This article possibly contains original research. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Machismo (/ -, - -/,; Spanish: [maˈtʃismo]; Portuguese: [maˈʃiʒmu]; from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity." It is associated with "a man's responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family."
The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys.
"Caballerosidad" in Spanish, or cavalheirismo in Portuguese, or the English mixture of both but not a proper word in any of the previously mentioned languages, caballerismo, is a Latin American understanding of manliness that focuses more on honour and chivalry. The meaning of caballero is "gentleman" (derived from the one who follows a code of honour like knights used to do, or shares certain values and ideals associated with them that included, among others like a particular pride in honour, treating women kindly with especial delicacy and attention). Latin American scholars have noted that positive descriptors of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerosidad. Understandings of machismo in Latin American cultures are not all negative; they also involve the characteristics of honour, responsibility, perseverance and courage, related to both individual and group interaction. Studies show Latin American men understand masculinity to involve considerable childcare responsibilities, politeness, respect for women's autonomy, and non-violent attitudes and behaviors. In this way, machismo comes to mean both positive and negative understanding of Latin American male identity within the immigrant context. Therefore, machismo, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers.
The word caballerosidad originates from the Spanish word caballero, Spanish for "knight". Caballerosidad refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior. (Note that the English term also stems from the Latin root caballus, through the French chevalier). Like the English chivalric code, caballerosidad developed out of a medieval socio-historical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower whereas the lower classes did not. It was also associated with the class of knights in the feudal system. In Spanish, caballero referred to a land-owning colonial gentleman of high station who was master of estates and/or ranches.
The depictions of Machismo vary, like the Argentine gaucho, though their characteristics are quite familiar. Machismo is based on biological, historical, cultural, psycho-social and interpersonal traits or behaviors. Some of the well known traits are;
- Posturing; assume a certain, often unusual or exaggerated body posture or attitude. They must settle all differences, verbal or physical abuse, or challenges and disagreements with violence as opposed to diplomacy. Treating their wife as a display of an aloof lord-protector. Women are loving, men conquer.
- Bravado; outrageous boasting, overconfidence.
- Social dominance; as a socio-culturally defined dominance; macho swagger.
- Sexual prowess, being sexually assertive. Shyness is a collective issue for men.
- Protecting one's honor. A belief in protecting honor in spite of risks.
- A willingness to face danger.
The psycho-social traits as can be summarized as; emotional invulnerability, patriarchal dominance, aggressive or controlling responses to stimuli and ambivalence toward women. This is a Mexican cultural and psychological perspective, as a Mexican masculine response to conquistador Spanish conquering of the Americas. It has been noted by some scholars that machismo was adopted as a form of control for the male body.
Criticism and controversyEdit
This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details. (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Controversy surrounding colonial connotationsEdit
There is controversy surrounding the concept of machismo as originally from Spanish and Portuguese descent. The use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its promotion of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe specific Latin American historical masculinities. However, the word machismo does resemble words in Spanish and Portuguese language which is the cause why it is often associated with Spain and Portugal. In addition, by identifying machismo as a form of Europeanness, it offers legitimacy to the concept of a wicked formed of the same Western hypermasculinity known to Protestant Reforme-derived cultures and subjugates Latin America's understanding of itself and its cultural history and peculiarities.[incomprehensible]
For example, the use of caballerosidad and cavalheirismo, to mean only the positive characteristics of machismo is imbued with feudal and colonial connotations relating to colonial power relations. This is because the origin of the word resides in feudal Spanish/Portuguese descriptions of landlords that reached through and into the colonial era, exalts European culture in comparison to the so-called Latin American machismo (animalesque, irrational, violent, backward, genderqueer). It cannot be avoided in Portuguese as cavalheirismo, the word for the more acceptable parts of machismo, is itself a loanword from Spanish presenting a palatalization process that Portuguese did not experience (the Portuguese word for a horseman is cavaleiro, and for horsemanship it has cavalaria).[incomprehensible]
Consequences of a one-sided negative depictionEdit
Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American cultures, and are now focused on creating a balanced representation. They have repeatedly pointed out the positive characteristics consistent with machismo, or caballerosidad: nurturance, protection of the family and its honor, dignity, wisdom, hard work, responsibility, spirituality, and emotional connectedness. Latin American scholars propose there are really two different constructs within machismo, one positive construct and one negative construct. The negative construct of machismo is based on the traditional Western concept of hypermasculinity. Caballerosidad's characteristics are exalted, while machismo's characteristics are seen as predominantly negative.
The other side of machismo, the positive side (caballerosidad, cavalheirismo), refers to a connection to family and chivalry. However, the focus on the negative aspects and avoidance of the positive aspects of machismo coincides with the concept of marginalization and powerlessness of Hispanic and Latino, and more broadly Romance-speaking European culture-derived, narratives. This is because the focus on the negative aspects and the avoidance or ignorance of the positive creates a power dynamic that legitimizes the mainstream American hegemonic idea of masculinity as the correct or more righteous form of masculinity, and subjugates machismo as a degenerated form of abuse against women and backwardness. As a result, it can create a sense of powerlessness within Latino males in their expression of their masculinity.
Academics have noted that there are consequences of only having a negative definition for Hispanic and Latino masculinity in popular literature. Researchers have suggested that, according to the anti-Catholic and/or Nordicist) views dominant in mainstream white American culture, Latin American manifestations of machismo represent "all that is wrong in a man". Latino academics have used this argument to explain why Latino male youth struggle in academic institutions and have high rates of criminality. These are the same discourses that argue that Latino masculinity (machismo) is defined by violence, recklessness, and misogyny. Accordingly, they link these expressions as contributing to a lack of interest in academics as well as behavioural struggles in schools for Latino male youth.
Negative depictions of machismo in popular literatureEdit
Throughout popular literature, the term has continued to be associated with negative characteristics, such as sexism, misogyny, chauvinism, hypermasculinity, and hegemonic masculinity. Scholars characterize macho men as violent, rude, womanizing, and prone to alcoholism. Authors from a various disciplines typified macho men as domineering through intimidation, seducing and controlling women and children through violence, intimidation and for the former sexuality.
For example, in American literature, an example of machismo comes from Tennessee Williams' character Stanley Kowalski, an egotistical brother-in-law, from A Streetcar Named Desire. In the play (and 1951 film adaptation), Stanley epitomizes the tough, alpha-male (hypermasculine) archetype, socially and physically dominating and imposing his will upon his wife and her sister, Blanche Dubois. Bound up with Stanley's aggressive and occasionally misogynistic views is a strong sense of pride and honor which leads to his hatred of Blanche.
In the play A View from the Bridge by Arthur Miller, one of the main characters, Eddie, is a classic type who displays machismo. He wants to be the best of the men around him and when beaten, becomes very agitated and increasingly irrational. The negative stereotypes depicted in American literature are not representative of all the different layers of machismo.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Machismo has been influenced and supported by many different factors. The Catholic religion plays a vital role to many within the Spanish community. For this reason the male dominated world that is often referenced in the Bible is seen among the people. Examples can be found throughout the Bible showing how women should be submissive to their husbands: "Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire [shall be] to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee" (Genesis 3:16). The ideologies that the man is stronger, the moneymaker, and the protector all back up the mindset that wives must listen to their husbands.
Masculinity in context: ChileEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The revolution of copper mining sets the tone of traditional masculinity. The industrious labor performed by the working class male is accredited by status amongst peers and ability to provide for the family. Men who work in the mines are often away from their families’ the majority of the time so they engage in homosociality. The homosocial leisure activities that the workers engage in consist of gambling, soccer, and alcohol. Women's presence in social settings is not prominent, so men's dominance and inevitable homosocial interactions create kinship and brotherhood. Exploitation of masculinity through the context of miners is prominent and embodied by Chilean males.
Since 2007, every July the Red Chilena Contra la Violencia hacia las Mujeres (Chilean Network Against Violence Towards Women) implements its campaign "¡Cuidado! El Machismo Mata" (Beware! Machismo Kills) to raise awareness about violence against women, intrafamiliar violence and femicide. 
Puerto Rican machismo and American cultural influences of gender equalityEdit
This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
As a territory of the U.S., Puerto Rico tends to take on the same progressive movements as U.S. These movements include LGBTQ rights, minority rights, and equality. In regards to equality and what separates men and women, gender roles determine what is socially acceptable in different geographical areas. In Puerto Rico the machismo culture has or had[vague] a strong presence. Men were to work outside the home, manage the finances, and make the decisions. Women were to be subordinate to their husbands and be the homemakers. Women would often would have to be dependent on men for everything. Growing up boys are taught to the machismo code girls are taught the marianismo code. Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 40s best defined as having masculinity and Pride. Machismo is a factor challenged among different groups due to how an ideal man is expected to be portrayed which builds pressure. Mentally men may feel the need to take up more opportunities to meet expectations, such as supporting the home, or maintaining employment leading to stress. This may also take a toll as physically well straining to be strong and overexerting the body, or the opposite of putting on weight by not having the desired physique and feeling inferior. This is further expressed through Puerto Ricans Americans outside the island.
However, the roles are beginning to shift as women's rights and equality movements sweep the mainland, Puerto Rico is beginning to feel the effects. While Puerto Ricans may be motivated by the progressive of the mainland they base their movements off of their situations in Puerto Rico. Beginning in the 1950s the employment rate for women began to rise as the employment rate fell due to the island's industrialization. Also, during the 1950s to 1980s the field of the white collar women emerged furthering the rise in women employment. However, women were not released from their homemaker duties because they had a job. In fact, women were now expected to contribute to the household's finances and be the homemaker. This caused a shift in what was acceptable in households. Men used to be able to come and go as they pleased as the women were dependent on them, however, after contributing to the household, acquiring more education, and being the homemaker women became more independent and conscious. They no longer tolerated poor men. This caused great inner conflict with the idea of the machismo culture. In present-day society this machismo culture is still oppressed as Puerto Rico in 2016 was the only place where women made more than men, at $1.03 for every $1.
In Chicago where there is a big Puerto Rican community; Puerto Ricans are feeling threatened of their American dream. Young Puerto Rican women are expected to stay at home reproductively,[vague] as well as for the cultural reasons of productively being at home. There are rules made by Latin families that young women should not be influenced by the dangers of outside, for the portrayal of young women to be sexualized or vulnerable. They are raised with these strict rules because some women experience pregnancy at a young age, and are not familiar to care for both themselves nor the responsibilities of a new child. Young women may even lack support from their own household families, and are blamed for not being properly educated. Puerto Rican families influenced by American culture; may express to bend traditional rules. These families do what they believe is best for their family, and further educate about sexual education and learn while virginity is valued until marriage.
LGBTQ community is also a conflicting issue to the machismo culture. Puerto Rico is known for its strong Christian community along with having a smaller Jewish and Muslim community as well. Due to changing times and influence from America the LGBTQ movement has been a strong force for equality, which in Puerto Rico has not always been accepted; and even harmed in the process due to difference. A new term to differentiate gender is Latinx, and Latine a variant used to pronounce easily throughout Latin America is a gender neutral form of addressing someone compared to the familiar male Latino or female Latina. Minorities are treated differently in Puerto Rico despite the blending of three races. Puerto Ricans face racism amongst themselves in their community and at work solely based on their color of their skin. People with even the slightest pigment were not considered white, and segregation exist within the island; where minorities may live in different regions of the island with others of color.
Therefore, the pre-Columbian use of the word macho had to do with wisdom and leadership that was worthy of imitation, while gender was not involved. When the Spanish came, their use of the word macho was strictly masculine. Therefore, after the Spanish invasion a new word, idea and concept was born: that a macho was a masculine leader, who was enlightened and worthy of imitation. It was always a positive term. Therefore, in Mexico, the use of the word macho may provoke confusion if it is not used precisely or in context.
Machismo in CubaEdit
Machismo is a source of pride for men and they must prove their manliness by upholding their dominance in their reputation and their household. Machismo comes from the assertion of male dominance in everyday life. Examples of this would be men dominating their wives, controlling their children, and demanding the utmost respect from others in the household. Machismo has become deeply woven in Cuban society and have created barriers for women to reach full equality. The reason for this is the patriarchy that runs high in Cuban society. Cuba's patriarchal society stems from the fact that Spain has had a history of using brutal war tactics and humiliation as a means to keep and establish their power. Tomas de Torquemada, who ruled as a grand inquisitor under King Ferdinand and Queen Elizabeth of Spain, used degrading and humiliating forms of torture to get information out of prisoners. Men like Torquemada create the domino effect throughout history of repressive and toxic masculinity that has plagued Cuban society.
In Uva de Aragon Clavijo's, novel El Caiman Ante El Espejo , Clavijo claims that Cubans feel more power from the genital organs of past male Cuban leaders like Fidel Castro. Even though he represented a revolution, he was still a powerful and dominating man who ruled over the people. In the point of view of Clavijo, militarism and caudillismo, are what is to blame for Cuban machismo, as it established the ideology of the "leadership of the strongman" which proved to be successful in Castro becoming victorious in his revolution. Thus furthering that a male dominated political society is superior. Despite Castro's leading a socialist revolution, it only seems to reinforce macho-control over the Cuban people, specifically for Cuban woman who have yet to occupy any established political positions.
The idea of the male ego, where the male is symbolized as "hyper-masculine, virile, strong, paternalistic, sexually dominant, and the financial provider" is reinforced by the teachings of the Catholic Church, the main religion practiced in Cuba and Latina America in general. According to Catholic Church teachings, the female should be a virgin but it's less important for the male to be one. During colonial times, a female's chastity and demureness were linked to the family's societal standings [new], while the males were expected and sometimes pressured into proving their sexual prowess by having multiple partners. There was a duality in the expression of love. Men were supposed to express between physical loves, while women were expected to only express spiritual love and romantic love. Even after marriage, carnal love was frowned upon if the woman expressed it too vigorously, instead she was more delighted by the romantic expression of the love.
Cuban Machismo and its Effect on Women and LGBT Community.Edit
Because of the objectification of women, domestic violence often ignored when women decide to seek help from the police. Domestic abuse victims are given psychological counseling as a way to cope with their trauma, but little is done criminally to solve the problem. Domestic Abuse cases or other violent crimes committed against women, are very rarely reported on by the media, and the government does not release statistics that show the people the extent of the crimes. The Cuban Revolution changed some of the ways the people of Cuba viewed women. Fidel Castro in his own words saw that the women were going through ‘a revolution within the revolution, and established the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC). This organization, headed by Vilma Espin, Castro's sister in law, helped women establish themselves better into the working world and in women's right issues. The FMC has continually advocated for women rights and in 1997 created the Grupo Nacional para la Prevencion y Atencion de la Violencia Familiar, a national group whose purpose is to study and find measures on how to get help for the women who fall victim to domestic violence. With the help of the FMC and the Grupo Nacional para la Prevencion y Atencion de la Violencia Familiar, women can file claims against their abusers at the Office of Victim Rights. They are also now able to get access to sexual abuse therapies. This by no way solves the issue of domestic abuse, but it is a turning point for the Cuban women who are now no longer feel powerless in the fight.
Because Machismo is so entrenched into the very systems that keep women oppressed, women in Cuba don't hold political or monetary positions of power. While there are 48.9% of women in Cuban Congress, the political group that holds the most power is The Cuban Communist Party, which is made up of only 7% of women. In many cases, women who do have professional jobs are often funded by the Cuban state meaning they only receive about $30 a month. This means that women are employed but do not and cannot hold positions of power due to the men in power who benefit from staying in power. Machismo is mostly ingrained in domestic environments, so while 89% of women over 25 have received a secondary education, if a woman is a doctor, or a lawyer even after all the work she has done during the day, at home she is still expected to cook and clean and be the primary caretaker of the children. Many feminist scholars have described this phenomenon, which takes place in other cultures, as the second shift, based on a book by Arlie Russell Hochschild by the same name. Cuban males see no problem in leaving all the housework to their wives while they are allowed to go out for drinks with their friends. Machismo characteristics in men have given them power over women in the home, which leaves certain women more vulnerable to domestic violence committed against them. Cubans are now beginning to leave state employment, to search for jobs in tourism. These jobs produce a great deal of profit because of the wealthy tourists that visit the island and leave good tips. Cubans who were once professors and doctors are now leaving their old jobs to become bartenders and drive cabs
From the inception of machismo from both the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire, machismo translates to mean ‘macho’ and refers to male oppression over women. Moreover, machismo is an all-encompassing term for the dominion of the elite man over ‘the other’. In this case ‘the other’ refers to women of all races and economic status, whom the macho sees as an object to protect. in contrast effeminate and gay men aren't seen as worthy of protection but as objects to ridicule and punish sometimes with violence. Men who do not perform their gender in the "normalized" way are referred to as ‘maricon’, (a derogatory word meaning queer or fag), because their maleness is being called into question. Many of the anti-LGBT acceptance stems from The Cuban Revolution and Fidel Castro who had strong views over masculinity and how it fit in his idea of militarism. Fidel Castro once said on homosexuality in a 1965 interview with American journalist Lee Lockwood, "A deviation of that nature clashes with the concept we have of what a militant communist should be." That same year gay men in Cuba were being sent to labor camps because their sexuality made them "un-fit" to be involved in military service. Machismo has not only been a tool used to control women but also to punish men who do not adhere to societal norms, should behave as well. However, in the more recent years, the establishment of CENESEX (National Centre for Sexual Education) has been established so that the population of Cuba can more readily accept sexual diversity of all kinds, especially in terms of the LGBT people. CENESEX has grown in part because of the Cuban government and with the help Mariela Castro-Espin, daughter of Raul Castro, 16th president of Cuba, and niece to Fidel Castro. CENESEX has sought to decrease homophobia in Cuba by increasing sexual awareness by holding social gatherings like anti homophobic rallies.
Cuban Machismo in the MediaEdit
In 1975, a new Cuban Law came onto the island: the Codigo de la Familia (Family Law). It was put into effect on March 8, 1975, 15 years after the Cuban Revolution. The new Family Law of 1975 really helped a lot of women get jobs on the island and provided children with protection under the law so that child begging and homelessness amongst children was practically eradicated. The law also stated that it was required for both sexes to participated in domestic chores But just because the law was passed, does not mean it was heavily reinforced, particularly in the domestic sphere. One of the aspects of the new family law was not only to create equality outside of the home but inside of it as well. This new family law was not received well by many people in Cuba. And many people backlashed against the law. These grievances reflected in the media that was made in Cuba, particularly, during the "Golden Age of Cuban Cinema".
Closer Look: Hasta Cierto Punto, 1983 (Up to A Certain Point, 1983)Edit
Hasta Cierto Punto directed by Tomás Gutiérrez Alea is a movie that follows Oscar, an educated playwright who writes a movie on the effects of machismo in Cuban Society. In the opening scene of this movie, there is an interview with a young black man who is asked about machismo. The young man laughs and says in the movie, "Oh, they've managed to change my attitudes on that score; I'm certainly changed up to a certain point. I’ve probably changed up to 80% now. Maybe they can work on me and change me to 87%. But they will never, never get me up to 100%, no way!" These attitudes on-screen reflect that of many men in Cuba and their attitudes towards women having more equality in everyday life. The film that Oscar was meant to write for is directed by his friend Arturo. Both are well-educated men with stable careers in their fields, wives, cars, and other luxuries. However, Arturo believes that the issue of Machismo is most directly a working class problem and that it is up to educated men such as himself and Oscar, to raise consciousness on the issue. Oscar and Arturo use working-class dock-workers to use as research for their film. This is where they meet Lina, a working-class woman who is in charge of the dock workers. At the beginning of the film she is represented to be tough on her workers and is well respected amongst all the men she works with. Oscar, the screenwriter, finds himself enamored with her tough attitudes, which is very different than women he has met before. However, as the movie goes on, we see Oscar increasingly find himself frustrated with Lina's free spirit and working-class "down-to-earth" personality. Oscar sees that this is not the kind of woman he is used to. Throughout the movie, although Oscar is having an affair with his wife, he finds himself being more empathetic to working-class struggles in a way that his friend Arturo isn't. Arturo still believes that all working-class men are just "macho brutes" The film's dynamic on working class and bourgeois machismo is very telling of Cuban society and how class reflects on the attitudes towards machismo. It also problematizes, bourgeois men who believe they are intellectually above everyone else, including issues on machismo and women's equality.
Some people identify that machismo is perpetuated through the pressure to raise children a certain way and instill social constructions of gender throughout a child's development. This is complemented by the distant father-son relationship in which intimacy and affection are typically avoided. These aspects set up the environment through which the ideology perpetuates itself. It creates a sense of inferiority that drives boys to reach an unattainable level of masculinity, a pursuit often validated by the aggressive and apathetic behavior they observe in the men around them and ultimately leading them to continue the cycle.
There is accumulating evidence that supports the relation between the way men are traditionally socialized to be masculine and its harmful mental and physical health consequences. Respectively, machismo, is sociocultural term associated with male and female socialization in Hispanic cultures; it is a set of values, attitudes and beliefs about masculinity. Although the construct of machismo holds both positive and negative aspects of masculinity, emerging research suggests the gender role conceptualization of machismo has associations with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; trait anxiety and anger; cynical hostility) among Hispanic populations.
Similarly, a well-documented disparity notes Latino adolescents reporting higher levels of depression than other ethnic backgrounds. Research suggests this may be associated to adolescent perceived gender role discrepancies which challenge the traditional perceptions of gender role (i.e., machismo).
Enhanced understanding on associations between the gender role conceptualizations of machismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors may prove invaluable to mental health professionals. According to Fragoso and Kashubeck, "if a therapist notes that a client seems to endorse high levels of machismo, that therapist might explore whether the client is experiencing high levels of stress and depression". Therefore, "conducting a gender role assessment would help a therapist assess a client's level of machismo and whether aspects of gender role conflict are present".
Many counseling psychologists are interested in further studies for comprehending the connection between counseling for males and topics such as sex-role conflicts and male socialization. This high demand stems from such psychologists' abilities to make patients aware how some inflexible and pre-established ideals regarding sex-roles may be detrimental to people's way of regarding new changes in societal expectancies, fostering relationships, and physical and mental health. Professionals such as Thomas Skovholt, psychology professor at the University of Minnesota, claim that more research needs to be done in order to have efficient mediation for men through counseling.
Several elements of machismo are considered psychologically harmful for men. Competition is a widely talked about subject in this area, as studies show that there are both positive and negative connotations to it. Many benefits arise from healthy competition such as team-building abilities, active engagement, pressure handling, critical thinking, and the strive to excel. As these qualities and traits are highly valued by many, they are widely taught to children from a young age both at school and at home. Scholars also argue that men could be mentally harmed from competition, such as the one experienced by many at their job, as their impetus to rise above their peers and fulfill the breadwinner concept in many societies can cause stress, jealousy, and psychological strain.
"Machismo as a cultural factor is substantially associated with crime, violence, and lawlessness independently of the structural control variables" (26-27). One key aspect of Machismo's association to violence is its influence in a man's behavior towards proving his strength (57). While strength and fortitude are recognized as key components to the stereotype of machismo, demonstrations of violence and aggressive actions have become almost expected of men and have been justified as desirable products of being tough and macho. It can be implied that "if you are violent, you are strong and thus more of a man than those who back down or do not fight".
Violent encounters can stem from the desire to protect his family, friends, and particularly his female relatives that are vulnerable to the machismo actions of other men, (59). However, through jealousy, competitiveness, and pride, violent encounters are also often pursued to demonstrate his strength to others. A man's insecurities can be fueled by a number of pressures. These range from societal pressures to "be a man" to internal pressures of overcoming an inferiority complex, (59). This can translate into actions that devalue feminine characteristics and overemphasize the characteristics of strength and superiority attributed to masculinity, (59).
In many cases, a man's position of superiority over a female partner can lead him to gain control over different aspects of her life. Since women are viewed as subservient to men in many cultures, men often have power to decide whether his wife can work, study, socialize, participate in the community, or even leave the house. With little opportunity for attaining an income, minimal means to get an education, and the few people they have as a support system, many women become dependent on their husbands financially and emotionally. This leaves many women particularly vulnerable to domestic violence both because it is justified through this belief that men are superior and thus are free to express that superiority and because women cannot leave such an abusive relationship since they rely on their husbands to live.
The power difference in the relationship between a man and a woman not only creates the social norm of machismo, but by consequence also creates the social concept of marianismo. which is the idea that women are meant to be pure and wholesome. Marianismo derives its origins from Spanish Colonization, as many social constructs from Latin America do. It emphasizes the perfect femininity of a woman and her virginity. One could argue that in the similar manner of Patriarchy, the man is the head of the household while the "fragile" woman is submissive and tends to remain behind the scenes. This brings to focus the idea that women are inferior and are thus dependent on their husbands. As a result, they not only rely on their husbands for financial support, but in the social realm are put at the same level as "children under age 12, mentally ill persons, and spendthrifts" (265). By way of tradition, not only are women given limited opportunities in what they are able to do and to be, but they are also viewed as people that cannot even take care of themselves. Getting married provides a woman with security under her husband's success, but also entails a lifelong commitment towards serving her husband and her children.
While social pressures and expectations play huge roles in the perpetuation of the marianismo construct, this ideology is also taught to girls as they grow up. They learn the importance of performing domestic labor and household chores, such as cooking and cleaning, because this will be the role they will play in their future families. They are taught that these must be done well so that they can adequately serve their families and avoid punishment and discipline by their authoritative husbands.
Some experts hypothesize, since there is a lack of empirical research on gender-role conflicts, that men might suffer from such conflicts because of their fear of femininity.
Professionals from several universities in the United States developed a model around this hypothesis with six behavioral patterns.
- Restrictive emotionality: restraining oneself from expressing feelings or not allowing others to express their feelings.
- Homophobia: the fear of homosexuals or the fear of being a homosexual, not limited to all the stereotypes associated with that.
- Socialized control, power, and competition: The desire for the authority of being in charge of the situation, commanding others, and to excel above others.
- Restrictive sexual and affectional behavior: Showing little to no affection or sexuality to others.
- Obsession with achievement and success: having an ongoing complex that accomplishment, work, and illustriousness constitutes one's value.
- Health problems: unhealthy diet, stress levels, and lifestyle.
The model was developed around the idea that these six patterns are all influenced by men's the fear of femininity. This theory was then partially supported by a study done by five professionals. Some tools already created to measure gender-role attitudes include the Personal Attitudes Questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Attitudes Toward the Male's Role Scale. Evidence suggests that gender-roles conflicts inflicted by machismo can lead males who were raised with this mentality and or live in a society in which machismo is prevalent to suffer high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem. Additionally, studies found that many males facing such conflicts are subject to experience anger, depression, and substance abuse.
One implication of the Machismo concept is the pressure for a man to be sexually experienced. Male infidelity is of common practice in many cultures, as men are not as expected to hold nearly the same level of chastity as women are. Meanwhile, girls are oftentimes brought up to tolerate an unfaithful partner, since it is a part of the machismo culture. As such, this puts populations at risk for transmitting STIs as men seek out multiple sexual partners with little interference from their wives or from society. The risk is further heightened by the lack of condom use by men who are both miseducated about the effectiveness of a condom's protection against STIs and the belief that this wouldn't happen to them. This mentality also deters men from getting themselves tested to know if they are HIV-positive, which leads them to even spread STIs without even knowing it.
Sexuality and sexual orientationEdit
For men in many Latin American countries, their perceived level of masculinity determines the amount of respect they receive in society. Because homosexual men are associated with feminine attributes, they are perceived with lower level of masculinity, and as a result, they receive less respect than heterosexual men in society. This, in turn, can limit their "ability to achieve upward social mobility, to be taken seriously, or to hold positions of power". Also, because homosexuality is seen as taboo or even sinful in many Christian denominations, homosexual men tend to lack a support system, leaving many unable express their true sexuality. To deal with such oppression, they must make the choice either to conform to heteronormativity and repress their homosexual identity, to assimilate towards masculine ideals and practices while maintaining their homosexual identity in private, or to openly express their homosexuality and suffer ostracization from society. This creates a hierarchy of homosexuality corresponding to how much "respect, power, and social standing" a homosexual man can expect to receive. The more a man acts in accordance with the stereotypical heterosexual hegemonic masculinity, the higher on the social hierarchy they are.
On the lower end of the hierarchy are the locas or maricones. These men are those that are deemed as effeminate because they do not live by the social construct of hegemonic masculinity and also publicize their homosexuality. As such, they receive little respect both in society in general and among the LGBT community. Many homosexual men resist being associated with the "loca" stereotype by either demonstrating overt masculinity or by ridiculing and distancing themselves from other "loca" men. A common Puerto Rican saying demonstrates this resistance: "mejor un drogadicto que un pato" (better a drug addict than a faggot).
Homosexuality is perceived as negative or weak within the machista ideal. It doesn't fit into the masculine attributes that machismo extols. This often leads homosexual or bisexual men living in machista communities to be reluctant about being open about their sexuality because of the negative connotation associated with it. Familismo, which is an idea in Latin cultures that ties an individual with a commitment to his or her family, and homophobia can sometimes cause in homosexual individuals the repression of sexual identity, family separation, and to hide their sexuality. Such situations may hinder personal shame and secret sexual actions that increases HIV and STI risk in Latino homosexuals. Regularly experiencing homophobia and low self-esteem have a connection with sexual risk. A survey conducted by the Virginia Commonwealth University found that men who had high machismo values or characteristics were more than five times more probable to participate in activities or behave in a way to put them at risk for contracting HIV or an STI.
Because of the negative connotations that come with identifying as homosexual, the definition of homosexuality has become ambiguous. By genderizing sexual practices, only men who are sexually penetrated during sex, locas are considered homosexual while men who are the sexual penetrators during sex can maintain their heterosexual identity. Also, in many Latin American countries, the media portrayal of homosexual men often play into the stereotype of an effeminate, flamboyant male role. As a result, the idea of a masculine homosexual man remains almost unheard of and privatized by the community and by society, which allows this stereotype of homosexual men as locas to persist.
Machismo can also pressure men to defend the well-being of his loved ones, his community, and his country. It allows him to perform altruistic acts in order to provide protection to others. In the past, and even in many current societies where people rely on subsistence agriculture and economy to survive, machismo helped provide men with the courage to drive off potential threats to protect his land and his crop. Today, this contributes to the substantial gender gap in the makeup of military and armed forces around the world, even considering growing female representation in the military today. Beyond the realm of the armed forces, however, the machismo ideology can also drive men to work towards service because he is in a "superior" position, which enables him to demonstrate his success by offering his own strengths to help others. Their dependence on him can validate his ego and help maintain this difference in power.
Another approach to machismo is that of the "caballerismo" ideology, that because a man is the head of the household, he is responsible for the well-being of the members of his family. This describes the call for a man to be chivalrous, nurturing, and protective of his loved ones. It translates to the belief that a true man would never act violent towards his wife or children, but would instead ensure that no harm come to them. Machismo, seen through this approach, inspires men to create "harmonious interpersonal relationships through respect for self and others". This allows fathers to maintain positive, intimate relationships with his children and share a more egalitarian relationship with his wife.
Men and workEdit
In many cultures in the world, there is a long-standing tradition that the man is the head of the household and is responsible for providing for the family. In some cases, this may mean he is the only parent working in paid-work while in other conditions this may mean both parents are working but the man is expected to be the primary income contributor. In either case, part of the masculine identity and his self-respect is defined by his ability to provide for his family. If he is unable to do so, or if he brings home less money than that of his wife, his position as head of the family is challenged. In some cultures, this may mean ultimate shame for him if he cannot fulfill this role: "that being unable to find work meant that 'there is no recognition even to [his] humanity] ... Those who do not work are like dead people'" (212). Beyond providing economic support for his family, a man engaging in paid-work is seen as honorable because he is sacrificing time and energy that he could be spending with his family. These are costs that cannot be repaid and thus are a priceless investment on his part towards the well-being of his family unit.
Although culture may present homophobia, misogyny and masculinity as innately bundled together, history presents different models of masculinity Masculinity was part of homosexuality in ancient Greece. Neither was it all misogyny. Goddesses were worshiped in temples, and the female poet Sappho wrote of Lesbian love. In ancient times, women too had their share of machismo-like vices, and virtues. The lore of the Amazons tells of women heroically fighting as defenders in the Trojan War, and according to National Geographic, "Archaeology shows that these fierce women also smoked pot, got tattoos, killed and loved men." Homosexual-machismo helped thwart Sparta's power hold over ancient Greek city-states: In 371BC the Sacred Band of Thebes was an elite fighting unit composed of 150 homosexual male pairs. They were credited with helping remove Sparta's military domination, and their actions were linked to the spread of Western culture: Theban General Epaminondas taught Philip II of Macedon military tactics and diplomacy used to reunify the Greeks under Macedonia. His son Alexander the Great was credited with the Hellenization of Persia, Egypt and Jerusalem in 332BC. The Greeks had the Hebrew scriptures translated into the Septuagint, fostering the spread of Judaism throughout the region.
Alexander & Hephaestion had been heavily influenced by Homer's Iliad, particularly the masculine love between Achilles & Patroclus. They paired themselves as their modern incarnation, nearly a millennium after the Trojan War. Later, the Roman Empire shared a degree of homosexuality alongside the virtues of masculinity. In 19BC, Virgil's epic poem Aeneid contributed to the folklore of Rome, while depicting the love of fellow warriors Nisus & Euryalus. In 128AD the love of Emperor Hadrian & Antinous was celebrated in the public. Back in Hebrew culture, in 1006BC, the covenant between David & Jonathan was recorded in the Books of Samuel. Gradually, the Septuagint would be expanded with new Greek books, eventually forming Christian Bibles, the earliest extant versions being the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus from 300AD-360AD.
Machismo changes some dynamics of life in a way have both positive and negative effects. For example, machismo grants women authority in the home but at the expense of a man's relationship to his children and work related stress having worked long hours.
Female respect and responsibilityEdit
In the traditional household, the man is expected to work and provide for his family while his wife stays home to care for the children. As such, fathers are seen as a distant authority figure to his children while mothers assume the majority of responsibility in this domestic realm and thus gain agency and the ultimate respect of her children. With the rise of female power, decisions in the household can take on a more egalitarian approach, where mothers can have equal say in the household. Meanwhile, the machismo mentality in men as a provider and protector of the family can inspire him to persevere through challenges introduced by work.
"Within each of our memories there Is the Image of a father who worked long hours, suffered to keep his family alive, united, and who struggled to maintain his dignity. Such a man had little time for concern over his "masculinity". Certainly he did not have ten children because of his machismo, but because he was a human being, poor, and without "access" to birth control."
"Machismo ideology is as beneficial to women in that it encourages their husbands to provide for and protect them and their children. Further, by subordinating their needs to those of their family, women earn a lifetime of support from their husbands and children and in this way gain some control in the family" (90). Because fathers are typically more invested in paid labor, mothers typically spend more time with the children and thus gain credibility in important decisions such as a child's schooling or a child's health care. Nevertheless, in these machist households the fathers will have the last word whenever they choose to, as they are the breadwinners, and all the family ultimately depends on them for survival. In case of a separation or divorce, it is typically the mothers who suffer the most, since they did not invest their time in their career, and will probably still have to provide and care for the children.
Prevalence and acculturation in the 21st centuryEdit
Despite machismo's documented history in Hispanic and Latin American communities, research throughout the years has shown a shift in prevalence among younger generations. In Brazil, researchers found that while the majority of young men interviewed held traditional attitudes on gender roles and machismo, there was a small sample of men that did not agree with these views. Macho attitudes still prevail, the values place women into a lower standard.
Acculturation and education have been proposed to be a factor in how machismo is passed down through Hispanic and Latino generations in the United States. According to researchers who measured self-reported levels of machismo among 72 university students, 37 whom identified as Hispanic, the "somewhat unique population of college-educated students who have been heavily influence[d] by egalitarian attitudes, values, and norms" may explain why ethnicity did not directly predict machismo attitudes in two studies. Because education and acculturation of American values in Latino individuals may result in the development of attitudes supporting gender-equality, this demonstrates how machismo may gradually decline over time in the United States.
Moreover, researchers analyzed a large cross-sectional survey among 36 countries, including 6 Latin American countries, from 2009 and discovered countries with less gender inequality had adolescents that supported attitudes of gender-equality, though females were more likely to support LGBT and non-traditional genders than males. While the mean score of gender-equality attitudes was 49.83, with lower scores indicating less gender equality attitudes, Latin American countries scored the following: Chile (51.554), Colombia (49.416), Dominican Republic (43.586), Guatemala (48.890), Mexico (45.596), Paraguay (48.370). Machismo is associated with gender inequality. Therefore, this study suggests that Latino individuals living in their native countries may support more machismo attitudes than Latino immigrants adopting U.S. values of gender equality.
Masuda also studied self-reported measures of sexual relationship power among 40 recently immigrated Latino couples found data against machismo attitudes since women perceived themselves to have greater control and decision-making roles in their relationships. This serves as a stark contrast because machismo traditionally creates a relationship dynamic that relegates women to submissive roles and men to dominant roles. Again, acculturation may play a role in this dynamic shift because the couples averaged about 8 years since immigrating to the United States.
Acculturation has not only been associated with a decline in machismo, it has appeared to affect how it manifests and how it is transferred through generations. Recently, Mexican American adolescents in romantic relationships demonstrated "adaptive machismo", which consist of the positive qualities of machismo, such as "emotional availability, demonstrations of affection, desire to financially care for a female partner, responsibility in child-rearing, and/or to the community or friends", during conflict resolution scenarios. Furthermore, while Mexican American adolescent males were found to have certain values and attitudes, such as caballerismo, passed down by their families, machismo was not one of them. Because families are not teaching machismo, this implies that it may be learned from sources separate from the family unit, such as peers and the media. Ultimately, these findings suggest that machismo is changing in terms of its prevalence, manifestation, and socialization.
Activism around machismoEdit
Founded in 1969, the Young Lords were an organization of Puerto Rican revolutionary nationalists in Chicago and New York City. Working toward the liberation of all oppressed people, the Young Lords opposed racism, capitalism, and assimilationist ideologies. Seeking self-determination and community control of institutions and land, the organization's leaders made a distinct choice to denounce machismo in their revised 13-Point Program and Platform. Previously reading, "We want equality for women. Machismo must be revolutionary... Not oppressive.", the organization moved toward a more radical position, stating "We want equality for women. Down with machismo and male chauvinism". This revised version of the organization's ideological platform was published in their newspaper, Palante in November 1970 - thirteen months following the original platform's publication in October 1969.
The Young Lords opposed machismo because, as member Gloria González articulated in her 1971 Palante editorial, it serves to divide members of their movement. Further, the organization believed machismo serves as an extension of capitalism, a system they opposed. They understood the division of labor, including both reproductive labor and productive labor, to perpetuate the marginalization of women. They also understood the sexual objectification of women to be problematic and damaging to potentially revolutionary leaders. Moving toward this platform, however, would not have been possible without the Women of the Young Lords who pressured the organization's leadership to reject machismo during their East Coast Regional Central Committee retreat in May 1970. At this retreat the group studied and theorized, formally denouncing machismo because if power was to be transferred to the people, it would have to be the hands of all the people; and if this were to be possible, the Young Lords must reject "attitudes of superiority that brothers had towards sisters" and the "passivity of sisters toward brothers (allowing brothers to come out of a macho or chauvinist, superior bag)".
|Look up machismo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Machismo. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Machismo. The Merriam-Webster's Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Morales, Edward. S. Gender roles among Latino gay and bisexual men: Implications for family and couple relationships. In, J. Laird & R. J. Green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families: A handbook for therapists. pp. 272-297. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1996. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Me lanky, Bernadette (2012). Intervention Research: Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Funding. Springer Publishing Co. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8261-0957-6.
- Opazo, R. M (2008). Latino Youth and Machismo: Working Towards a More Complex Understanding of Marginalized Masculinities. Retrieved From Ryerson University Digital Commons Thesis Dissertation Paper 108. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations/108 Archived 9 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Torres, J. B (1998). "Masculinity and Gender Roles Among Puerto Rican Men; Machismo on the U.S Mainland". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 68 (1): 16–26. doi:10.1037/h0080266. PMID 9494638.
- Gutmann, Matthew (1996). The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.
- Arciniega, M. G; Anderson, T. C; Tovar-Blank, Z. Tracey (2008). "Toward a Fuller Conception of Machismo: Development of Machismo and Caballerismo Scale". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 55 (1): 19–33. doi:10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199.
- "Latin America Machismo". family.jrank.org. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- Sotelo, Pierrette Hondagneu-. (1994). Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. California: United States: Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520075146. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Barker, Loewenstein, Gare, Irene. (1997). "Where the Boys are: Attitudes Related to Masculinity, Fatherhood, and Violence Toward Women among Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Males in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil". Youth & Society. 29 (2): 171. doi:10.1177/0044118X97029002002. S2CID 144983048.
- Kulis, Marsiglia, Hecht, Stephen, Flavio Francisco., Michael L. (2002). "Gender labels and gender identity as predictors of drug use among ethically diverse middle school students". Youth and Society. 33 (3): 442–475. doi:10.1177/0044118X02033003005. PMC 3045088. PMID 21359134.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Marsiglia, Holleran, Flavio Francisco, Lori (1999). "I've learned so much from my mother: An ethnography of a group of Chicana high school students". Social Work in Education. 21 (4): 220–237. doi:10.1093/cs/21.4.220. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- Hardin, Michael (January 2002). "Altering Masculinities: The Spanish Conquest and the Evolution of the Latin American Machismo" (PDF). International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies. 7 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1023/A:1013050829597. S2CID 140349743. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- Murekian, Octavio (28 May 2018). "International Body Image and the Issues with Purely Quantitative Marketing Research". www.toucaninsights.com. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- Mignolo, W. D. (2011). Local histories/global designs: Coloniality, subaltern knowledges, and border thinking. Princeton University Press.
- Alcof, L. M. (2005). Latino Vs Hispanic: The Politics of Ethnic Names. Philosophy & Social Criticism. 31(4). 395–407.
- Thobani, S. (2007). Introduction: Of exaltation. In Exalted subjects. Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada, pp. 2–29; 257–266. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
- Young, I. M. (2000). Five faces of oppression. In M. Adams, Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, pp. 35–49. New York : Routledge.
- Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Los Angeles, California, United States: University of California Press
- Mignolo, Walter D. Local histories/global designs: Coloniality, subaltern knowledges, and border thinking. Princeton University Press, 2011.
- Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T. (1997). "Hostile and Benevolent Sexism". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 21: 119–35. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00104.x. S2CID 53683112.
- Adams, Carlos (2006). Machismo and Geographies of Hope. PhD dissertation. Program in American Studies, Washington State University
- Caravantes, E. (2006). Clipping Their Own Wings: The Incompatibility Between Latino Culture and American Education. Hamilton Books
- Anders, G. (1993). Machismo: Dead or alive? Hispanic, 3, 14–20.
- Ingoldsby, B. (1991). "The Latin American Family: Familism vs. Machismo". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 1: 57–64. doi:10.3138/jcfs.22.1.57.
- Mosher, D.; Tompkins, S. (1988). "Scripting the macho man: Hypermasculine socialization and enculturation". Journal of Sex Research. 25: 60–84. doi:10.1080/00224498809551445.
- Mhof, D. (1979). Macho: Sit on It. Miami: 3L Graphics.
- "BIBLE VERSES ABOUT SUBMITTING TO YOUR HUSBAND". www.kingjamesbibleonline.org.
- Barrientos Delgado, Jaime; Salinas Meruane, Paulina; Rojas Varas, Pablo; Meza Opazo, Patricio (1 October 2011). "Gender relations and masculinity in northern Chile mining areas: ethnography in schoperías". Etnográfica. Revista do Centro Em Rede de Investigação Em Antropologia (vol. 15 (3)): 413–440. doi:10.4000/etnografica.1013 – via etnografica.revues.org.
- http://www.nomasviolenciacontramujeres.cl/cuidad-el-machismo-mata/ (Spanish)
- "Here's the One Place in America Where the Gender Pay Gap Is Reversed". Money.
- Warren, Alice Colón (28 June 2018). "Women's Employment and Changing Gender Relations in Puerto Rico". Caribbean Studies. 38 (2): 59–91. doi:10.1353/crb.2010.0058. JSTOR 41220536. PMID 22073439. S2CID 24781585.
- "Puerto Rico: Feminism and Feminist Studies.pdf". google.com.
- "'Puertorriqueñas Rencorosas y Mejicanas Sufridas'.pdf". google.com.
- "Puerto Rican Identity, Gender Roles, & Religion - Moon.com". moon.com. 20 March 2013.
- "TRT Exclusive: Queer and Caribbean: LGBTQ+ Culture & The Island Identity". therainbowtimesmass.com. 15 December 2017.
- Ramirez, Tanisha Love (3 September 2015). "How Machismo Culture Impacts Gay Latinos". Huffington Post.
- Rémi, Siméon. Diccionario de la lengua náhuatl o mexicana. Siglo XXI Editores, S.A. de C.V., 2004. pp. 246, 258 ISBN 968-23-0573-X. Macho: distinguished, illustrious, ... as a passive voice of Mati: uel macho ó nouian macho, evident, well known, notorious; qualli ipam macho, he is good, well behaved.
- Padula, Alfred (1996). Orlandini, Alberto; Arenas, Reinaldo; Clavijo, Uva de Aragon; Fuentes, Ileana; Morera, Lisette; Ortega, Victor Joaquin; Cabale, Manolo; Nacianceno, Alfonso; Montesinos, Enrique (eds.). "Gender, Sexuality, and Revolution in Cuba". Latin American Research Review. 31 (2): 226–235. JSTOR 2504037.
- Kirk, Emily J. (January 2011). "Setting the Agenda for Cuban Sexuality: The Role of Cuba's Cenesex". Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. 36 (72): 143–163. doi:10.1080/08263663.2011.10817018. ISSN 0826-3663. S2CID 143910104.
- Gender Equality and the Role of Women in Cuban Society. 2011. Website. 5 December 2018.
- Ferguson, Ann (July 1997). "BOOK REVIEW: Lois M. Smith and Alfred Padula. SEX AND REVOLUTION: WOMEN IN SOCIALIST CUBA. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996". NWSA Journal. 9 (2): 193–194. doi:10.2979/nws.19188.8.131.52. ISSN 1040-0656.
- De La Torre, Miguel A. (1999). "Beyond Machismo: A Cuban Case Study". The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 19: 213–233. doi:10.5840/asce19991912. ISSN 0732-4928.
- "Study: Cubans don't make much, but it's more than state salaries indicate". miamiherald. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Gender Data Portal". datatopics.worldbank.org. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Hochschild, Arlie and Anne Machung. The Second Shift. New York: Avon Books, 1990.
- University, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown. "The Truth About Gender Equality in Cuba". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "In Cuba, a Government-Backed LGBT Rights Movement Battles Against a Culture of Machismo". Social Justice News Nexus. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Álvarez-Tabío Albo, Ana María (Summer 2017). "General Overview of Cuban Family Law Legislation". Florida Journal of International Law. 29.
- Baron, Guy (1 March 2010). "The Illusion of Equality: Machismo and Cuban Cinema of the Revolution". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 29 (3): 354–366. doi:10.1111/j.1470-9856.2010.00383.x. ISSN 0261-3050.
- MacBean, James Roy; Alea, Tomas Gutierrez (April 1985). "A Dialogue with Tomas Gutierrez Alea on the Dialectics of the Spectator in "Hasta Cierto Punto"". Film Quarterly. 38 (3): 22–29. doi:10.1525/fq.1985.38.3.04a00050. ISSN 0015-1386.
- Ingoldsby, Bron (1991). "The Latin American Family: Familism vs. Machismo". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 1 (1): 57–62. doi:10.3138/jcfs.22.1.57. JSTOR 41602120.
- Fragoso, Jose M.; Kashubeck, Susan (2000). "Machismo, gender role conflict, and mental health in Mexican American men". Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 1 (2): 87–97. doi:10.1037/1524-9184.108.40.206.
- Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A.; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C.; Davis, Sonia M.; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y.; Ostrovsky, Natania W. (2016). "Machismo, marianismo, and negative cognitive-emotional factors: Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study". Journal of Latina/o Psychology. 4 (4): 202–217. doi:10.1037/lat0000050. PMC 5102330. PMID 27840779.
- Céspedes, Yolanda M.; Huey, Stanley J. (2008). "Depression in Latino adolescents: A cultural discrepancy perspective". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 14 (2): 168–172. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.168. PMC 2493609. PMID 18426290.
- O'Neil, James M. (1981). "Male Sex Role Conflicts, Sexism, and Masculinity: Psychological Implications for Men, Women, and the Counseling Psychologist". The Counseling Psychologist. 9 (2): 61–80. doi:10.1177/001100008100900213. S2CID 145579181.
- Helms, Barbara J. (1986). "Gender-Role Conflict Scale: College Men's Fear of Femininity". Sex Roles. 14 (5–6). doi:10.1007/bf00287583. S2CID 145208831.
- Pandel, Hannah (10 February 2016). "Healthy competition Is Good For Children". IPA - The Voice For Freedom. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Adler, Leonore Loeb (1995). Violence and the prevention of violence. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-94873-3.
- Walker, Julian (2005). "The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire: initial validation and reliability". Personality and Individual Differences. 38 (1): 187–201. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.04.001.
- Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly (2008). "HIV Prevention and Low-Income Chilean Women: Machismo, Marianismo and HIV Misconceptions". Culture, Health & Sexuality. 10 (3): 297–306. doi:10.1080/13691050701861439. JSTOR 20461006. PMC 2603075. PMID 18432428.
- Resnick, R.P.; Yolanda Quinones Mayo (1996). "The Impact of Machismo on Hispanic Women". Affilia. 11 (3): 257–277. doi:10.1177/088610999601100301. S2CID 144747251.
- Sharpe, Mark J.; Heppner, P. Paul; Dixon, Wayne A. (1 July 1995). "Gender role conflict, instrumentality, expressiveness, and well-being in adult men". Sex Roles. 33 (1–2): 1–18. doi:10.1007/BF01547932. ISSN 0360-0025. S2CID 144209586.
- Blazina, Christopher (October 1996). "Masculine Gender Role Conflict: Effects on College Men's Psychological Well-Being, Chemical Substance Usage, and Attitudes Toward Help-Seeking". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 43 (4): 461–465. doi:10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.111.
- Asencio, Marysol (2011). ""Locas," Respect, and Masculinity". Gender and Society. 25 (3): 335–354. doi:10.1177/0891243211409214. S2CID 144389570.
- Sears, Jacqueline L. (2006). "Machismo as a Determinant for HIV/STD Risk Behavior Among Latino MSM". VCU Scholars Compass.
- Paredes, Americo (1979). "The United States, Mexico, and "Machismo"". RSA Journ. 1 (1): 17–37. JSTOR 3814061.
- Ryder, Richard (1993). "Violence and machismo". RSA Journal. 5443 (5443): 706–717. JSTOR 41376268.
- Tracey, Terence; G. Miguel Arciniega; Thomas C. Anderson; Zoila G. Tovar-Blank (2008). "Toward a Fuller Conception of Machismo: Development of a Traditional Machismo and Caballerismo Scale". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 55: 19–33. doi:10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168.
- Owen, Jesse; Glass, Jon (2010). "Latino fathers: The relationship among machismo, acculturation, ethnic identity, and paternal involvement". Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 11 (4): 251–261. doi:10.1037/a0021477.
- Donaldson, Mike (2009). Migrant Men: Critical studies of masculinities and the migration experience. New York: Routledge. pp. 122–123, 210–213. ISBN 978-1-135-84624-4.
- 1 Samuel 8.3 and 2 Samuel 1.26
- Mirande, Alredo (1979). "A Reinterpretation of Male Dominance in the Chicano Family". The Family Coordinator. 28 (4): 473–479. doi:10.2307/583507. JSTOR 583507.
- Riddell, Sosa (1974). "Chicanos and el movimiento". Aztlán. 5 (4): 155–165. JSTOR 583507.
- Newhall, Amy (2009). The changing realities of work and family: a multidisciplinary approach. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-4443-0528-9.
- Barker, Gary; Loewenstein, Irene (1997). "Where the Boys are". Youth & Society. 29 (2): 166–196. doi:10.1177/0044118x97029002002. S2CID 144983048.
- Intindola, Melissa L.; Jacobson, Ryan P.; Jacobson, Kathryn J. L.; DelCampo, Robert G. (2016). "Machismo in Organizations: Individual Predictors & Context-Dependent Outcomes". Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. 28 (2): 113–131. doi:10.1007/s10672-015-9274-5. ISSN 0892-7545. S2CID 146571603.
- Sani, Giulia M. Dotti; Quaranta, Mario (2017). "The Best Is Yet to Come? Attitudes Toward Gender Roles Among Adolescents in 36 Countries" (PDF). Sex Roles. 77 (1–2): 30–45. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0698-7. hdl:2434/625843. ISSN 0360-0025. S2CID 151544032.
- Matsuda, Yui (2017). "Actor–Partner Interdependence Model Analysis of Sexual Communication and Relationship/Family Planning Factors Among Immigrant Latino Couples in the United States". Health Communication. 32 (5): 612–620. doi:10.1080/10410236.2016.1160317. ISSN 1041-0236. PMC 5253322. PMID 27367797.
- Rueda, Heidi Adams; Williams, Lela Rankin (2016). "Mexican American Adolescent Couples Communicating About Conflict". Journal of Adolescent Research. 31 (3): 375–403. doi:10.1177/0743558415584999. S2CID 145457639.
- Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Hamilton, Emma; Arango, Sarah (2017). "Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 23 (3): 335–347. doi:10.1037/cdp0000142. PMID 28230388. S2CID 20692587.
- Enck-Wanzer, Darrel (2010). The Young Lords: A Reader. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814722428. pg. 10
- Enck-Wanzer, Darrel (2010). The Young Lords: A Reader. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814722428. pg. 9-13
- Palante 8 May 1970, volume 2, number 2
- Palante, June 1971, volume 2, number 11
- Enck-Wanzer, Darrel (2010). The Young Lords: A Reader. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814722428. pg. 33
- Enck-Wanzer, Darrel (2010). The Young Lords: A Reader. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814722428. pg. 33