation intending to humiliate and enchain the people of Iraq. Attacks by Jama'at and MSC targeted hundreds of Muslim Iraqis, several U.S. soldiers, and included in 2010 a church full of Christians. These attacks are presumed[by whom?] to include the beheadings in 2004 of three American civilians, one British, one South Korean, and one Japanese civilian.
ISIL advances in Northern IraqEdit
After the December 2011 withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq, violent insurgency of mainly Sunni Islamic Islamist fighters targeting the Iraqi government continued in what is called the Iraqi insurgency.
Between 5 and 11 June 2014, Sunni Islamic, jihadist, 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' (ISIL) militants, already successful in the Syrian civil war, conquered the Iraqi cities of Samarra, Mosul and Tikrit, and threatened the Mosul Dam and Kirkuk, where Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga troops took control from the Iraqi government.
Internet beheading video campaign 2014–2015Edit
On 12 August 2014, ISIL started a campaign of beheading Western and Japanese civilian hostages (announced 12 August, James Foley 19 August, Steven Sotloff 2 September, David Haines 13 September, Hervé Gourdel 24 September, Alan Henning 3 October, Peter Kassig 16 November, Haruna Yukawa sometime January 2015, Kenji Goto 30 January 2015) marketed via the internet.
On 5 September, 15 September and 3 December 2014, different sets of countries came together to discuss concerted action against ISIL. Present at all three meetings were the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Canada, Turkey, and Denmark.
The coalition of 5 September (10 countries) decided to support anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria.
The coalition of 15 September (26 countries) decided to support the Iraqi government militarily.
The coalition of 3 December 2014 (59 countries) agreed on a many-sided strategy, including cutting off ISIL's financing and funding and exposing ISIL's true nature.
US surveillance and military advising in IraqEdit
At the invitation of the Iraqi Government, on 15 June 2014 President Obama ordered dozens of United States troops to Iraq in response to offensives by ISIL (see previous section 'Background'), to assess Iraqi forces and the ISIL threat.
Probably between 15 and 26 June, the U.S. also began to fly missions with manned aircraft over Iraq in secret.
On 26 June 2014, the U.S. started to survey over Baghdad also with armed drones "primarily" for protection of 180 U.S. military advisers in the area.
On 29–30 June 2014, the U.S. increased the number of its troops in Iraq from 180 to 480, to prevent ISIL from taking control of Baghdad International Airport, which the U.S. said would be critical to any evacuation of Americans from Baghdad, and to protect U.S. citizens and property.
In July, Obama announced that due to the continuing violence in Iraq and the growing influence of non-state actors such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the United States would elevate its security commitment in the region. Approximately 800 U.S. troops secured American installations like the Embassy in Baghdad and the Consulate in Erbil.
Around 13 July, a classified military report concluded that many Iraqi army units were deeply infiltrated by either Sunni extremist informants or Shiite personnel backed by Iran, which would bring Americans advisors to Iraqi forces into danger.
ISIL conquests and massacres; US reactionEdit
During the first 15 days of August 2014, ISIL expanded its territories in northern Iraq. On 3 August, they conquered Sinjar and surrounding area, including Wana and Zumar, killing possibly 2,000 Yazidi men in the Sinjar massacre, and taking Yazidi women into slavery, causing 50,000 Yazidis to flee into the adjacent Sinjar Mountains. During their whole August offensive, ISIL massacred 5,000 Yazidis.
On 7 August, ISIL conquered Qaraqosh, the largest Christian town in Iraq, and neighbouring towns, causing 100,000 civilians to flee from ISIL troops.
In reaction, on 5 August, the Iraqi military started dropping food and water for the tens of thousands of Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar mountains, and the U.S. started directly supplying Iraqi Kurds with weapons to fight ISIL. On 7 August the U.S. also started dropping food and water for the Yazidi Kurdish civilians trapped in the Sinjar Mountains (see also section 'Humanitarian efforts').
Obama's decision for airstrikesEdit
On the evening of 7 August 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama gave a live address to the nation. He described the recent ISIL advances across Iraq and said that ISIL's persecution and threatening the extinction of Yazidis, a religious minority in northern Iraq, including especially the Yazidis who had fled into the Sinjar Mountains, in particular had convinced him that U.S. military action was necessary. The President said that he had ordered airstrikes:
- to protect American diplomats, civilians and military in Erbil at the American consulate or advising Iraqi forces;
- to prevent a potential massacre (genocide) by ISIL on thousands of Yazidis on Mount Sinjar; and
- to stop ISIL's advance on Erbil, the capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region where the U.S. had a consulate and a joint operations center with the Iraqi military.
Obama further defended his decision by saying:
...the world is confronted by many challenges. And while America has never been able to right every wrong, America has made the world a more secure and prosperous place. And our leadership is necessary to underwrite the global security and prosperity that our children and our grandchildren will depend upon. We do so by adhering to a set of core principles. We do whatever is necessary to protect our people. We support our allies when they're in danger. We lead coalitions of countries to uphold international norms. And we strive to stay true to the fundamental values -- the desire to live with basic freedom and dignity -- that is common to human beings wherever they are. That's why people all over the world look to the United States of America to lead. And that's why we do it.
First US airstrikes in the Erbil and Sinjar areasEdit
On Friday, 8 August 2014, U.S. Navy F-18 Hornet fighters used 500-pound laser-guided bombs to strike an ISIL towed artillery piece shelling Erbil, and four U.S. fighters later bombed ISIL military convoys, some of them advancing towards the Kurdish forces defending Erbil. Another round of U.S. airstrikes in the afternoon struck 8 ISIL targets near Erbil. Predator drones as well as fixed wing F-18 aircraft were used in the U.S. attacks.
On 8 and 9 August, Obama extended the purposes of the airstrikes of 8 August as to be: 1.) protecting Americans in Iraq; 2.) helping Iraqi minorities stranded on Mount Sinjar; 3.) "break the siege of Mount Sinjar"; 4.) preventing massacres (genocides) on Yazidis and other minority groups as announced by ISIL; and 5.) helping Iraqis combat the threat from ISIL.
On Saturday, 9 August, U.S. forces launched 4 airstrikes against ISIL fighters threatening civilians on Mount Sinjar, this time primarily aimed at armored fighting vehicles. A combination of US warplanes and drones destroyed four armored personnel carriers. The U.S. airstrikes that day killed 16 ISIL fighters, Iraqi officials reported.
On 10 August, U.S. forces launched a series of 5 air attacks which targeted ISIL armed vehicles as well as a mortar position. Assisted by these U.S. air attacks, Iraqi Kurdish forces claimed to have recaptured the Northern Iraqi towns of Makhmur and Gweyr from ISIL control. An Iraqi airstrike conducted 9–11 August in Sinjar killed 45 ISIL militants, Iraqi officials reported. On 10 August, also the United Kingdom started with humanitarian airdrops for the—initially 50,000—Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar Mountains (see also section 'Humanitarian efforts').
Between 9 and 13 August, the Kurds and Americans enabled possibly 35,000 to 45,000 of the Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar Mountains to escape or be evacuated into Syria (see Sinjar massacre#Refugee crisis in the Sinjar Mountains).
On Monday, 11 August, Lt. Gen. William Mayville Jr., director of the U.S. operations, said the airstrikes since 7 August near Irbil and Mount Sinjar had slowed ISIL's operational tempo and temporarily disrupted their advances toward Irbil. On 12 August, the U.S. carried out airstrikes against ISIL mortar positions north of Sinjar after ISIL had been firing on Kurdish forces protecting the Yazidis in the area.
On 13 August, the U.S. government concluded that the situation of the remaining Yazidis in the Sinjar Mountains was "much more manageable" and less life-threatening, and that an American rescue operation was therefore not acutely necessary. Presumably a few thousand or between 5,000 and 10,000 Yazidis still remained in those mountains.
Retaking Mosul DamEdit
On 16 August, U.S. drones and warplanes began a close air campaign aimed at supporting the advance of Kurdish fighters moving toward the Mosul Dam. Kurdish sources commented that this was the "heaviest US bombing of militant positions since the start of air strikes." On 16 August there were 9 U.S. airstrikes in northern Iraq, on 17 August 2014.
U.S. President Obama, in a letter to Congress on 17 August, explained this use of U.S. Forces as support to the Iraqi forces' campaign against terrorist group ISIL. Obama said on 18 August that Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and Iraqi troops, with help from the U.S., had retaken the Mosul Dam from ISIL.
On 8 September, the Iraqi Army with close air support from U.S. F-18 aircraft managed to retake the key Haditha Dam. Following the recapture, Iraqi troops moved on to recapture the town of Barwana. Iraqi state television reported that 15 ISIL militants were killed in the battle. Following the Iraqi victory, ISIL responded with the public execution of David Haines.
On 18 September, France decided to initiate airstrikes on ISIL as well (see main article: 'Opération Chammal').
On 24 September, the Dutch government decided to send six Fighter jets to contribute to the "international battle against ISIS (ISIL)" (see section 'Airstrikes').
On 26 September, the British Parliament decided to authorize British airstrikes on ISIL as well. Britain then announced to cooperate with Iraqi and Kurdish intelligence agencies (see main article: 'Operation Shader'). Also the Belgian Parliament that day decided to start airstrikes on ISIL (see section 'Airstrikes').
Around 28 September 2014, airstrikes by the U.S.-led coalition together with Iraqi Army ground forces clashing with ISIL militants halted an ISIL offensive by Amariya al-Falluja, 40 km (25 miles) west of Baghdad, the Iraqi capital, a BBC reporter on the spot reported.
On 30 September, the U.S. launched eleven airstrikes in Iraq and the UK conducted their first two airstrikes in Iraq in this intervention. Together with eleven U.S. strikes in Syria against ISIL these 24 strikes were the highest number of strikes against ISIL on one day since 8 August.
By the end of September 2014, the United States Navy and Air Force had conducted 240 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, as well as 1,300 tanker refueling missions, totaling 3,800 sorties by all types of aircraft.
On 3 October 2014, the Australian government authorized airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq (see main article: 'Operation Okra'). On 2 October, Denmark's Parliament authorized airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq (see section 'Airstrikes').
On 7 October, the Canadian Parliament voted in favour of Canadian airstrikes against ISIL (see main article: 'Operation Impact').
On 11 October, 10,000 ISIL troops headed from Mosul and Syria toward the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad, and ISIL stood on the verge of taking the whole of Anbar province just west of Baghdad. The provincial council's deputy head, Al-Issawi, said they then asked Iraq's government to ask the U.S. to bring in ground forces; the Iraqi government however squarely denied to have received such demand from Anbar. 12 October, ISIL came within 25 km (15.5 miles) of the Baghdad airport, U.S. General Dempsey reported. The U.S. then deployed low-flying Apache attack helicopters to keep ISIL at bay.
By 22 October, the U.S. had spent $424 million on both of its bombing campaigns against ISIL in Iraq and Syria.
During the early morning hours of 14 December, U.S. ground forces allegedly clashed with ISIL alongside the Iraqi Army and Tribal Forces near Ein al-Asad base, west of Anbar, in an attempt to repel them from the base of which includes about 100 U.S. advisers in it, when ISIL attempted to overrun the base. A field commander of the Iraqi Army in Anbar province, said that "the U.S. force equipped with light and medium weapons, supported by F-18, was able to inflict casualties against fighters of ISIL organization, and forced them to retreat from the al-Dolab area, which lies 10 kilometers from Ain al-Assad base." Sheikh Mahmud Nimrawi, a prominent tribal leader in the region, added that "U.S. forces intervened because of ISIL started to come near the base, which they are stationed in so out of self-defense," he responded, welcoming the U.S. intervention, and saying "which I hope will not be the last." This was said to be the first encounter between the United States and the Islamic State, in four years. However, this claim has been stated to be "false" by The Pentagon.
In the Kurdish Sinjar offensive, 17–22 December, Kurdish troops, aided by U.S. airstrikes, connected the Sinjar Mountains to Peshmerga territory, enabling the Yazidis who stayed on the mountains to be evacuated. On 22 December, Kurdish Peshmerga forces pushed into the city of Sinjar, taking control of much of the city.
On 25 December 2014, Hassan Saeed Al-Jabouri, the ISIL governor of Mosul, who was also known as Abu Taluut, was killed by a US-led Coalition airstrike in Mosul. It was also revealed that the US planned to retake the city of Mosul in January 2015.
In mid-January 2015, Canadian soldiers at the front lines between Iraqi and ISIL troops exchanged fire with ISIL fighters. Canadians were not hurt, but they "neutralized" an unknown number of ISIL militants.
On 21 January 2015, the US began coordinating airstrikes with a Kurdish launched offensive, to help them begin the planned operation to retake the city of Mosul.
On 29 January 2015, Canadian special forces in Iraq came under fire from ISIL forces, causing the Canadian troops to return fire, killing some ISIL militants.
By late February, it was reported that ISIL was beginning to use chemical weapons, due to the gradual weakening of the organization, and that the Iraqi Army was expected to join the Liberation of Mosul sometime in April 2015.
At the beginning of March, the Iraqi government announced that they would soon launch a military operation with the Kurdish Peshmerga and other allies to regain the city of Mosul, which was under ISIL control since 10 June 2014. On 10 March, U.S.-led warplanes dropped scraps of paper in Mosul, advising residents to evacuate the city and stay away from ISIL locations, because of those imminent military operations.
On 11 March 2015, ISIL threatened over loudspeakers to behead any civilian who tries to leave Mosul.
18 March 2015 Coalition airstrike at the al-Baaj District, in the Nineveh Governorate, near the Syrian border. It was reported that his wounds were so serious that the top ISIL leaders had a meeting to discuss who would replace him if he died. By 21 April, al-Bagdadi reportedly had not yet recovered enough from his injuries to resume daily control of ISIL.
On 25 March 2015, the American-led Coalition joined the Second Battle of Tikrit, launching its first airstrikes on ISIL targets in the city center. That night, US aircraft carried out 17 airstrikes in the center of Tikrit, which struck an ISIL building, two bridges, three checkpoints, two staging areas, two berms, a roadblock, and a command and control facility. The US-led Coalition continued conducting airstrikes in Tikrit until 31 March, when Iraqi forces entered the city center.
On 8 April 2015, Iraqi forces, building on their advances in the Saladin Governorate, launched an offensive to liberate the Anbar Governorate from ISIL occupation, beginning with an offensive in the region around east Ramadi, backed by Coalition aircraft. In retaliation, ISIL executed 300 people in the western Anbar Province. It was also reported that 10,000 Sunni tribal fighters would participate in the Anbar offensive.
On 12 April, the Iraqi government declared that Tikrit was free of ISIL forces, stating that it was safe for residents to return home. However, many refugees from Tikrit still feared returning to the city. On 12 April, Abu Maria, the top ISIL leader in Tikrit, was killed by Iraqi forces at the Ajeel Oil Field near Tikrit, along with his top aide, after they were both caught trying to flee from the city. However, later reports revealed that ISIL resistance persisted until 17 April.
By mid-April 2015, ISIL had lost 25–30%, 5,000 to 6,500 square miles, in Iraq since their peak territorial influence in August 2014 to Iraqi and American coalition forces, leaving them still possessing 15,000 square miles in Iraq.
On 17 April, Iraqi forces in Tikrit located and killed 130 ISIL sleeper agents, finally ending the Second Battle of Tikrit. However, cleanup operations to remove the 5,000–10,000 IEDs left behind by ISIL are expected to take at least several months.
On 22 April 2015 Iraqi government sources reported that Abu Alaa Afri, the self-proclaimed Caliph's deputy and a former Iraqi physics teacher, had been installed as the stand-in leader while Baghdadi recuperates from his injuries.
On 3 May 2015, The Guardian reported that ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was recovering from severe injuries he received from an 18 March 2015 airstrike, in a part of Mosul. It was also reported that al-Baghdadi's spinal injury, which left him incapacitated, means that he may never be able to fully resume direct command of ISIL.
According to the Iraqi defence ministry Abu Ala al-Afri, ISIL's Deputy Leader, was killed on 12 May 2015, in a US-led Coalition airstrike on a mosque in Tel Afar, where al-Afri was holding a meeting with other ISIL senior leaders. The airstrike was reported to have killed dozens of other ISIL militants that were present. Akram Qirbash, ISIL's top judge, was also killed in the airstrike. The U.S. Defense Department said that it could not corroborate the report.
In August 2015, fifty intelligence analysts working for United States Central Command (CENTCOM) complained to the Pentagon's Inspector General and the media, alleging that CENTCOM's senior leadership was altering or distorting intelligence reports on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to paint a more optimistic picture of the ongoing war against ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria. They were subsequently joined by civilian and Defense Intelligence Agency analysts working for CENTCOM. Members of the groups began anonymously leaking details of the case to the press in late-August. In February 2017, the Inspector General of the United States Department of Defense completed its investigation and cleared the senior leadership of CENTCOM, concluding that "allegations of intelligence being intentionally altered, delayed or suppressed by top CENTCOM officials from mid-2014 to mid-2015 were largely unsubstantiated."
On 17 October 2015, an MQ-1B Predator drone from 20th Attack Squadron, 432nd Wing, USAF, crashed after "experiencing electronic systems failure and loss of control due to a lightning strike" southeast of Baghdad; the drone was destroyed on impact.
On 22 October 2015 during 30 U.S. special forces from Delta Force and members of a Kurdish Counter-terrorism unit conducted a raid on an ISIL prison compound 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) North of the town of Hawija in Iraq's Kirkuk province. The raid liberated approximately 70 hostages, including more than 20 members of the Iraqi Security Forces. The Kurdish Regional Government asked U.S. special operations forces to support an operation to free hostages that were being held inside the prison and were going to be executed, Master Sergeant Joshua Wheeler was killed in the raid, he was the first American service member killed in action as a result of enemy fire while fighting ISIL and at the time he was the first American to be killed in action in Iraq since November 2011.
The US-led coalition began targeting the IS chemical weapons infrastructure with airstrikes and special forces raids, the coalition is focusing on destroying laboratories and equipment, whilst further special forces raids are planned to target IS chemical weapons experts.
US officials reported that Delta Force operatives have carried out operations to target, capture or kill top ISIS operatives in Iraq, reportedly beginning in late February 2016, after several weeks of covert preparation such as setting up safe houses, establishing informant networks and coordinating operations with Iraqi and Peshmerga units. The Delta force operators are part of an Expeditionary Targeting Force that is also made up of operators from the US military's so-called "Tier One" Special Operations units, numbering around 200 personnel. Their main objectives are to gather enough intelligence from raids on terrorist-occupied compounds and hideouts, then from intelligence gathered at those sites they will give the ETF more intelligence about ISIS networks and quickly attack additional and related targets, in what's known as "targeted" missions. This strategy was tested during the May 2015 raid on Deir Ezzor in Syria. The ETF has so far collected enough intelligence about ISIS operations in Iraq in up to half a dozen locations that raids and field operations are ready to take place. In late-February, U.S. special forces captured Sleiman Daoud al-Afari, an ISIS senior chemical weapons engineer, in a raid in Badoosh, north-west of Mosul, there were no US casualties. Afari's capture is the first known major success of this new strategy.
On 1 March 2016, a U.S. special operations assault force captured an ISIS operative during a raid in northern Iraq and is expected to apprehend and interrogate a number of others in coming months.
On 19 March, Staff Sergeant Louis F. Cardin, a field artilleryman with the Battalion Landing Team, 2nd Battalion 6th Marines, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, was killed by an ISIS rocket attack on Firebase Bell near Makhmur, 8 other Marines were also injured, the Marines returned fire with their artillery. The Marines from the 26th MEU first began moving into the area just 2 weeks before, deploying from the USS Kearsarge. The base will be used by the U.S. military to support the Iraqi 15th Division when they attempt to retake Mosul and the Marines had finished setting up and testing their howitzers just 2 or 3 days before the attack. The joint taskforce overseeing the campaign against ISIS announced it was deploying additional Marines from the 26th MEU to Iraq to join the roughly 3,700 U.S. troops already deployed there to combat ISIS. There are already more than 4,000 Marines and sailors who have been deployed to Iraq since October.
On 18 April 2016, U.S. Special forces and Kurdish forces launched a raid on Hammam al-'Alil which killed Salman Abu Shabib al-Jebouri; a senior IS commander who was a leading member of the IS military council, two of his aides were also killed. US Defence Secretary Ash Carter announced that the US is to send 200 extra troops; the majority of them being special forces and 8 Apache attack helicopters to Iraq, the remainder will include trainers, security forces for the advisers, and maintenance crews for the Apaches, increasing the number of US personnel in the country to around 4,100. The US also plans to give Kurdish Peshmerga forces, more than $400m in assistance.
On 25 April, a U.S. warplane dropped a guided bomb that destroyed an SUV occupied by IS leader Raphael Saihou Hostey near Mosul, Hostey was a recruiter for IS, U.S. drone operators had been stalking him for days before the order came to kill him.
On 3 May 2016, Special Warfare Operator 1st Class Charles Keating IV; a U.S. Navy SEAL, was killed by small arms fire during an ISIS assault on a Peshmerga position, approximately 3 to 5 kilometers behind enemy lines, near the town of Tel Skuf, 28–30 km north of Mosul, the SEAL killed was part of a 30-man SEALs unit deployed to Iraq as part of a special forces advise and assist mission. 125 ISIS militants broke into the position using three truck bombs followed by bulldozers which cleared the wreckage away, the U.S. responded with 11 aircraft; F-15s F-16s, A-10s, B-52s and 2 drones carrying out 31 airstrikes; which destroyed two more truck bombs stopping the attack, 58 militants were killed and more than 20 of their vehicles were also destroyed, Keating was part of a Navy SEAL quick reaction force called in by the Peshmerga. The IS attack is part of their attacks on multiple fronts overnight to obtain new ground, Iraqi military sources said that special forces had foiled an attack by five suicide bombers in the village of Khirbirdan and Peshmerga forces repelled an IS assault on Wardak. U.S. Army Colonel Steve Warren labeled the offensive as one of the most complex battlefield operations launched by ISIS since December 2015.
As of early May 2016, there are more than 5,500 U.S. military personnel in Iraq; 3,870 are deployed to advise and assist local forces fighting IS militants, the rest includes special operations personnel, logistics workers and troops on temporary rotations.
Small teams of American advisers operate from northern Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan, providing commanders with help in military planning and logistical support. They have moved about freely to interact with commanders in the field as long as they remain well behind front lines, in the case of the firefight at Tel Skuf, a dozen U.S. troops who were advising and assisting the Peshmerga happened to be at an outpost behind the front lines that had been targeted by the large ISIS force.
On 17 May, the ISF takes control of the city Rutba. IS Lose the control of the strategically important town and Anbar's mostly control.
In late May, a U.S. special forces operator was indirectly wounded in an ISIS attack near Irbil.
On 12 June, a US Apache attack helicopter carried out a strike that destroyed an IS car bomb near Qayyarah, 50 miles south of Mosul in support of Iraqi forces positioning ahead of an operation to retake Mosul from insurgents. It was the first time since President Obama authorized the helicopters' use in offensive operations earlier this year.
On 25 June, a U.S. airstrike near Mosul killed 2 senior ISIS commanders: one was Basim Muhammad Ahmad Sultan al-Bajari, ISIS' deputy minister of war, who oversaw ISIS' efforts to capture Mosul in June 2014 and consolidated ISIL's control over Mosul, he also led the ISIL Jaysh al-Dabiq battalion known for using vehicle-borne IEDs, suicide bombers and mustard gas in its attacks. The other was Hatim Talib al-Hamduni, a military commander in the area and head of military police for self-proclaimed Ninawa state; together, they engaged in dictatorial rule and sectarian murder and oppression since 2014.
On 29 June, in support of the 2016 Abu Kamal offensive—the offensive by the Syrian rebels from different factions that aims to capture Abu Kamal in Syria and effectively split its territorial holdings in two and preventing the transfer of fighters and weapons between the two countries—on the Iraqi side of the border, US-led coalition conducted five airstrikes near al-Qaim. Also that day in Fallujah, US-led coalition aircraft—including Iraqi aircraft, conducted airstrikes that killed at least 250 ISIS militants. Whilst Iraqi Security Forces fought them on the ground; the first strikes targeted a convoy of IS fighters trying to leave a neighborhood on the outskirts of southern Fallujah, destroying between 40–55 IS vehicles. A second convoy formed east of Ramadi later that day, coalition and Iraqi jets launched more strikes, destroying nearly 120 ISIS vehicles, but in both attacks, Iraqi Security Forces destroyed more. The figure of IS vehicles destroyed rose up to nearly 800—Iraq's Joint Operations Command said the country's forces destroyed 603 IS vehicles, whilst the Pentagon estimated that coalition strikes hit at least 175, but those figures could not be independently confirmed.
On 11 July, Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced that the US is sending 560 additional US military personnel to Iraq, bringing the number of US personnel in Iraq to about 4,650. They will be stationed at Qayara airbase, which was recaptured on 9 July by Iraqi government forces being supported by U.S.-led airstrikes; most of them will serve in training and advisory roles, including engineers and logistics experts and with the airbase as a key staging area, they will assist local forces in the retaking of the IS stronghold of Mosul. Also, a new "Nineveh Liberation Operations Center" has been set up to coordinate the offensive, complete with dozens of U.S. and British advisers.
On 5 August, the Pentagon announced about 400 U.S. soldiers would deploy south of Mosul to Qayarah airbase to aid in the operation to retake Mosul.
On 28 September, the New York Times reported that US officials said President Obama had authorized the sending of an additional 600 US troops to Iraq to assist Iraqi forces in the upcoming battle to retake Mosul from IS.
On 2 October, two Kurdish soldiers were killed and two French special forces operators were wounded by an IS drone north of Mosul, the drone was intercepted in flight and whilst they were examining the drone a small explosive device disguised as a battery blew up.
Coalition forces are playing a key role in the Battle of Mosul, on 17 October, The Guardian reported that US, British and French special forces, which have been advising the Peshmerga, will play a prominent role in calling in airstrikes against ISIS targets inside the city. Adding that, according to the Pentagon, the US deployed an additional 600 troops to aid in the city's capture, bringing the total number of US personnel in Iraq to more than 5,200. On 19 October, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. Apache helicopters joined the battle, launching night attacks against IS militants. On 20 October, Chief Petty Officer Jason C. Finan, of the U.S. Navy's Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 3 who was attached to a SEAL team that was advising the Iraqi Counterterrorism Service, was killed in an improvised explosive device attack. The Washington Post reported that Lieutenant General Stephen Townsend said the Iraqi troops were attacked by Islamic State fighters and the SEAL team members decided to pull back along with the troops they were advising. Finan was in a vehicle and was telling other members of his team that he had spotted a roadside bomb when he was killed. Fox news reported that there are upwards of 300 special operations forces embedded with Iraqi and Kurdish troops in the fight to take back Mosul. It was reported that about 100 U.S. advisers - mostly Special Forces and forward air controllers, are moving with Iraqi forces, backed by U.S. airstrikes and rocket artillery fire, in the ground offensive to drive the IS from Mosul.
On 1 November, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. special operators were at the front line on the edge of Mosul - just outside the village of Gogjali, with elite Iraqi troops from the U.S.-trained Golden Division who were preparing to enter Mosul. The Americans wore black uniforms and drove black armoured vehicles to blend in with their Iraqi counterparts, U.S. special operators near Gogjali set up a mortar, unloaded a bazooka-style weapon and watched nearby fighting from a farmhouse roof; At around midday a drone the Americans had launched earlier stalled and crashed beside the farmhouse, breaking its wings and propeller. An Iraqi general told The Associated Press that later that day, Iraq's special forces entered the outskirts of Mosul, taking the state television building and advancing to the borders of Karama district despite fierce resistance by IS fighters. The Associated Press reported that as the sun went down, a sandstorm blew in, reducing visibility to only 100 yards and bringing the day's combat to an end, the AP reported. Meanwhile, U.S. Army engineers from the 101st Airborne Division also pushed closer to Mosul, searching for improvised bombs just west of the Great Zab River.
On 4 December, a coalition airstrike in Mosul killed Falah al-Rashidi- an ISIL leader who was involved in ISIL's use of vehicle bombs in Mosul, a spokesman for CJTF–OIR, Colonel John Dorrian said "His removal further degrades ISIL's [vehicle bomb] threat, which has been the enemy's weapon of choice for attacking Iraqi security forces and civilians." Also that day Abu Turq was killed in Sharqat, Dorrian said "he was killed in an airstrike while fighting from a rooftop position in Sharqat, where he and several other fighters were moving a heavy weapon to fire upon partner forces. His removal increases pressure on the ISIL financial network, which is already severely disrupted by several hundred strikes on oil infrastructure and bulk cache sites."
On 21 December, an airstrike in Qaim killed Ahmad Abdullah Hamad al-Mahalawi, al-Mahalawi was ISIL senior in Qaim, Colonel John Dorrian a spokesman for CJTF–OIR said "His removal will disrupt ISIL's ability to conduct operations along the Euphrates River Valley."
2017 and beyondEdit
On 27 January Sky News reported that French special forces in Mosul discovered a warehouse and unloading area near the Tigris River where dozens of missiles were stored alongside makeshift launchers with Russian markings. The weapons are thought to have come from Syria, most were designed to be fired by jets but one was a 10 ft-long missile- beneath the cover of trees IS fighters had been working on building a Scud missile. Near the preparation site, three large refrigerated cargo carriers had been opened and were full of coking coal but buried inside, Iraqi soldiers found containers with an unidentified substance inside, the area smelt strongly of chemicals, French soldiers advised the Iraqi team that the whole area was contaminated; tests are now being carried out on what senior commanders called "poison." Iraqi special forces say IS were planning to launch long and short-range missiles tipped with chemical or biological war heads from western Mosul; Brigadier Ali of the Counter Terrorism Service, in charge of the weapons discovery, said he believed the production of the chemical weapons had been halted by the start of the offensive on Mosul and the targeting of IS fighters by coalition planes and drones. Later, the Guardian reported that Brigadier General Haider Fadhil from Iraqi special forces said French officials tested the chemical and confirmed it was a mustard agent.
On 11 February, the Telegraph reported that Iraqi aircraft carried out an airstrike on a house in Anbar where ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was holding a meeting with senior ISIS commanders, killing more than a dozen.
On 27 March, it was reported that 300 paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne's 2d Brigade Combat Team will temporarily deploy to northern Iraq to provide additional advise-and-assist combating ISIS, particularly to speed up the offensive against ISIS in Mosul. On 29 March, Stars and Stripes reported that 400 soldiers from the 1st Armoured division's headquarters element will deploy to Iraq in summer 2017, where it will lead the coalition's ground efforts. An study published in the journal PLOS Medicine showed that US Coalition forces killed more civilians than the Islamic State during the nine-month battle to liberate the Iraqi city of Mosul than during the three-year occupation by the Islamic State
On 1 April, Military.com reported that Iraqi fighter jets carried out airstrikes on IS militants-who had crossed over the border from Syria-in the town of Baaj near the Syrian border, killing between 150-200 militants. Reuters reported that Iraqi State TV said that, citing Iraq's military intelligence, an air strike in the region of al-Qaim killed Ayad al-Jumaili, who was believed to be the "second-in-command" of ISIS.
On 29 April, Army Times reported that First Lieutenant Weston Lee of 1st Battalion, 325th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division died from wounds received from the detonation of an IED during a patrol outside Mosul.
On 13 August, Stars and Stripes reported that 2 US Soldiers of 2nd Battalion, 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, based at an undisclosed firebase in Iraq (where US troops are supporting Iraqi forces in their ongoing offensive against ISIS militants after they ousted them from Mosul) were killed when an artillery round prematurely exploded, five others were also wounded in the blast.
On 1 October, Specalist Alexander W. Missildine of the 710th Brigade Support Battalion, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, was killed by an EFP (a type of improvised explosive that was first used by insurgents supplied by Iran with the help of Hezbollah for use against armored vehicles during the Iraq War) whilst traveling on a major road in Saladin Governorate or Nineveh Governorate, another soldier was wounded. The Washington Post reported that the device had not been used in Iraq for six years and that ISIS did not make any public claim of responsibility after the attack, but that it did coincide with threats from some of the Iranian-backed Shia militias who fought with the US against the ISIS but now want US forces to leave the country now that ISIS is almost defeated. According to Greg Robin, an expert in explosive devices for the Sahan Research Group, the bomb has been used in Afghanistan, by al-Shabaab in Somalia and Palestinian Islamic Jihad group.
On December 9, 2017, it is reported that ISIL had lost all strategic territory in Iraq.
On 22 December, Australian Defense Minister Marise Payne said that Australia will end air strikes against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria and bring its six Super Hornet planes back home. She also added that other Australian operations in the region would continue, with 80 personnel who are part of the Special Operations Task Group in Iraq, including Australian special forces, continuing their deployment. Australian soldiers have also been training Iraqi troops at the Taji military base outside Baghdad.
The US announced that it would begin to reduce its troop levels in Iraq.
As of July 2, 2018, the US still maintains a military presence of 5,000 troops stationed in Iraq with the task of helping train and assist Iraqi forces.
On 4 October 2018, an operation against ISIL was started by the Iraqi military along with the military forces of France and the United States under the CJTF-OIR coalition in the Anbar Governorate around the city of Qaim and the Syrian border where ISIL continues to operate and maintain a strong and large presence. During the operation ISIL claimed to thwart an American-led assault near the Syrian border and also claimed to have killed 3 US soldiers and wounded 4 others in the clashes, the US military has not confirmed or denied the claimed losses.
On 5 October 2018, US-led Coalition planes bombed an ISIL position in the village of Kushaf near the Tigris river in the Kirkuk Governorate, reportedly killing 6 ISIL members, on the same day ISIL detonated a roadside bomb killing an oil employee and injuring 11 others in a bus in Baiji in the Saladin Governorate, and in a separate attack in Fallujah in the Anbar Governorate ISIL detonated a car bomb injuring an Iraqi policeman and 3 others.
Contributions to intervention since August 2014Edit
Military aid to the KurdsEdit
On 5 October 2015, CJTF-OIR announced that it had given 50,000 rifles and machine guns, 56 million rounds of small arms ammunition, 677+ mortars, 73,000+ mortar rounds, 5,000+ anti-tank weapons, 56,000+ anti-tank rounds, and 150+ vehicles to the Iraqi Kurdish forces.
- The United States had begun on 5 August 2014, with the direct supply of munitions to the Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga forces and, with Iraq's agreement, the shipment of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program weapons to the Kurds, according to Zalmay Khalilzad, the former U.S. ambassador to Iraq and the U.N., in the Washington Post, and the following days the American CIA secretly sent arms to the Kurds. Before 11 August, U.S. and allies had started rushing antitank weapons etc. to Kurdish fighters, and the U.S. intended to provide longer-range weapons.
- The United Kingdom placed the Special Air Service on the ground briefly and are airlifting munitions to the Kurds from an unnamed Eastern European nation. Members of the 2nd Battalion, the Yorkshire Regiment, have also been deployed to the area.
- Germany has provided instructors to train Kurdish Peshmerga troops. It is also supporting the Peshmerga with shipments of machine guns and ammunition, anti-tank missiles, armored transport vehicles and personal equipment like night vision goggles, helmets, vests, radio sets and other equipment. It hopes to provide equipment for 10,000 Peshmerga troops. It has also flown wounded Peshmerga fighters to German military hospitals. Germany has currently up to 150 paratroopers and other ground troops stationed in northern Iraq to train and advise Kurdish military forces.
- Greece donated Kalashnikov rifles and ammunition.
- France is planning to ship arms directly to the Kurds.
- Italy decided to give military aid to the Kurds.
- Spokesman Halgurd Hikmat for the Peshmerga Ministry confirmed that the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Italy, and also Finland have agreed to supply weapons and military goods to Kurdish Peshmerga. Erbil-based BASNEWS reported that the Kurdistan Regional Government, in cooperation with the Iraqi and American governments, will open a military air base in Erbil.
- Australia in September began using RAAF C-17s and C-130Js to airlift arms and munitions to forces in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq. Then Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said in October his country could dispatch up to 200 special forces troops to "advise" local forces in a "non-combat" role.
- Croatia in late August began sending arms to the Kurds. The armaments from Croatia are particularly useful to the effort because of the fact that they are compatible with the Kurds' Russian made weapons systems which make up the majority of their equipment.
- The Czech Republic has or will provide weapons to local forces. The Czech Republic offered to provide 10 million rounds for AK-47, 8 million rounds for machine guns, 5,000 warheads for RPG and 5,000 hand grenades. In September 2014 with the help of Royal Canadian Air Force it sent 8 millions rounds for machine guns to Iraq and in December 2014 another supply flight (provided by US Air Force's C-17 Globemaster) with 5,000 warheads.
- Estonia, Hungary, Greece, and Bulgaria have or will provide weapons to local forces.
- Albania has or will provide weapons to local forces. Albania in late August began sending arms to the Kurds. With the help of Western air transport systems, Albania has sent 22 million rounds of AK-47 7.62 millimeter bullets, 15,000 hand grenades and 32,000 artillery shells to the Kurdish forces. The armaments from Albania are particularly useful to the effort because of the fact that they are compatible with the Kurds' Russian made weapons systems which make up the majority of their equipment.
- Turkey in early November 2014 began training Kurdish Peshmerga fighters in northern Iraq, Turkey and Peshmerga confirmed, 'as part of the struggle against ISIL', a Turkish official said.
Military aid to the Iraqi governmentEdit
- After the United States in June 2014 started to send troops to Iraq to secure American interests and assets and advise the Iraqi forces (see section US surveillance and military advising in Iraq), President Barack Obama end of September planned to send 1,600 troops to Iraq as "advisers" to the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces. 800 of them would provide security for soldiers and Marines and for property; hundreds would train and advise Iraqi and Kurdish forces how to fight ISIL. 8–9 November Obama doubled the number of American soldiers in Iraq to some 3,100. By February 2015, the US had deployed 4,500 troops. In June 2015, the US had deployed an additional 450 troops to Iraq, increasing the US troop presence in Iraq to at least 4,850.
- Germany is shipping non-lethal military equipment to the Iraqi Central Government and the Kurdish Regional Government.
- Italy has offered to supply weapons, ammunition, and other aid to local forces in Iraq. The prime minister of Italy Matteo Renzi visited Iraq and the Kurds on 20 August to consider the response to ISIL. He said that without international involvement it would be a "new Srebrenica".
- Canadian Prime Minister Harper announced on 4 September 2014 that Canada would deploy "about 100" military advisers to be based in Baghdad assisting the Iraqi Military in the fight against ISIS. These personnel are special operations forces which will work closely with US special forces to "provide advice that will help the government of Iraq and its security forces be more effective against ISIL", but their role is not expected to be direct combat. CBC News reports that about 100 Canadians will be deployed, primarily to help Kurdish forces.
- Denmark sent 120 military personnel to Iraq in November to train the Iraqi army.
- New Zealand will send up to 143 military personnel to Iraq, to help train local Iraqi Security Forces. Sixteen of which will be trainers, the remaining personnel will be deployed to protect the trainers, and help with advisory/intelligence roles. New Zealand has also sent up to $14.5m in humanitarian aid.
- Norway in October 2014 decided to send 5 headquarters personal, 120 advisors to help train the Iraqi army, and has used transport aircraft to deliver supplies to Iraq.
- Portugal has worked with neighboring Spain to provide training to the Iraqi Army south of Baghdad.
- Spain has provided 300 instructors to train the Iraqi Army and offered to provide weapons to the Iraqi Army and the Kurdish Peshmerga forces, and has stationed a Patriot missile battery and 150 servicemen in Turkey in case of cross-border attacks against its NATO ally.
Building Partner Capacity (BPC)Edit
The Building Partner Capacity (BPC) program is meant to help the Iraqi government to prepare forces for the counter-attack against ISIL and the regaining of its territory. Australia in April 2015 committed 300 military personnel to the BPC training mission in Iraq. According to the U.S. Department of Defense, by May 2015 a dozen countries had committed themselves to the BPC program: Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom and United States. By May 2015, the program had trained 6,500 Iraqi forces.
- The United States began conducting airstrikes in Iraq on 8 August 2014. Fighter aircraft from the United States Air Force and United States Navy, and military "advisers" on the ground, have been involved in combating ISIL in Northern Iraq, as well as in the north and west of Baghdad.
- Australia (Main article: Operation Okra)
Australia's Prime Minister at the time, Tony Abbott, announced on 3 October 2014 that Australia would commence airstrikes on ISIL. At least until 2 November, dozens of those airstrikes held on, in at least some cases hitting and killing ISIL people, but also targeting military equipment and an oil refinery. The Australian government is reticent with giving detailed information, out of concern for possible propaganda from the side of ISIL.
- Canada (Main article: Operation Impact)
On 7 October, the House of Commons voted in favour of Canadian airstrikes against ISIL, and approved of deploying six CF-18 fighter jets, an air-to-air refueling aircraft and two surveillance aircraft to participate in targeted airstrikes from an allied air base in Kuwait. The first Canadian airstrike took place on 2 November 2014, targeting construction equipment near Fallujah. The second airstrike was made on 11 November 2014, targeting ISIL artillery near Bayji, north of Baghdad.
Danish Prime Minister Thorning-Schmidt promised 26 September 2014 to send four planes and three reserve jets (F-16s), with 250 pilots and staff, to launch airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq. The first mission by the Danish F-16s was flown on 16 October 2014. When the seven F-16s returned to Denmark in September 2015 for refitting and refurbishment, they had flown a total of 547 sorties against ISIL in Iraq. A C-130J transport aircraft used in support of coalition operations and a mobile radar station remained in action. In June 2016 the F-16s returned with a mission that had been expanded to include ISIL targets in both Iraq and Syria.
- France (Main article: Opération Chammal)
On 15 September, Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft operating from the United Arab Emirates conducted reconnaissance flights on ISIL positions. On 19 September 2014, France conducted its first airstrike which targeted an ISIL depot, making it the first Western coalition partner to conduct airstrikes in Iraq.
- Germany is supporting airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq and Syria with six Tornado reconnaissance aircraft and one Airbus A310 aerial refueling tanker aircraft. It also provides high resolution radar images by its SAR Lupe reconnaissance satellites.
- Jordan (See also: Jordanian intervention in the Syrian Civil War)
Jordanian officials said on 4 February 2015, after the release of a video showing captured RJAF pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh being burned alive by his ISIL captors in Syria, that the kingdom would consider joining the coalition by launching airstrikes against ISIL targets in Iraq.
The Jordanian Air Force on 4 February 2015 began targeting ISIL positions in Iraq in retaliation for ISIL's brutal burning of Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh, beginning the campaign with a large airstrike campaign centered on Mosul, which killed 55 ISIL militants, including ISIL's top senior commander of Mosul known as the "Prince of Nineveh".
- Morocco in late November 2014, as first Arab state joining this American-led military intervention in Iraq, responded to an American appeal to send several F-16 jets to the fight against ISIL. Four F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters from the Royal Moroccan Air Force reportedly carried out airstrikes against ISIL positions on the outskirts of Baghdad, among other areas, around 10 December 2014. The Moroccan warplanes were to focus on hitting fixed targets, including training camps, oil refineries, and weapons depots.
- United Kingdom (Main article: Operation Shader)
The Royal Air Force began attacking targets in Iraq on 30 September, with six and then later eight, Tornado GR4 strike aircraft. Around four, and then later six, MQ-9 Reaper unmanned combat aerial vehicles also began attacking targets on 10 November 2014. Airstrikes have been supported by Boeing E-3 Sentry, Boeing RC-135 and Airbus Voyager aircraft. On 16 January 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the UK was the second-largest contributor to the anti-ISIL coalition in Iraq, contributing over 100 airstrikes. The majority of British forces engaged in Iraq operate from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, however, MQ-9 Reapers are based in Kuwait and a RC-135 Rivet Joint is based at RAF Al Udeid in Qatar.
Facilitating or preparing for airstrikesEdit
- Greece has served as a staging point for Belgian F-16s participating in airstrikes against ISIS.
- Italy has offered to assist coalition partners in air-to-air refueling and ISR operations with one KC-767, four Tornado IDS attack planes, and two UAVs Predators. Air operations continue.
- Spain had in September announced that its contribution to 'a US-led anti-IS coalition' would remain limited to weapons, transport assistance, etc., for the Iraqi government, but has in October offered to assist coalition partners in transport, air-to-air refueling and ISR operations.
- The Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 2 October allowed foreign soldiers to use Turkish bases for a fight against ISIL, after pressure from the U.S. government on Ankara to join the anti-ISIL coalition.
Airstrike campaigns in co-operation with other countriesEdit
- Belgium decided on 26 September 2014 that it would send six F-16 Fighting Falcons and a number of Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo planes, supported by 120 pilots and other staff, to support the military effort against ISIL in Iraq. Belgian air forces operate from Shaheed Mwaffaq Air Base located in Jordan. On 5 October, a Belgian F-16 dropped its first bomb on an Islamic State target, east of Baghdad. The contribution towards striking ISIL positions was discontinued on 30 June 2015 due to financial restraints, however 35 military advisors still remain in the country as of November 2015. The withdrawn F-16 aircraft spent six months in Jordan before returning home. After this The Netherlands took over from Belgium. Currently Belgium is still active due The Netherlands being unable to honor their commitment to take over from Belgium on 1 July 2017, therefor the Belgium government decided to extend the operation until the end of 2017 after which The Netherlands will take over again from Belgium.
- Netherlands – Currently on hold (Main article: Dutch war against ISIL)
On 24 September 2014, the Dutch government decided to take part in "the military campaign" against ISIL which, as they claimed, had been started by the United States, and sent six F-16 fighter jets to Iraq to bomb ISIL. Their motivations to join this war: ISIL's advance in Iraq and Syria, while displaying "unprecedented violence" and "perpetrating terrible crimes against population groups", formed "a direct threat for that region"; ISIL's advance in Iraq and Syria "causes instability at the borders of Europe" which threatens "our own [Dutch] safety". Currently the Dutch Airforce is not active, normally they would switch with Belgium every 6 months but due unknown reasons they decided that they would not take over from Belgium on 1 July 2017. The Belgian airforce however will continue until the end of 2017 after which the Dutch should take over again from Belgium.
The United States and international partners have undertaken a large humanitarian effort to support refugees stranded in northern Iraq with airdropped supplies.
On 7 August, 2 Lockheed C-130 Hercules's and 1 Boeing C-17 Globemaster III dropped tens of thousands of meals and thousands of gallons of drinking water to Yazidi refugees who were stranded in the Sinjar Mountains by advancing ISIL forces. On 9 August 2014, U.S. aircraft again dropped humanitarian supplies over northern Iraq, this time consisting of 4,000 gallons of drinking water and 16,000 ready-to-eat meals.
On the night of 13–14 August, a 16-aircraft mission including US C-17s and C-130Hs, a British C-130J, and an Australian C-130J airdropped supplies to Yezidi civilians trapped on Mount Sinjar in what was later described as "the first mass air delivery of humanitarian cargo since the outbreak of violence in East Timor in 1999."
Humanitarian intervention efforts per country:
- Australian C-130J transport aircraft from the Royal Australian Air Force based in the Middle East on 13/14 August 2014, started airdropping humanitarian aid in Northern Iraq.
- Denmark has committed a C-130 transport aircraft and money for relief efforts.
- France plans to contribute to ongoing humanitarian efforts in Iraq, in addition to offering asylum to Iraqi Christians fleeing the violence.
- Germany ramped up humanitarian spending in Northern Iraq and sent 4 transport aircraft.
- Greece sent humanitarian aid to the Kurds of Northern Iraq.
- Italy started humanitarian support.
- Sweden expressed support for military assistance by others but for legal reasons will only provide humanitarian support.
- United Kingdom made humanitarian supply airdrops to Yazidi refugees on Mount Sinjar starting on 10 August 2014, using Royal Air Force C-130's operating from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, while surveillance was provided by Panavia Tornado GR4s. It has been announced that Boeing Chinooks will also be deployed.
- New Zealand's Foreign Minister Murray McCully has announced that New Zealand will provide $500,000 to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to help people displaced by fighting in Iraq.
- The European Commission of the European Union announced it would boost humanitarian aid to Iraq to €17m, and approved special emergency measures to meet the crisis. On 15 August 2014, 20 of the 28 EU foreign ministers met in Brussels to discuss military and humanitarian assistance.
According to "Airwars", a team of independent journalists, between 1,687 and 2,534 civilians were killed by coalition airstrikes in 288 incidents in Iraq and Syria between 8 August 2014 and 18 October 2016; other incidents with thousands more civilian fatalities were also recorded by Airwars, but the US-led coalition's responsibility couldn't be confirmed with equal confidence in those cases.
In February 2017, the Trump administration stated that the U.S. would sharply escalate the offensive in Mosul. The Pentagon reported that around 1,400 separate munitions were unleashed over the last two weeks of March. The Iraqi Observatory for Human Rights corroborated an increase in the rate of drone strikes and also documented eyewitness accounts of 3,846 civilian deaths and the destruction of 10,000 homes since the offensive into Western Mosul began in February 2017. Bassma Bassim, the head of the Mosul District Council, stated that air raids from 10 March to 17 March alone had killed "more than 500" civilians.
On 9 August, U.S. airstrikes killed 16 ISIL fighters, Iraqi officials reported. Between 9–11 August, in a concerted U.S.-Iraqi operation, an Iraqi airstrike killed 45 ISIL men. On 8 September, in an operation of Iraqi forces with U.S. airstrikes, Iraq reported that 15 ISIL fighters were killed. On 23 February 2015, it was revealed that over 8,500 ISIL fighters had been killed by US-led airstrikes, with at least 7,000 of the deaths in Iraq.
By early June 2015, ISIL had lost over 13,000 fighters to Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, with 10,800+ of the deaths in Iraq. By July 2015, ISIL had lost over 15,000 fighters to US-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, with 12,100+ fighters killed in Iraq.
"At least 999 Peshmerga troops lost their lives and 4,596 have been injured between June 10, 2014 and February 3, 2015," said Jabbar Yawar, secretary-general of the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs to reporters at a press conference in Arbil on 4 February 2015.
In late February 2015, it was revealed that the Peshmerga losses had increased to over 1,000 dead, and over 5,000 wounded.
The United States suffered its first casualty of the conflict on 2 October 2014, when a United States Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey crashed in the Persian Gulf after takeoff from USS Makin Island, leaving one of its crewmen missing and presumed dead.
Extending US presence on Iraqi groundEdit
While some U.S. troops were already active in Iraq for several purposes since June 2014 (see section Background), on 13 August, the U.S. deployed another 130 military advisers to Northern Iraq, and up to 20 U.S. Marines and special forces servicemen landed on Mount Sinjar from V-22 aircraft to coordinate the evacuation of Yazidi refugees. A team of British SAS was already in the area.
On 3 September, an increase of 350 servicemen was announced to be sent to Baghdad, increasing U.S. forces in Baghdad to 820, and increasing U.S. forces in Iraq to 1,213.
On 10 September, President Obama gave a speech in which he reiterated that American troops will not fight in combat. He also said that about 500 more troops will be sent to Iraq to help train Iraqi forces. At the end of September, Obama planned to send 1,600 troops to Iraq as "advisers" to the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces. 800 of them would provide security for soldiers and Marines and for property; hundreds would train and advise Iraqi and Kurdish forces on how to fight ISIL.
In early November 2014, President Obama announced that he would be doubling the number of US troops present on the ground in Iraq to around 3,000 men. By early December 2014, the number of US ground troops in Iraq had increased to 3,100, while other nations in the US-led Coalition decided to send 1,500 more ground troops to Iraq, increasing the total number of troops to 4,600.
In January 2015, the 1,000 Paratroopers of the "Panther Brigade" of the US Army's 82nd Airborne Division were deployed to Iraq. They came with an additional 300 soldiers, Airmen, and Marines, bringing US troop levels deployed in the country to 4,400.
According to the New York Times, by 4 February 2015, the US had 4,500 troops in Iraq. Over the next two years, this number seemed to plateau at a number around 4,500. As of Sept 28, 2016, according to the DOD, the United States authorized additional troops for Iraq and Syria, for a total of 5,262.
With the arrival of the new Trump administration in January 2017, a change in policy was instituted regarding the disclosure of current troop levels as well as the timing of any additional deployments to the area, thus making good on his campaign promises to utilize the "element of surprise." As of April 2017, according to the LA Times, unbeknownst to both Congress and the general public, there had been two non-disclosed troop deployments in the month of March: a deployment of 400 US Marines to northern Syria and 300 US Army Paratroopers to the area around Mosul. As of 2 April 2017, the current US troop level, or "force management level" — the number of full-time troops deployed, is currently around 5,200 in Iraq and 500 in Syria, with about 1,000 more troops there on a temporary basis.
As of July 2, 2018, the US still maintains a limited military presence of 5,000 troops stationed in Iraq with the task of helping train and assist Iraqi forces.
U.S. naming controversyEdit
Unlike previous U.S. combat operations, no name was initially given to the 2014 military operation in Iraq and Syria by the U.S. government, until mid-October. The fact that the operation was still nameless drew considerable media criticism. U.S. soldiers remained ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the U.S. involvement in Iraq. On 15 October 2014, two months after the first airstrikes by the U.S., the operation was named Inherent Resolve.
Types of aircraft usedEdit
In the first U.S. airstrikes on 8 August, armed drones as well as fixed wing aircraft: McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighters, were used. The F/A-18s were that day launched from the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush. A Navy official said that the two planes involved in the airstrikes were Super Hornets from Carrier Air Wing 8, of Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia. A number of Fairchild Republic A-10C Thunderbolt II's from the USAF's 163d Expeditionary Fighter Squadron were deployed on 17 November 2014.
Air bases and aircraft carriersEdit
The following is a list of publicly disclosed air bases that have been used for the interventions in Iraq and Syria. It is likely that there are other, yet undisclosed air bases being used. Turkey initially refused to allow using Incirlik Air Base for airstrikes against ISIL, but changed their position in July 2015 when they allowed U.S. fighters to use both it and Diyarbakır.
- Ahmad al-Jaber Air Base, Kuwait
- Ali Al Salem Air Base, Kuwait (used by Denmark, Canada and Italy)
- Isa Air Base, Bahrain
- Al Dhafra Air Base, UAE (also used by France)
- Shaheed Mwaffaq Air Base, Jordan (also used by Belgium and Netherlands)
- RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus (used by United Kingdom)
- Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar (used by United Kingdom and United States. Operated by the Qatari Air Force))
- Al Minhad Air Base, UAE (also used by Australia)
- USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) in the Persian Gulf until mid October 2014
- USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) deployed to the Persian Gulf from mid October 2014
- Cruise missiles have been launched from various American ships or submarines (against targets in Syria at least)
Kurdish and Iraqi forces battling Islamic State fighters have been closely cooperating with U.S. air force controllers based in Baghdad and in Erbil, suggesting ISIL targets to those U.S. air force controllers. The US controllers then checked those suggestions with live stream video information (ISR), to avoid hitting Iraqi or Kurdish forces with their airstrikes.
The initial decision to intervene in Iraq was met with bipartisan support in the United States Congress, albeit subject to a range of interpretations as to what constitutes legitimate intervention. Barbara Lee supported a strictly humanitarian intervention and opposed any mission creep as did Richard Blumenthal who argued for humanitarian relief, but opposed a prolonged direct military involvement. Bob Corker expected greater clarity with regards to the intervention's objectives, time frame and source of authorization. while Dick Durbin opined that he, "still had concerns" despite assurances from Obama that no U.S. ground troops would be deployed in Iraq. Congressional Democrats and Republicans who were more hawkish for their support for the intervention included the Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Carl Levin, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, chairwoman of the Senate Intelligence Committee Dianne Feinstein and then-Speaker of the United States House of Representatives John Boehner.
Despite the bipartisan support, the President's decision to re-engage the United States into a conflict in Iraq has attracted criticism from both the political left and right. Andrew Bacevich argued against military action, but not humanitarian assistance as did Seumas Milne who argued against military, but not humanitarian intervention. On the contrary, Cal Thomas accused Obama's decision to withhold American military assistance barring efforts by the Iraqi government to bridge the country's sectarian differences as tantamount to abandonment while an article in the Globe and Mail cautioned that an American intervention "would kill both ISIS and MCIR fighters as well as many Sunni civilians and fail to fix the underlying issues."[needs update] An article by the Associated Press wrote that critics of Obama drew a direct connection between his foreign policy approach that underestimated ISIS and his decision to withdraw all American troops from Iraq in late 2011.
The editorial boards of The Washington Post, The New York Times, The Guardian, and The Wall Street Journal penned editorials that were supportive of the intervention. Two editorials by The Washington Post argued that Iraqi's disintegration would threaten national, regional and global security and described efforts by the Obama administration to create a more inclusive Iraq government as presenting the best hope for the country in its fight against ISIS. Two editorials written in August by the New York Times also supported the intervention, praising Obama's sagacity in delivering the necessary humanitarian assistance to the Christians, Yazidis and other minorities on Mount Sinjar while eschewing the redeployment of American ground troops, and describing the subsequent deployment of American military airstrikes and other forms of assistance as, although insufficient, a necessary component of a more comprehensive strategy to defeating ISIS. An editorial by the Guardian written in June opined that ISIS's June 2014 Iraqi offensive invited foreign intervention that included the United States and that Obama's conditionalization of aid on Iraqis working together was in the best interest of all of Iraq's regions. Similarly, an editorial in the Wall Street Journal written in August wrote of the strategic interest the United States had in defeating ISIS and positively assessed the efficacy of American airstrikes in, "...reducing the jihadists' room for maneuver and giving new confidence to the Kurdish forces." While condemning ISIS's savagery and acknowledging the threat to American national interests in the Middle East that the group posed, an editorial by the editorial board of the Los Angeles Times argued that congressional authorization should override Obama's legal authority as the ultimate legal basis for the usage of military force in Iraq.
However, support for the intervention in the media was not unanimous. A Washington Post editorial criticized the American strategy of creating a unity government in order to fight ISIS was a mirage due to the country's political-religious cleavages and ISIS's numerical and technological superiority. William Hartung, writing in Stars and Stripes argued that the intervention would result in mission creep.
In an article for the BBC, Marc Weller, professor of international law at Cambridge University, argued that the US airstrikes are consistent with international law. Specifically, he argued that: the government in Baghdad invited international forces to join in the fight against IS; the newly reconstituted and religiously representative Iraqi government has a positive obligation to deliver on its constitutional promises and defend its population from subjugation by ISIS; and foreign intervention exercising the right of collective self-defense on behalf of Iraq can involve forcible action in IS-controlled territories in Syria that is proportional to the necessity of securing Iraq's borders. Similarly, Michael Ignatieff, professor of politics at Harvard University discussed the international dimensions of American intervention in Iraq in an interview with Der Spiegel in which he described the Islamic State as an "attack on all values of civilization" and that it was essential that America, "continued with their air strikes."
Ramzi Mardini in The New York Times wrote an op-ed opposing armed intervention as it exacerbated the blowback risk of terrorism against US although he did not object to humanitarian assistance aimed at helping the persecuted religious minorities living in ISIS controlled territories and instead called for greater diplomatic intervention in which the United States played a key role as an arbiter between Iraq's warring sectarian factions. On the other hand, Aaron Zelin of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy argues that ISIS are "likely planning attacks whether the U.S. conducts targeted air strikes or not" and that, in his opinion, the United States, "should destroy them as soon as possible." Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and members of the Republican party including John McCain, Lindsey Graham, Ted Cruz, and John Boehner have likewise called for greater military strikes in the region to contain the Islamic State.
In an interview with the Atlantic, Hillary Clinton suggested that the current crisis in Iraq was a result of his [President Obama] refusal to arm Syrian rebels, which Obama, in a meeting with lawmakers before Clinton's interview, criticized as "horseshit."
An editorial in Vox defined the intervention as being limited to Kurdistan, effectively allowing the Islamic State to control a large part of Iraq absent any other occupying power. The editorial argued that the stability of Kurdistan would make it a better ally for the US.
The Secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council Ali Shamkhani condemned the US-led coalition airstrikes in Mosul in March 2017 which killed more than 200 civilians and accused the United States of committing war crimes, saying: "This war crime is similar to the behavior of Daesh [Islamic State] and other Takfiri groups in targeting civilians and innocent people and should be urgently addressed in courts of justice."
- History of Iraq
- International Conferences on Peace and Security in Iraq (2014)
- Spillover of the Syrian Civil War
- 2015 Egyptian military intervention in Libya
- Opération Chammal - included French operation against ISIL
- Operation Shader - included UK operation against ISIL
- Operation Okra - included Australian operation against ISIL
- Operation Impact - included Canadian operation against ISIL
- American-led intervention in Syria
- Military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
- Iranian intervention in Iraq (2014–present) - separate Iranian operation against ISIL
- Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL
- Persecution of Christians by ISIL
- Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)
- Overseas interventions of the United States
- Fall of Mosul
- Salahuddin campaign (2014–15)
- First Battle of Tikrit
- Siege of Amirli
- Battle of Baiji (October–November 2014)
- Battle of Ramadi (2014–15)
- Battle of Baiji (2014–15)
- Sinjar offensive
- Second Battle of Tikrit (March–April 2015)
- Anbar offensive (2015)
- List of wars and battles involving ISIL
- The numbers are given by the U.S. Department of Defense and includes "casualties that occurred in Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the Mediterranean Sea east of 25° Longitude, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea".
- "Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign". The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces, MSN, archived from the original on 29 September 2014.
- "Denmark, Belgium Join Fight Against ISIS In Iraq", The Huffington Post, 26 September 2014, retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq". The Local. SE. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes". BBC. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "France bombs Isis depot in Iraq". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Germany decides to send more troops to Iraq". Iraqi News.
- "German Tornado jets begin mission against 'IS'". Deutsche Welle.
- "Jordan carries out air strikes in Iraq, killing 55 IS militants". i24 News. i24 News. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "Morocco Sends its F16s to Syria and Iraq to Fight ISIS". The Moroccan Times.
- Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq, Yahoo.
- "Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "RAF jets sent on Iraqi combat mission", BBC, 27 September 2014.
- Van Heuvelen, Ben. "Amid turmoil, Iraq's Kurdish region is laying foundation for independent state". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
Kurdistan's military forces... have taken over many of the northernmost positions abandoned by the national army, significantly expanding the zone of Kurdish control... 'In most places, we aren't bothering them [ISIS], and they aren't bothering us – or the civilians,' said Lt. Gen. Shaukur Zibari, a pesh merga commander.
- "A 'post-ISIS insurgency' is gaining steam in Iraq".
- "Defense.gov News Article: DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". Defense.gov. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal authorized for Operation Inherent Resolve". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Coalition Strikes Target ISIS Terrorists in Syria, Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense.
- "Baghdad declares victory over ISIS". NBC News. 5 February 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "ISIS Lost 40 Percent of Territory in Iraq, 20 Percent in Syria: Coalition Spokesman". NBC News. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Ahmed Aboulenein (10 December 2017). "Iraq holds victory parade after defeating Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "France strikes Islamic State group's depot in Iraq", ABC News, Go.
- Présidentielle 2017 : revivez l’élection d’Emmanuel Macron, nouveau président de la République.
- Mamoun, Abdelhak. "ISIS leader al-Baghdadi is incapacitated, says the Guardian". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "ISIS' Abu Alaa al-Afri killed alongside dozens of followers in air strike - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". WSJ. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "IS Governor of Anbar killed in Airstrike - BasNews". basnews.com. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- al-Obaidi, Hassan (8 September 2014). "Iraqi airstrike kills key ISIL leader". Al Shorfa. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "3 ISIL leaders killed in Iraqi airstrike north of Mosul". Al Shorfa. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Top ISIS Leader Killed in Mosul by US Coalition Airstrike". Christian Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Per Liljas (25 December 2014). "Iraqi Police: Coalition Airstrikes Kill ISIS Governor of Mosul". Time. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Top ISIS leader who was once Saddam general killed in Fallujah". Rudaw. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Kukil Bora (13 April 2015). "ISIS Leader Abu Maria Killed By Iraqi Forces In Tikrit: Report". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Militants attack government forces near Iraq's Baiji refinery". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "USS Carl Vinson Takes Over Airstrike Campaign From USS George H. W. Bush (Video) - Home Post". Homepost.kpbs.org. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "See U.S. warships head for ISIS fight". CNN. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "USS Carl Vinson begins return to San Diego". 13 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "A War for Show". National Review Online. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "US airstrikes in Syria", ABC News, Go.
- "Raptors, bombers & drones: How US-led ISIS strikes caused carnage in Syria". RT. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "U.S. expands airstrikes against Islamic State militants in northern Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Reaper drones pinpoint Jihadi John". Mail Online. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Cooper, Hayden (5 October 2014). "Australians back air strikes against Isis in Iraq by three to one, poll shows". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Australia says ready to strike ISIL in Iraq". AlJazeera.com. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Bree, Max (9 October 2014). "Largest group in decades". Air Force. Australian Department of Defence. p. 3. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- McGuirk, Rod (3 October 2014). "Australia says it will launch airstrikes in Iraq". NavyTimes.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Radulova, Lillian (1 September 2014). "Australian military transport plane 'shot at' by Islamic State fighters in northern Iraq while delivering aid". DailyMail.co.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- McInnis, Kathleen (18 November 2015). "Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. pp. 8, 10. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
(Page 8:) Belgium (Training Mission Contributions:) 35 (Airstrike Contributions:) Mission discontinued (b) ... (Page 10, Note b:) Belgium's contribution to the airstrikes against ISIL ended June 30, 2015, due to financial constraints. Six Belgian F-16 fighters spent nine months in Jordan.
- "Which Countries Are Doing What in the ISIS Coalition?". NBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- RTBF Info. "Feu presque vert pour l'envoi de six F16 belges pour combattre l'EI". RTBF Info. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "House approves combat mission against ISIS". ctvnews.ca. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "ISIS in Iraq: Canada to send special ops soldiers as advisers". cbc.ca. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "MPs vote to join U.S.-led bombing campaign against ISIL". canada.com. 7 October 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Canadian transport planes join military effort in Iraq". thestar.com. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "FAKTA: Danmarks militære indsats i Irak og Syrien" (in Danish). Information.
- "Danmarks bidrag til støtte i kampen mod DAESH". Forsvaret.dk. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Einsatzzahlen – die Stärke der deutschen Kontingente". Bundeswehr. 13 May 2016.
- "Syria conflict: German MPs vote for anti-IS military mission". BBC. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Isis: Italy to send 280 soldiers to Iraq".
- "M5s: "Il governo invia caccia contro l'Is senza autorizzazione". Fonti esercito: solo ricognizione". Repubblica.it. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Dutch Parliament commits soldiers, F-16s to fight ISIS in Iraq". NL Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Kitchin, Robert (5 November 2014). "NZ military personnel headed for Iraq". Stuff.co.nz.
- "Spain Sending 300 Soldiers to Iraq as a Training Force". The Epoch Times. 10 October 2014.
- "Spain to deploy Patriot anti-missile missiles with NATO in Turkey". El País. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Two more UK Tornados to join fight against Islamic State". BBC.com. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "UK Reaper drones to be sent to Iraq". Drone Wars UK.
- "ISIS, Inc. – Jihadists attract investors, fighters with annual reports & glossy PR". RT. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". El-balad.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "U.S.-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Now ISIS has drones?". CNN. 24 August 2014.
- "Footage From an ISIS Drone". NYTimes.com - Video. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "ISIS: We Nabbed an Iranian Drone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "OPERATION INHERENT RESOLVE (OIR) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS" (PDF). defense.gov. 9 September 2015.
- "Marine, 19, becomes second U.S. military death in campaign against ISIS just one month after deployment to Iraq". Mail Online. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Marine is first US death in operations against Islamic State". The Times of India. Reuters. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20160204203958/http://icasualties.org/. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Missing or empty
- "Isil using anti-aircraft batteries captured in Iraq", The World Tribune, 12 September 2014, archived from the original on 1 September 2015
- "L/Cpl Scott Hetherington: UK soldier died 'in shooting accident'". BBC. 3 January 2017.
- "David Haines's 'evil murder' condemned by PM". BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Sgt. Andrew Doiron, Canadian soldier killed in Iraq, made military his 'mission'". 9 March 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "BBC News – Saudi guards killed in attack on Iraq border". BBC News.
- "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "About 3 thousand citizens were killed by the International Coalition warplanes in Syria within about 10700 persons who were killed during 38 months of their military operations in Syria". SOHR. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Reuters, Brett Wolf, "RPT-INSIGHT-In taking economic war to Islamic State, U.S. developing new tools", 24 Nov. 2015.
- "Iraq 2014: Civilian deaths almost doubling year on year". IBC. 1 January 2015.
- "Iraq 2015: A Catastrophic Normal". IBC. 1 January 2016.
- "Civilian death toll on the rise from American-led airstrikes against Isis". The Guardian. 29 July 2016.
- Hopkins, Steve (14 October 2014). "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn't escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Iraq crisis: Islamists force 500,000 to flee Mosul". BBC News. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "10,000 Yazidis rescued through safe corridor, as ISIL 'fire on aid helicopters'". Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". Defense.gov. Department of Defense. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Arango, Tim (3 August 2014). "Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Obama Authorizes Air Strikes in Iraq – ABC News". ABC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "First ground clash between ISIS and US forces in Iraq". Shafaq News. 16 December 2014. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Austen, Ian (19 January 2015). "Canada: Troops Clash With ISIS in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- ISIL Loses Control of Once-dominated Iraq Territory, US: Department of Defense, 13 April 2015, retrieved 18 April 2015.
- CJTF-OIR Official Twitter. March 20, 2019. Accessed March 25, 2019.
- CJTF-OIR Official Twitter. March 15, 2019. Accessed March 25, 2019.
- CJTF-OIR Official Twitter. March 16, 2019. Accessed March 25, 2019.
- "President Discusses Beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom". Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "U.S. Secretly Flying Drones Over Iraq". WSJ. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "U.S. has armed drones over Baghdad, official says". CNN. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Frontline (U.S. TV series)" (transcript) (TV program). PBS. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Al-Qaeda group claims Salim death". BBC News. 19 May 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Roggio, Bill (10 June 2014). "ISIS takes control of Mosul, Iraq's second largest city". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Kurdish peshmerga seize a chaotic victory in Kirkuk". The Guardian. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- "Jihadists sent chilling email to Foley family before execution". Big News Network. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Beheadings as Terror Marketing". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- ‘U.S. Forms Anti-ISIS Coalition at NATO Summit’. Time, 5 September 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq (Paris, September 15, 2014)". France Diplomatie (undated). Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- ‘Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting’. United States Department of State, 3 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "US Ops in Iraq Have Cost €550 Million Since June", Defense News, 29 August 2014, retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Armed U.S. aircraft now flying over Iraq: defense officials". Reuters. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Youssef, Nancy A. (30 June 2014). "480 U.S. troops now in Baghdad as officials move to secure access to airport". Washington, DC: McClatchy DC. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Garamone, Jim (3 July 2014). "Chairman Describes U.S. Interests in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "U.S. Sees Risks in Assisting a Compromised Iraqi Force", The New York Times, 13 July 2014, retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Cox, Carmen (15 July 2014). "Report: Iraqi Army Infiltrated with Extremists from Both Sides". ABC News Radio Online. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Pentagon report warns of security risks for US advisers in Iraq". The Hill. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Jacob Siegel (7 August 2014). "Will U.S. Troops Stand By While ISIS Starves Thousands?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Iraq Christians flee as Islamic State takes Qaraqosh". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Salih, Mohammed; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (5 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidis: 'If we move they will kill us'". Aljazeera. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- U.S. jet fighters, drones strike ISIS fighters, convoys in Iraq. CNN, 9 August 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "Statement by the President". The White House. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "U.S. airstrikes target Islamic State militants in northern Iraq". The Washington Post. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Kliff, Sarah (7 August 2014). "President Obama's full statement on the Iraq crisis", Vox. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Militants' Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says". The New York Times. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Alissa J. Rubin, Tim Arango and Helene Cooper. "U.S. Jets and Drones Attack Militants in Iraq, Hoping to Stop Advance". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Obama Says Iraq Airstrike Effort Could Be Long-Term". The New York Times. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014..
- "U.S. Launches Four More Airstrikes Against ISIS in Iraq". NBC News. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Iraq Airstrikes From US Military". Business Insider. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Iraq: Troops swell in Baghdad amid humanitarian chaos". CNN. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Kurdish forces claim to recapture 2 Iraqi towns from IS with US air support (+ video)". Christian Science Monitor. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Harper, Jon (11 August 2014). "General: Iraq airstrikes have limited, 'temporary effect'". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Officials: More U.S. advisers being sent to Iraq". CNN. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Shelton, Tracey (29 August 2014). "'If it wasn't for the Kurdish fighters, we would have died up there'". Global Post. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Iraq crisis: US strikes aid Kurdish bid to retake dam". BBC. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: Mosul dam recaptured from militants – Obama". BBC. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless. Military.com, 18 August 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- ‘Letter from the President -- War Powers Resolution Regarding Iraq’. The White House, 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Bill Roggio (18 August 2014). "US airpower supports Peshmerga, Iraqi forces to retake Mosul Dam". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- John Beck (8 September 2014). "Iraqi Forces Have Pushed Back Islamic State Fighters From the Haditha Dam". Vice News. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Meet The 'Invisible General' Leading The War On ISIS". Business Insider. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Islamic State crisis: Iraq air strikes 'halt IS advance'". BBC News. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "U.S. and Britain combine to launch the largest day yet for airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". The Washington Post. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "US spending on ISIL growing". Federal News Radio. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- "Folketinget sender syv F-16-fly mod Irak". Information. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- 10,000 ISIS fighters head to Baghdad. CNN (video), 11 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Leaders of Iraq’s Anbar province call for U.S. ground forces to stop ISIS. CNN, 12 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- ISIS could hold swath from northern Syria to the gates of Baghdad. CNN, 13 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Mary Grace Lucas, CNN (12 October 2014). "ISIS nearly made it to Baghdad airport, Dempsey says - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Schmitt, Eric (26 November 2014). "US Adds Planes to Bolster Drive to Wipe Out ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "US servicemen in first ground battle with ISIS – Kurdish media". Russia Today. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Reports of U.S. Ground Fighters Emerge as ISIS Gains in Iraq". The Fiscal Times. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "American troops battle ISIS for first time as they see off attempted attack by militants on Iraqi base". Daily Mail. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "U.S. Ground Troops Fighting Isis In Iraq". Fox News Radio. 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Hundreds of US troops now deployed in Iraq's Anbar province". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "ISIL land mines frustrate effort to get aid to freed Mount Sinjar Yazidis". Aljazeera America. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Iraq: ISIS leader Baghdadi injured, stays in Syria". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Morris, Loveday (21 January 2015) Kurds say they have ejected Islamic State from large area in Northern Iraq The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 January 2015
- "Canada's top general says special forces' role in Iraq has evolved". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Tim Lister (18 February 2015). "Kurds: ISIS launches 'major' assault near Irbil". Catherine E. Shoichet. CNN.
- Mohammed, Riyadh. "ISIS Turns to Chemical Weapons As It Loses Ground in Iraq". The Fiscal Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015.
- Greg Botelho and Barbara Starr, CNN (20 February 2015). "Official: Iraqi troops plan Mosul offensive in spring - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- ISIS threatens: any civilian leaves Mosul to be beheaded Archived 14 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ARA News, 11 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Islamic State chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi seriously injured after US-led air strike in Iran". Firstpost.
- "Islamic State conflict: US launches Tikrit air strikes". BBC News.
- "Opening New Iraq Front, U.S. Strikes ISIS in Tikrit". The New York Times. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Map of Countires Supporting the Proliferation Security Initiative". Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Iraq premier: Troops in center of Islamic State-held Tikrit". AOL. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Sarhan, Amre. "Military operation began to liberate Anbar, says Anbar Council". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Mamoun, Abdelhak. "ISIS executes 300 people west of Anbar". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Tears for Tikrit, Iraq: Keye TV, archived from the original on 25 April 2015.
- Mamoun, Abdelhak. "130 ISIS elements killed, sleeper cells found in Tikrit". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Liberated from Islamic State, Tikrit struggles with reconciliation". PBS News Hour. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Lessons From the Second Battle of Tikrit: March 2-April 4, 2015". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Moore, Jack (22 April 2015). "ISIS Replace Injured Leader Baghdadi With Former Physics Teacher". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Starr, Barbara; Walsh, Nick Paton; Alkhshali, Hamdi (13 May 2015). "ISIS' No. 2 leader Abu Alaa al-Afri killed, Iraq says". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Islamic State deputy leader killed in Iraq air strike". News. BBC. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Pentagon Confirms Probe Into 'Skewed' ISIS Intelligence". ABC News. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Wong, Kristina (10 September 2015). "Report: Analysts claim US military altering intelligence on ISIS war". TheHill. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Cohen, Zachary (1 February 2017). "Report: Centcom leaders didn't cook ISIS intelligence". CNN. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Lightning Strike Brought Down Predator Drone: Report". military.com. 3 November 2016.
- "DoD Identifies Army Casualty". U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Department of Defense. 23 October 2015.
- "DoD identifies soldier killed in commando raid in Iraq". Armytimes. 23 October 2015.
- "U.S. soldier killed in Iraq raid rushed into firefight: Carter". reuters. 23 October 2015.
- "U.S. Identifies American Killed in Iraq Raid as Master Sgt. Joshua Wheeler". Wall Street Journal. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Head of Isis chemical weapons program captured by US in Iraq last month". the telegraph. 9 March 2016.
- "Army's Delta Force begins to target ISIS in Iraq". CNN. 29 February 2016.
- "U.S. Captures ISIS Operative, Ushering in Tricky Phase". New York Times. 1 March 2016.
- "US special operations troops capture ISIS operative in Iraq". Fox News. 2 March 2016.
- "More US Marines Sent To Iraq To Deal With IS". Sky News. 20 March 2016.
- "U.S. sets up firebase in Northern Iraq". CNN. 20 March 2016.
- "More Marines headed to Iraq to fight ISIS after rocket attack". the marine corps times. 20 March 2016.
- "Marines identify staff NCO killed in ISIS rocket attack in Iraq". the marine corps times. 20 March 2016.
- "Isis second in command killed in US raid in Syria, Pentagon says". The Guardian. 25 March 2016.
- "US extra troops to boost fight against IS in Iraq". BBC. 18 April 2016.
- "Apache helicopters used for first time against Islamic State in Iraq". stars and stripes. 14 June 2016.
- "U.S. Military Says it has Killed more than 120 Islamic State Leaders". military.com. 12 June 2016.
- "U.S. Navy SEAL killed in Iraq battle vs. ISIS". CBS. 3 May 2016.
- "US serviceman killed in Iraq as IS breaches Peshmerga lines". 3 May 2016.
- "Navy SEAL Charles Keating IV gave life rescuing others from ISIS". CNN. 3 May 2016.
- "Inside the Battle With ISIS That Killed a US Navy SEAL". ABC news. 4 May 2016.
- "Navy SEAL killed by ISIS gave up track stardom to fight". fox news. 4 May 2016.
- "Senior Islamic State leader in Iraq, Abu Wahib, 'killed' by US airstrike". The Guardian. 10 May 2016.
- "US airstrike kills ISIS 'Emir of Anbar Province' in Iraq". fox news. 9 May 2016.
- "US air strikes kill Isis leader Maher al-Bilawi in Iraqi city of Fallujah". the independent. 28 May 2016.
- "US-backed forces launch operation to retake ISIS-held Syrian town near Turkish border". fox news. 1 June 2016.
- "U.S. says Apache helicopter carries out strike in Iraq". reuters. 13 June 2016.
- "Carter: at least 1 Apache helicopter used in combat in Iraq". Washington post. 13 June 2016.
- "US Apache helicopters strike IS for first time in Iraq". Yahoo News. 13 June 2016.
- "Airstrike kills 2 ISIS commanders, U.S. says". CNN. 1 July 2016.
- "IS Repels Advance by US-Backed Syria Rebels Near Iraq Border". New York Times. 29 June 2016.
- "ISIL retakes Syria border town from US-backed rebels". Al Jazeera. 29 June 2016.
- "US airstrikes 'kill at least 250 Isis militants' in Iraq". The Independent. 30 June 2016.
- "US, Iraqi strikes kill at least 250 ISIS fighters in Iraq convoys". Fox News. 30 June 2016.
- "250 ISIS Militants Killed in US Airstrikes, Officials Say". ABC news. 29 June 2016.
- "Fleeing Islamic State Trucks Bombed From Air". Sky news. 1 July 2016.
- "IS conflict: US to send 560 more troops to Iraq". BBC. 11 July 2016.
- "Ash Carter: U.S. sending more troops to Iraq". CNN. 11 July 2016.
- "Nearly 45,000 ISIS-linked fighters killed in past 2 years, US military official says". fox news. 10 August 2016.
- "U.S. to Send 600 More Troops to Iraq to Help Retake Mosul From ISIS". New York Times. 28 September 2016.
- "IS conflict: Booby-trapped drone kills Kurdish fighters in Iraq". BBC. 12 October 2016.
- "Drone Attack on Kurdish, French Forces Reveals New Threats". ABC news. 12 October 2016.
- "Mosul offensive: forces launch mass attack on Iraqi city in bid to oust Isis". The Guardian. 17 October 2016.
- "Apaches enter fight for Mosul, top US general says". stars and stripes. 19 October 2016.
- "edition.cnn.com/2016/10/20/politics/us-service-member-killed-in-action-in-northern-iraq/". CNN. 21 October 2016.
- "'He gave his life for his teammates': Jason Finan, 34, was killed serving alongside SEALs in Iraq". Washington post. 23 October 2016.
- "US service member killed by roadside bomb north of Mosul". fox news. 20 October 2016.
- "Army to Deploy 1,700 Paratroopers to Iraq". military.com. 3 November 2016.
- "US troops backing Iraqi attack in Mosul". stars and stripes. 1 November 2016.
- Cronk, Terry Moon (4 January 2017). "U.S.-Led Coalition Airstrikes Eliminate Key ISIL Leaders in Syria, Iraq". Department of Defence. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Islamic State planned to launch chemical weapons". Sky news. 27 January 2017.
- "Chemical weapons found in Mosul in Isis lab, say Iraqi forces". The Guardian. 28 January 2017.
- "Iraq air strikes hit meeting of Isil commanders, leaving leader Baghdadi's fate unknown". the telegraph. 13 February 2017.
- "Coalition says it hit Mosul site where civilians died". Al Jazeera. 26 March 2017.
- "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died". The Independent. 26 March 2017.
- "Army announces new Iraq, Afghanistan deployments for 600 soldiers". Army Times. 29 March 2017.
- "New Details on Surprise Deployment as More Soldiers Head to War". military.com. 29 March 2017.
- "Army's 1st Armored Division tapped for Iraq, Afghanistan tours". Stars and Stripes. 29 March 2017.
- Lafta, Riyadh; Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.; Burnham, Gilbert (15 May 2018). "Injury and death during the ISIS occupation of Mosul and its liberation: Results from a 40-cluster household survey". PLOS Medicine. 15 (5): e1002567. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002567. ISSN 1549-1676. PMC 5953440. PMID 29763433.
- Gulland, Anne (15 May 2018). "Battle for Mosul: Coalition forces 'killed more civilians than ISIS'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "US Coalition forces killed more civilians than the Islamic State in Mosul,a study shows - AWDnews". www.awdnews.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Iraq: Airstrikes Kill Dozens of Militants Near Syria Border". Military.com. 1 April 2017.
- "Iraqi state-run TV says Islamic State's second-in-command killed in airstrike". Reuters. 1 April 2017.
- "Pentagon identifies soldier killed in IED blast near Mosul, Iraq". Army Times. 30 April 2017.
- "2 US soldiers killed in artillery mishap in Iraq identified". Stars and Stripes. 14 August 2017.
- "She said, 'Promise me you'll come back.' He was killed in Iraq days after arriving". Washington Post. 3 October 2017.
- "Pentagon Identifies Soldier Killed in Iraq from 10th Mountain Division". Military.com. 3 October 2017.
- "Lethal roadside bomb that killed scores of U.S. troops reappears in Iraq". Washington Post. 12 October 2017.
- "Australia to end air strikes in Iraq and Syria, bring Super Hornets home". Hürriyet Daily News.
- CNN, Mohammed Tawfeeq,. "US will reduce troop levels in Iraq, Baghdad says".
- "ISIL fighters still operate around Anbar". www.aljazeera.com.
- "ISIS claims to have foiled US military landing near Syrian border". 20 September 2018.
- "Coalition airstrikes kill 6 ISIS near Tigris: Peshmerga".
- Operation Inherent Resolve's official Facebook page, U.S. Department of Defense, facebook.com, 5 October 2015
- Khalilzad, Zalmay (5 August 2014). "To fight the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces need expedited aid". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Cloud, David; Bennet, Brian (11 August 2014). "U.S., allies rush heavy weapons to Kurds to fight militants in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: EU condemns 'atrocities' by IS militants". BBC. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Middle East". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Richard Norton-Taylor, Nicholas Watt and Julian Borger (13 August 2014). "British SAS sent to Iraq on 'intelligence' mission before airlift of Yazidi refugees". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Swinford, Steven. "UK jets deployed to stop advance of Islamic State in Iraq". Telegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Equipment provided for northern Iraq (German)". Bundeswehr. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "Peshmerga in critical condition flown to Germany". Rudaw News Agency. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "International Training Mission Begins for Forces in Northern Iraq". Germany.info. 18 February 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Greece to send ammunition to Iraqi Kurds". worldbulletin.net. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "Greece joins fight against IS, Athens to send ammunition to Kurdish fighters". famagusta-gazette. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Who Has Contributed What in the Coalition Against the Islamic State?".
- Redazione ANSA (21 August 2014). "Iraq: Renzi, 'qui come Srebenica'. Armi ai curdi, ok delle Camere – Medio Oriente". ANSA.it. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Seven Countries to sell weapons to Kurds". Bas News. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Wroe, David (31 August 2014). "SAS to Protect Crews on Arms Drops in Iraq". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney: Fairfax Media. ISSN 0312-6315.
- "ADF delivers fourth arms shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 17 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "ADF delivers fifth shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 26 September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Tony Abbott commits Australian forces to Iraq". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Croatia Gives Weapons to Kurds in Iraq". 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Z Pardubic dnes odletěla do Iráku druhá část munice pro Kurdy". ČTK (in Czech). České noviny.cz. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Letoun s protitankovými střelami pro Kurdy vzlétl z Pardubic" (in Czech). Aktuálně.cz. 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Likmeta, Besar (27 August 2014). "Albania Starts Shifting Weapons to Iraqi Kurds". Balkan Insight.
- Patrick Wintour (4 September 2014). "Britain to arm Kurds fighting Isis in northern Iraq". The Guardian.
- "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against ISIL". World Bulletin. 22 November 2014.
- "Lines blur for US troops in fight against ISIS". The Hill. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Obama doubling US troop levels in Iraq. Stars and Stripes, 7 November 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- NRC Handelsblad, 11 November 2014.
- "Germany to start airlifting aid to Iraq". DW.DE. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Canadian military advisers join fight against Isis in Iraq, MSN, archived from the original on 6 October 2014
- "Denmark to help Iraq 'go on offence' against Isis". The Local. 8 November 2014.
- ‘Norway to send 120 soldiers to Iraq to help train army’. Al Arabiya News, 30 October 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Abbott confirms 300 more troops going to train Iraqis". New Zealand Herald. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "España enviará unos 300 militares a Irak para instruir a su Ejército". El País. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Llegada del material de la batería Patriot a Turquía". Ministerio de Defensa. 10 January 2015.
- ‘Australia to contribute to the Building Partner Capacity mission in Iraq’ Archived 26 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Australian government, 14 April 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- 'Counter-ISIL military coalition concludes operational planning conference' Archived 13 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Central Command News Release, 1 May 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "US forces bomb Isis militant positions in northern Iraq". The Guardian. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Officials: U.S. Special Forces Land on Sinjar Mountain in Iraq". KTLA. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "U.S. Navy jets prepare for Iraq missions". The Washington Post. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "U.S. Hits ISIS Position Near Baghdad in New Phase of Strikes: Official". NBC News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- 'ISIS mission: MPs approve Canada’s air combat role'. CBCNews, 8 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- ISIS weapons hit by CF-18 jets in northern Iraq, DND says. CBCNews, 11 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- ‘Denmark drops its first bombs on Isis targets’. The Local, 20 October 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Larsen, L.K. (1 October 2015). "Danske F-16 fly har bombet for sidste gang i Irak". DR News. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- McInnis, Kathleen (18 November 2015). "Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Larsen, L.K. (10 October 2016). "Dansk militær radar bliver i Irak et år mere". DR News. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Danske kampfly bomber for første gang Islamisk Stat i Syrien". TV2 News. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Bacchi, Umberto (15 September 2014). "ISIS Action: French Rafale Fighter Jets Fly over Iraq as Anti-Islamic State Paris Summit Begins". International Business Times. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "France launches first air strikes on IS in Iraq". 19 September 2014.
- "French planes carry out air strikes on Isis targets in Iraq". The Guardian. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "U.S.-led coalition target IS oil facilities in eastern Syria". Military Times. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "Jordan Considers Expanding Role in Coalition to Hit Islamic State in Iraq". Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "Moroccan F-16 Carry Out Airstrikes Against ISIS". Morocco World News. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "Two more UK Tornados to join fight against Islamic State". BBC News. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "UK drone carries out first strike in Iraq". BBC News. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "LATEST: air strikes in Iraq". Ministry of Defence. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Remarks by President Obama and Prime Minister Cameron of the United Kingdom in Joint Press Conference". The White House. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Isis: British RAF Reaper Drones Conduct First Airstrikes on Terror Group in Iraq". International Business Times. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "RAF prepares jets to strike Isis targets in Iraq". The Guardian. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
An RAF Rivet Joint surveillance plane equipped with listening devices has also been flying missions from al-Udeid air base in Qatar to eavesdrop on Isis communications.
- "The Aviationist " This is how Italian Tornado jets and Predator drones will contribute to the war on ISIS". The Aviationist. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Ministry of Defence". Difesa.it. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Wary Spain Remains Reluctant Partner in anti-IS Coalition". Rudaw. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Turkish MPs back operations in Syria and Iraq". Al Jazeera. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- "Turkey to allow army to fight in Syria and Iraq, but blocks Kurds". The Los Angeles Times. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Belgian and RNLAF F-16s Go Dutch Supporting Iraqi Forces". Aviation Week. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- 'Belgian and RNLAF F-16s Go Dutch Supporting Iraqi Forces'. Aviation Week, 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "News Article: U.S. Conducts Another Humanitarian Airdrop in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Airstrikes kill ISIS fighters in Iraq, officials say". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Sinjar Exodus: 1000 Iraqi Families Flee Islamic State Militia to War-Torn Syria". International Business Times. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "JTF633 supports Herc mercy dash" (Press release). Department of Defence. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Australia steps up assistance to Iraqi people" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Katharine Murphy, deputy political editor (14 August 2014). "Australian troops complete first humanitarian mission in northern Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Denmark ready to help U.S. provide humanitarian aid in Iraq: PM". Shanghai Daily. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "France Pledges Support for Kurdish Forces in Iraq". WSJ. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Germany rules out sending arms to Kurds in Iraq Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Turkish Weekly, 11 August 2014. Retrieved ...
- "Iraq conflict: US in new air strikes on militants". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "British May Use RAF Tornados In Iraq Mission". Sky News. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "RAF Tornado jets leave UK for Iraq aid mission". BBC News. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "NZ supports humanitarian effort in Iraq". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "EU ministers agree to back arming of Iraqi Kurds". RTÉ News. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Borschel, Amanda (16 June 2014). "EU seeks region's support to help Iraq stave off Islamic State". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Summary findings on Coalition airstrikes: August 8th 2014 to October 18th 2016". airwars.org. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Mosul massacre". en.thegreatmiddleeast.com. The Great Middle East. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Ryan, Missy; Morris, Loveday (25 March 2017). "U.S. military acknowledges strike on Mosul site where more than 100 were allegedly killed". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Hennigan, W.J.; Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (24 March 2017). "More than 200 civilians killed in suspected U.S. airstrike in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Airstrikes 'kill 8,500' ISIL fighters says U.S. general". World Bulletin. 23 February 2015.
- "US-led air strikes on Syria ISIL targets 'kill 1,600'". Al-Jazeera. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Tim Lister, CNN (28 May 2015). "Why ISIS is winning, and how its foes can reverse it - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "U.S led coalition airstrikes on Syria kill more than 2500 in the past 8 months". SOHR. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Jim Michaels (29 July 2015). "Islamic State recruiting offsets 15,000 killed by airstrikes in past year". USA Today. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
The U.S.-led coalition confirmed the 15,000 casualty number but would not discuss it publicly.
- "About 3000 people, including 162 civilians, killed in US- coalition airstrikes on areas in Syria". SOHR. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Yao Jianing. "China Military Online English Edition". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Nearly 1,000 peshmerga killed since June 2014 - Iraq - Worldbulletin News". World Bulletin. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Kurdish Forces Show The Strain Of The ISIS Fight". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "US Marine 'presumed lost' in the Persian Gulf". Fox News. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "US To Send 130 More Military Advisors To Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "US troops land on Iraq's Mt Sinjar to plan for Yazidi evacuation". The Guardian. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". Fox News. Associated Press. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters". Al Jazeera English. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "Carter: 600 Troops to Deploy to Enable Iraqis to Retake Mosul From ISI".
- Hennigan, W. J.. "Trump administration stops disclosing troop deployments in Iraq and Syria". latimes.com.
- "US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless". Military. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War On ISIS Has 'No Name'-And It Won't Get One Anytime Soon". Business Insider. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The Military Can't Come Up With A Name For Its War Against ISIS. We're Here To Help". The Huffington Post. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "What's in a Name: Obama's Anonymous War Against ISIS". US News & World Report. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "U.S. Needs a Name for the Operation Against ISIS -- NYMag". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War With No Name". The American Prospect. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Troops not eligible for campaign medal in fight against ISIS". TheHill. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Syria-Iraq fight gets a name: 'Inherent Resolve'". Associated Press. 15 October 2014.
- "Middle east : Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "USS George H.W. Bush and its Super Hornet fighters strike in Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. February 2015. p. 35.
- "Turkey denies reaching accord with U.S. on use of air base against Islamic State". Washington Post.
- "U.S. relies on Persian Gulf bases for airstrikes in Iraq". Washington Post. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "U.S. Jets to Use Turkish Bases in War on ISIS". New York Times. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Navy Replaces Ships in Arabian Gulf Bombing Continues". Military.com. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "US Bombs ISIS To Aid Kurds: Strikes By USS George H.W. Bush, Drones". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "HMS Defender supports operations against ISIL in the middle east". Royalnavy.mod.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "USS Carl Vinson set to take over airstrikes in Syria, Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Tomahawk missiles the latest U.S. weapon used against Islamic State". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- 'Airstrike Agreement Keeps US Air Controllers Away From Combat'. Military.com, 29 September 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Davis, Julie. "Bipartisan Support, With Caveats, for Obama on Iraq Airstrikes". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Left frets over Iraq mission creep". The Hill. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Vargas, Cesar (10 August 2014). "Obama's liberal problem — Seung Min Kim and Jeremy Herb". Politico. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Don't listen to the hawks — the West should leave Iraq alone". Coffee house (blog). UK: The Spectator. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Another war in Iraq won't fix the disaster of the last". The Guardian. 13 August 2014.
- "The US debate over Iraq is missing the most serious questions". The Globe and Mail. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
Bombing the insurgents would kill both ISIS and MCIR fighters as well as many Sunni civilians. It would not fix the underlying issues, and potentially inflame them further.
- "Iraq upheaval threatens Obama legacy: AP analysis". Syracuse. August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Preston, Mark (29 September 2014). "Poll: Americans back airstrikes, but oppose use of U.S. troops in Iraq, Syria". CNN.
- Balz and Craighill, Dan & Peyton (9 September 2014). "Poll: Public supports strikes in Iraq, Syria; Obama's ratings hover near his all-time lows". Washington Post.
- Ekins, Emily (10 October 2014). "Poll: 66% Favor Airstrikes Against ISIS, but 52% Oppose US Sending Ground Troops". Reason.
- "Support for U.S. Campaign against ISIS; Doubts about Its Effectiveness, Objectives". Pew. 22 October 2014.
- "Iraq's disintegration could haunt the U.S. for years to come". Washington Post. 12 June 2014.
- "A more inclusive Iraq presents the best hope for the country". The Washington Post. 16 June 2014.
- "Preventing a Slaughter in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "A Necessary Response to ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "The Guardian view on the crisis in Iraq". The Guardian. 13 June 2014.
- "A Small Victory in Iraq". Wall Street Journal. 19 August 2014.
- "Attack Islamic State? Congress should decide". Los Angeles Times. 16 September 2014.
- Diehl, Jackson (6 July 2014). "Obama's 'unity government' plan in Iraq is just a mirage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Hartung, William (16 July 2014). "US 'mission creep' won't help in Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Weller, Marc (25 September 2014). "Islamic State crisis: What force does international law allow?". BBC.
- Follath, Erich (9 September 2014). "Michael Ignatieff Interview: 'Those Fighting Islamic State Are the Lesser Evil'". Der Spiegel.
- Mardini, Ramzi (7 August 2014). "US Intervention in Iraq Will Only Worsen the Situation". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Crowley, Michael (10 August 2014). "Experts Warn of Terrorism Blowback From Iraq Air Strikes". Time. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Davis, Susan. "Lawmakers support airstrikes; some want more action". USA Today. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Rogin, Josh (14 August 2014). "Obama Stifled Hillary's Syria Plans and Ignored Her Iraq Warnings for Years". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Fisher, Max (8 August 2014). "Obama's message to ISIS: Stay out of Kurdistan, but the rest of northern Iraq is all yours". Vox. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Iran urges 'war crime' hearing into US killings in Mosul". Press TV. 26 March 2017.