Tourism in Cuba is an industry that generates over 4.7 million arrivals as of 2018,[1] and is one of the main sources of revenue for the island.[2] With its favorable climate, beaches, colonial architecture and distinct cultural history, Cuba has long been an attractive destination for tourists. "Cuba treasures 253 protected areas, 257 national monuments, 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 7 Natural Biosphere Reserves and 13 Fauna Refuge among other non-tourist zones."[3]

Foreign tourist days in Cuba, 2010
The beach in the resort town of Varadero

Having been Spain's closest colony to the United States until 1898, in the first part of the 20th century Cuba continued to develop with the influence of big investments, the creation of various industries, and growing travel to support mostly US interests and corporations. Its proximity (roughly 90 miles (140 km) from the Florida Keys) and close relationship to the United States also helped Cuba's market economy prosper fairly quickly. As relations between Cuba and the United States deteriorated rapidly after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and the resulting expropriation and nationalisation of businesses, the island became cut off from its traditional market by an ongoing embargo and a travel ban was imposed on U.S. citizens visiting Cuba. The tourist industry declined to record low levels within two years of Castro's accession to power.

Unlike the US, Canada has maintained normal relations with Cuba and Canadians increasingly visited Cuba for vacations. Approximately one third of visitors to Cuba in 2014 were Canadians. The Cuban government has moderated its state ownership policies and allowed for localised and small private business since 1980. It also pursues revitalisation programs aimed at boosting tourism. The United States reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba in 2015, in a period referred to as the Cuban Thaw, and the tourism industry has not benefited as much as was predicted from normalised relations with America as the Trump administration reinstated a number of the pre-Cuban Thaw restrictions, and imposed fresh restrictions.

Overview Edit

Until 1997, contacts between tourists and Cubans were de facto outlawed by the Communist regime.[4][5] Following the collapse of Cuba's chief trading partner the Soviet Union, and the resulting economic crisis known as the Special Period, Cuba's government embarked on a major program to restore old hotels, remaining old pre-communism American cars, and restore several Havana streets to their former glory, as well as build beach resorts to bolster the tourist industry in order to bring in much needed finance to the island. To ensure the isolation of international tourism from the state isolated Cuban society, it was to be promoted in enclave resorts where, as much as possible, tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, known to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid".[6] By the late 1990s, tourism surpassed Cuba's traditional export industry, sugar, as the nation's leading source of revenue. Visitors come primarily from Canada and western Europe and tourist areas are highly concentrated around Varadero, Cayo Coco, the beach areas north of Holguin, and Havana. The impact on Cuba's socialist society and economy has been significant. However, in recent years Cuba's tourism has decreased due to the economic recession, escalating foreign investment conflicts and fears, and internal economic restrictions. Since its reopening to tourism in the mid-1990s Cuba has not met the projected growth, has had relatively little restoration, and slow growth. A lack of foreign investment has also had a negative effect. Since then, the Dominican Republic has surpassed Cuba in tourism, new development, and investment.[7]

History Edit

Visitors in Cuba, 1985-2011

Early tourism Edit

Cuba has long been a popular attraction for tourists. Between 1915 and 1930, Havana hosted more tourists than any other location in the Caribbean.[8] The influx was due in large part to Cuba's proximity to the United States, where restrictive prohibition on alcohol and other pastimes stood in stark contrast to the island's traditionally relaxed attitude to drinking and other pastimes. Tourism became Cuba's third largest source of foreign currency, behind the two dominant industries of sugar and tobacco. Cuban drinks such as the daiquiri and mojito became common in the United States during this time, after Prohibition was repealed.

A combination of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the end of Prohibition, and World War II severely dampened Cuba's tourist industry, and it wasn't until the 1950s that numbers began to return to the island in any significant force. During this period, American organized crime came to dominate the leisure and tourist industries, a modus operandi outlined at the infamous Havana Conference of 1946. By the mid-1950s, Havana became one of the main markets and the favourite route for the narcotics trade to the United States. Despite this, tourist numbers grew steadily at a rate of 8% a year and Havana became known as "the Latin Las Vegas".[8][9]

Hotel Nacional in Havana. The hotel's guestlist includes Frank Sinatra, Winston Churchill and Ernest Hemingway, and also played host to the infamous Havana Conference in 1946

Decline after Cuban Revolution Edit

Immediately upon becoming President of Cuba after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Manuel Urrutia ordered the closing of many bars and gambling halls associated with prostitution and the drug trade, effectively ending Cuba's image as a hedonistic escape. A new governmental body, the National Institute of the Tourism Industry (INTUR), was established to encourage more tourism; taking over hotels, clubs, and beaches making them available to the general public at low rates. Tourist board chief Carlos Almonia announced a program of huge investment in hotels and the creation of a new airport. But fears of Cuba's post-revolutionary status amongst Americans, who constituted 8 out of 10 visitors,[8] meant a rapid decline in tourism to the island.

In January 1961, relations between the nations sharply deteriorated as a result of bank and business expropriations, mass exodus, summary executions, and private property being declared illegal by a now openly communist regime being backed by the USSR. Tourism travel to Cuba was soon declared by the U.S. State Department to be contrary to U.S. foreign policy and against the national interest. Tourism that year dropped to a record low of a mere 4180, forcing a dramatic downsizing of Cuba's tourist plans.[10] Visitors to Cuba during the 1960s, 70s and 80s were comparatively rare. The number of tourists to the island did increase slowly, but it wasn't until 1989 that they equalled pre-Revolutionary numbers.[8]

Reforms and revitalization Edit

The collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a crisis in the Cuban economy. The Soviets were Cuba's chief trading partner, and had effectively sheltered Cuba's sugar industry with large subsidies for 30 years. The lack of economic diversification during this period, and the sudden loss of key markets such as the Eastern Bloc, sent the country into a deep economic depression euphemistically known in Cuba as the Special Period. The crisis precipitated the communist regime to find new avenues of income.

Policies were drawn up to satisfy the growing tourist markets of Canada and Europe with an aim to replace Cuba's reliance on the sugar industry and gain much needed foreign currency rapidly. A new Ministry of Tourism was created in 1994, and the Cuban state invested heavily in tourist facilities. Between 1990 and 2000, more than $3.5 billion was invested in the tourist industry. The number of rooms available to international tourists grew from 12,000 to 35,000,[11] and the country received a total of 10 million visitors over that period.[8] By 1995 tourism had surpassed sugar as Cuba's chief income source.

Today, travelers from around the world visit Cuba, arriving by a mixture of scheduled and charter airlines to one of Cuba's ten international airports. By far the largest number come from Canada, where arrivals have been increasing by almost 10% annually since 2007. Europeans follow next, primarily arriving from Great Britain, Spain, Italy, France and Germany. According to the official government agency, it is unknown exactly how many Americans traveled to Cuba each year as tourists, in violation of U.S. trade policy.[12] According to some statistics around 20,000 to 30,000 Americans illegally traveled to Cuba every year, while the Cuban government put it higher at over 60,000.[citation needed] Americans could either fly on the direct charter flights or reach Cuba via flights from Canada or Mexico. In June 2016, the US government authorized six airlines to start direct scheduled flights to Cuba. In January 2015, the US government had changed their legislation to make it easier for travel from the US to Cuba, further amended in March 2016. While parts of these loosened restrictions were later revoked by President Trump in 2017, travel to Cuba remains legal for US citizens who meet certain requirements.[13][14] As of 2019, Americans are legally allowed to go to Cuba with an OFAC self-reporting General License if they meet the requirements for one of the 12 categories of legal travel (such as family visits, religious purposes, journalistic work, etc.)[15] Independent travelers to Cuba can qualify for the "Support for the Cuban People" category by maintaining a full-time schedule of activities that fulfill this requirement.[16]

Until 2015, all visitors paid a $25 exit tax at the airport prior to departure but this is now included in the costs of the flight.

Visitors Edit

Cuba tourist arrivals by country
(>50,000 visitors in 2018)
Country 2010[17] 2015[18] 2016[18] 2017[19] 2018[1]
  Canada 945,248 1,300,405 1,205,809 1,133,824 1,109,339
  US 63,046 162,972 284,552 618,346 637,907
Overseas Cubans 390,111 427,747 517,561 600,306
  Italy 112,298 137,970 191,585 227,829 208,257
  Germany 93,136 175,507 242,355 243,172 197,122
  Russia 56,245 44,208 65,386 105,258 189,813
  France 80,470 138,972 187,468 209,239 177,652
  Mexico 66,650 105,767 131,353 141,540 171,555
  UK 174,343 156,052 194,815 205,562 167,370
  Spain 104,948 107,903 153,340 168,949 136,613
  Argentina 58,612 85,367 94,727 99,435 97,358
  Philippines 11,236 18,227 47,866 73,864

Foreign investment Edit

Foreign investment in the Cuban tourism sector has increased steadily since the tourism drive. This has been made possible due to constitutional changes to Cuba's socialist command economy, to allow for the recognition of foreign held capital. By the late 1990s, twenty five joint foreign and domestic venture companies were working within Cuba's tourist industry. Foreign investors and hoteliers from market based economies have found that Cuba's centralized economy and bureaucracy has created particular staffing issues and higher costs than normal. An additional factor cited by foreign investors is the degree of state involvement at the executive level, which is far higher than average.[20]

The influx of foreign capital, and associated capitalist management methods, led outside observers to question whether Cuba's socialist system could survive the resulting transformation. Fidel Castro responded in 1991,

"In the conditions of a small country like Cuba... It is very difficult to develop... relying on one's own resources. It is for this reason that we have no alternative but to associate ourselves with those foreign enterprises that can supply capital, technology, and markets."

Castro was also of the belief that despite the undeniable influence of "capitalist ideology", socialism would prevail both in Cuba and the wider "battle of ideas".[21]

One of the most notable developments in recent years has been China's investment in Cuba's tourism sector. As of 2018, Chinese companies had invested over 700 million U.S. dollars in the construction of hotels other tourism projects.[22]

Tourism and the environment Edit

The Cuban government has established safeguards designed to ensure that tourism and other development do not result in significant environmental impacts. The development of new tourist facilities and related infrastructure in Cuba must, among other things, proceed in accordance with Cuban environmental laws and policies. In 1995 the Cuban government established the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment (CITMA) and in 1997 the National Assembly has enacted Law 81 of the Environment, one of the most comprehensive "framework" environmental laws in the region. Pursuant to that Law, the government adopted a number of decree laws and resolutions aimed at ensuring that future development (including tourism development) is sustainable. Of particular importance to tourism development is Decree Law 212, Coastal Zone Management, which establishes setbacks and other siting requirements for new facilities in coastal areas. CITMA Resolution 77/99 requires a thorough environmental assessment of major new construction projects and requires that project developers obtain an environmental license from CITMA.[23]

Tourism by sector Edit

Health tourism Edit

As well as receiving traditional tourism revenues, Cuba attracts health tourists, generating annual revenues of around $40 million for the Cuban economy. Cuba has been a popular health tourism destination for more than 20 years. In 2005, more than 19,600 foreign patients traveled to Cuba for a wide range of treatments including eye surgery, neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and orthopaedics. Many patients are from Latin America, although medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, often known as night blindness, has attracted many patients from Europe and North America.[24][25]

Some complaints have arisen that foreign "health tourists" paying with dollars receive a higher quality of care than do Cuban citizens. Former leading Cuban neurosurgeon and dissident Dr. Hilda Molina asserts that the central revolutionary objective of free, quality medical care for all has been eroded by Cuba's need for foreign currency. Molina says that following the economic collapse known in Cuba as the Special Period, the Cuban government established mechanisms designed to turn the medical system into a profit-making enterprise, thus creating a disparity in the quality of healthcare services between Cubans and foreigners.[26]

Mountain tourism Edit

The recent studies shows that Cuba has a huge potential for mountaineering activity, however, it is not utilized properly. The mountaineering in Cuba should be considered to be one of the key contributors (as well as other forms of active tourism e.g. biking, diving, caving) to the development, prosperity, and well-being of all stakeholders, and especially for the communities outside the tourism enclaves.[27] Furthermore, mountaineering regions mostly lie outside the enclaves, so no conflict will exist between active and all-inclusive tourism. And what is most important is that tourism product diversification (both product and spatial) can be achieved.[28] Furthermore, by creating spatial and thematic product links as well as synergies (also with all-inclusive tourism), mountaineering, as well as other forms of active tourism (e.g. biking, diving, caving) often develop in destinations.[29]

Sex tourism Edit

Although Fidel Castro sought to eliminate prostitution after taking power, the discrepancy between typical Cuban wages (less than one US dollar per day) and the spending power of foreign tourists lures some Cubans, including minors,[30] into prostitution. However, allegations of widespread sex tourism have been downplayed by Cuban justice minister Maria Esther Reus.[31] According to the Miami Herald, prostitution is not illegal in Cuba, but procuring a prostitute for others is outlawed. The age of sexual consent on the island is 16.[31] According to a travel advice website by the government of Canada, "Cuba is actively working to prevent child sex tourism, and a number of tourists, including Canadians, have been convicted of offences related to the corruption of minors aged 16 and under. Prison sentences range from 7 to 25 years."[32] It is illegal to import or produce pornography in Cuba.[citation needed]

While the growth of tourism has benefited the city of Havana economically, there have been several negative side effects. One such side effect is the revival of sex tourism in the city. Sex tourism was a central part of the tourism industry before the Revolution. However, after 1960, prostitution was essentially eradicated on the island due to government initiatives and a significant drop in demand as tourism was minimized.[33] With tourism becoming more prevalent in the 1990s, however, so did the practice of prostitution. The demographic profile of tourists (the overwhelming majority being men between ages 25–60) is a key indicator of the existence of prostitution. Additionally, websites and magazines, such as Playboy, have outlined the opportunities for both heterosexual and homosexual sex tourism.[33] According to Trumbull, many prostitutes engage in the practice out of economic necessity, but they do not work in oppressive conditions and a large number of prostitutes in contemporary Havana see the work as a way to earn a better living than if they were to work in open jobs throughout the city.[33] Therefore, contemporary prostitution is different than the sex tourism of the 1950s in this regard.

Tourism: Economic Reform Edit

Cuba remains one of the few countries with an economy established by a centralized government. Among those countries, only Cuba possesses a large international tourism sector.[34] The fall of the USSR and the U.S embargo imposed in 1961 affected Cuba's tourism sector. Cuba was dependent on the USSR and after its collapse saw tourism as an option to reduce the effects of the crisis. Cuba's touring numbers began to decrease during the 1960s through the 1980s due to the U.S embargo during the Cold War. Additionally, almost 62,000 tourists traveled to Cuba in 1960, 4180 tourists in 1961 and then almost zero over the next 20 years.[35] Also, new hotels were built and old hotels were renovated to draw more international visitors.[36] When Raul Castro rose to power in 2008, he implemented infrastructure reform to help reduce the effects of the Cuban revolution. The Cuban government built beach resorts in order to further expand tourism. Castro's reform policies led to increased tourism and large economic success in Cuba. In fact 2.7 million people visited Cuba in 2011, while only 340,000 people toured Cuba in 1990.[37] The National GDP increased from 30.69 billion in 2002 to 114.10 billion in 2010.[37] While infrastructure reform benefitted Cuba's GDP and tourism numbers, average spending decreased from $1,310 in 1995 to $876 in 2015. Furthermore, Cuba ranks one of the lowest for returns in the travel industry.[citation needed] Contributing to the low rank: low quality food, poor customer service, and low affordability. These issues must be resolved in order to maintain Cuba's tourism economically in the long-term.[37]

Casas particulares Edit

In the context of tourism, a private residence in Cuba which has been converted to allow paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis, akin to bed and breakfast residences elsewhere, is usually referred to as a "casa particular", which simply means "private house". These are typically single-family residences, and are a very popular choice for tourists. Prices can range from 15 to 30 euros per night or less for longer stays. The casas provide an inexpensive option for young or independent tourists. A stay in a private casa allows tourists more opportunity to mix with local Cubans, and engage in Cuban cultural life.

Social impacts of tourism Edit

As tourism played an increasing role in the economy, a large percentage of young people migrate to resort towns seeking employment in the tourism industry.[38] Many of them working in menial jobs can earn more through tips than they can employed as professionals. Thus, there is an economic and social divide emerging in Cuba between those employed in the tourist industry and others.

Researchers find that the flocking of citizens to tourist regions such as Havana creates ‘tourist bubbles.’ This means that the isolated areas of the country visible to tourists are well maintained and developed to meet expectations of an ‘authentic’ experience while residents of surrounding areas continue to struggle with poverty, crime, and general deterioration of living conditions. Since jobs in the tourist sector are so lucrative, these areas experience an incredible influx of residents which cannot possibly be supported by the number of opportunities in the legal job market. As such, many of the citizens who flood tourist areas turn to illicit alternatives such as prostitution or unlicensed self-employment (often offer taxi services, currency exchange, host casas particulares, etc.)[39]

Tourist vs Cuban hotels Edit

"Cocotaxis" in Plaza de la Revolución, Havana. Because of the rapid growth of tourism in Cuba, taxi drivers can earn more than lawyers and doctors.

Between 1992 and 2008, in order to gain the much-needed hard currency, some hotels and resorts were opened only to foreign tourists, leading to accusations of "tourism apartheid". The policy was reversed by the Cuban government in 2008.

Cuba's tourism policies of the early 1990s, which were driven by the government's pressing need to earn hard currency,[40] had a major impact on the underlying egalitarianism espoused by the Cuban revolution.[41][42][43] Two parallel economies and societies quickly emerged, divided by their access to the newly legalized U.S. dollar. Those having access to dollars through contact with the lucrative tourist industry suddenly found themselves at a distinct financial advantage over professional, industrial and agricultural workers.[41][44]

To ensure the isolation of international tourism from Cuban society, tourism was to be promoted in enclave resorts where, as much as possible, tourists would be segregated from Cuban society. This was not lost on the average Cuban citizen, and the government tourism policy soon began to be referred to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid".[45]

In 1992, as Cuba entered a period of severe economic austerity, Fidel Castro defended the newly instituted policies in a speech to the Cuban National Assembly. He described the moves as an economic necessity that would need to be maintained for as long as the country had a need for foreign currency. According to Castro, the government was "pondering formulas" that would allow Cubans to use some of the tourist facilities as a reward for outstanding work, but he believed that giving Cubans access to amenities at the expense of paying foreign tourists would ultimately be a counterproductive move for the economy.[43]

Until 1997, contact between tourists and Cubans was de facto outlawed, and Cubans seen in contact with tourists were regarded as potential thieves by police.[4][5] Global human-rights groups' complaints, and the upcoming visit of Pope John Paul II, helped cause an about-face, although such contact was still frowned upon. Police often demanded identification checks of any Cubans seen in contact with tourists.[4] Tourist identification was usually not checked unless the tourist has dark skin and was mistaken for Cuban.[4] Despite the restrictions, average Cubans thrive on Cuba's tourist industry,[4][46] and many simply see the policy as inevitable.[40]

A street in the popular tourist district of Old Havana

The policy of restricting certain hotels and services to tourists was ended by the government of Raúl Castro in March 2008.[47] As well as officially allowing Cubans to stay in any hotel, the change also opened access to previously restricted areas such as Cayo Coco. Government-run tour agencies began special offers aimed at the general population, allowing them to spend a few days in beach resorts.

See also Edit

References Edit

Footnotes Edit

  1. ^ a b[dead link]
  2. ^ "One Caribbean - 2004 Cuban tourism statistics". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  3. ^ cubanew/ain. "Cuba as a Destination: Ready for the Tsunami? - ACN". Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e Corbett, Ben (2004). This Is Cuba: An Outlaw Culture Survives. West-view Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8133-3826-2.
  5. ^ a b Rennie, David. Cuba 'apartheid' as Castro pulls in the tourists, The Daily Telegraph, 08/06/2002.
  6. ^ Espinoza, Maria Dolores. "Cuban Tourism During the Special Period" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2008-06-05. (234 KB), Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE), Volume 10, August 3–5, 2000.
  7. ^ "Caribbean Islands List - Caribbean Sea Islands Travel and Tourist Information". Archived from the original on 2010-01-16. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
  8. ^ a b c d e Figueras, Miguel Alejandro (September 2001). International Tourism and the Formation of Productive Clusters in the Cuban Economy (PDF). Latin American Studies Association, 22nd Congress. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-08-05. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  9. ^ History of Cuba written and compiled by J.A. Sierra
  10. ^ Revolution to revolution: why is tourism booming in Cuba? Chandana Jayawardena
  11. ^ Tourism Development for the Cuban Economy Archived 2006-09-15 at the Wayback Machine. Rockefeller center online.
  12. ^ "Cuba News". Archived from the original on 2013-02-08. Retrieved 2012-11-22.
  13. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (2017-06-16). "Trump Reverses Pieces of Obama-Era Engagement With Cuba". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  14. ^ "Trump recasts Cuba policy, takes harder line than Obama on military, travel". miamiherald. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  15. ^ "OFAC License Application Page". Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  16. ^ e-CFR:§515.574 Support for the Cuban People, retrieved 2019-01-04
  17. ^ Cuba National Office of Statistics
  18. ^ a b[dead link]
  19. ^[dead link]
  20. ^ Hotel and the enormous tourism developments in Cuba Cornell University.
  21. ^ Gunn, Gillian. "The Sociological Impact of Rising Foreign Investment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-10-23. (82.5 KiB), Georgetown University Cuba Briefing Paper Series, "Tourist Apartheid", January 1993.
  22. ^ "Cuba welcomes more Chinese investment, visitors to boost tourism - Xinhua |". Archived from the original on September 20, 2018. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  23. ^ Daniel J. Whittle, et al., International Tourism and the Protection of Cuba's Coastal and Marine Environments, in Tulane Environmental Law Journal, Volume 16, Summer 2003.
  24. ^ A Novel Tourism Concept Archived 2010-01-28 at the Wayback Machine Caribbean News Net
  25. ^ Cuba sells its medical expertise BBC News
  26. ^ Cuban Medicine Today by Dr Hilda Molina Archived 2006-05-29 at the Wayback Machine Center for a free Cuba - link fails 16.9.06
  27. ^ Apollo, M. & Rettinger, R. (2018-03-07). "Mountaineering in Cuba: improvement of true accessibility as an opportunity for regional development of communities outside the tourism enclaves". Current Issues in Tourism. 22 (15): 1797–1804. doi:10.1080/13683500.2018.1446920. ISSN 1368-3500. S2CID 158535778.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ Rettinger, R. & Apollo, M. (2017). Enriching tour-operators’ offer to go beyond sea, sun and sand: The case of the Dominican Republic. In R. Efe & M. Ozturk (Eds.), Contemporary studies in environment and tourism (pp. 60–81). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  29. ^ Benur, A. M. & Bramwell, B. (2015). Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management, 50, 213–224. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2015.02.005
  30. ^ Taylor, Jacqueline (1995). "Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism CUBA" (PDF). Department of Sociology, University of Leicester, UK. ECPAT International. In Cuba, the link between tourism and prostitution is perhaps more direct than in any other country which hosts sex tourists
  31. ^ a b Tamayo, Juan O. (16 October 2013). "Cuba's Justice Minister says the government fights prostitution". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  32. ^ "Travel Advice and Advisories for Cuba: Sex tourism". Government of Canada. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  33. ^ a b c Trumbull, C. (2001). "Prostitution and Sex Tourism in Cuba". Cuba in Transition. American Society for the Study of the Cuban Economy.
  34. ^ Sharpley, Richard; Knight, Martin (2009). "Tourism and the State in Cuba: From the Past to the Future". International Journal of Tourism Research. 11 (3): 241–254. doi:10.1002/jtr.685.
  35. ^ Cerviño, Julio; Cubillo, José (2005). "Hotel and Tourism Development in Cuba: Opportunities, Management Challenges, and Future Trends". Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 46 (2): 223–246. doi:10.1177/0010880405275316. hdl:10016/7297. S2CID 153754361.
  36. ^ Babb, Florence (2011). "Che, Chevys, and Hemingway's daiquiris: Cuban tourism in a time of globalisation". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 30 (1): 50–63. doi:10.1111/j.1470-9856.2010.00450.x.
  37. ^ a b c Hingtgen, Nathan; Kline, Carol; Fernandes, Luci; McGehee, Nancy (2015). "Cuba in transition: Tourism industry perceptions of entrepreneurial change". Tourism Management. 50: 184–193. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2015.01.033.
  38. ^ "Tourism In Cuba Threatens To Drive Up Income Inequality, Regional Disparities, Risk". 11 August 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  39. ^ Bailey, Nick (2008). "The Challenge and Response to Global Tourism in the Post-modern Era: The Commodification, Reconfiguration and Mutual Transformation of Habana Vieja, Cuba". Urban Studies. 45 (5–6): 1079–1096. doi:10.1177/0042098008089854. ISSN 0042-0980. S2CID 53760094 – via Sage Journals.
  40. ^ a b Cave, Damien. Tourism apartheid in Cuba Archived 2008-06-20 at the Wayback Machine,, February 6, 2002. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  41. ^ a b Ternto, Angelo : Castro and Cuba : From Revolution To The Present p114
  42. ^ Facio, Elisa. During the Special Period[permanent dead link], Global Development Studies, I, 3-4 (Winter 1998-Spring 1999), 57-78. Republished in DES: A Scholarly Journal of Ethnic Studies, Volume 1 Number 1, University of Colorado Department of Ethnic Studies.
  43. ^ a b Farah, Douglas. Catering to Foreigners Instead of Cubans Puts Castro on Defensive Washington Post Foreign Service Sunday, August 9, 1992.
  44. ^ Cuba: dólares ahondan las diferencias de clase El Nuevo Herald
  45. ^ Espino, María Dolores. "Cuban Tourism During the Special Period" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2008-06-05. (234 KiB), Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE), Volume 10, August 3–5, 2000.
  46. ^ Amrhein, Saundra and Lush, Tamara. The 'reality tour' of Cuba, St. Petersburg Times, May 12, 2002.
  47. ^ Cubans allowed to stay at tourist hotels Sydney Morning Herald - March 31, 2008

Further reading Edit

External links Edit