|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (September 2017)|
||It has been suggested that Stereotypes in Consumer Behaviour be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2016.|
In social psychology, a stereotype is any thought widely adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality. However, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype. Within psychology and spanning across other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping that provide their own expanded definition. Some of these definitions share commonalities, though each one may also harbor unique aspects that may contradict the others.
The term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1798 by Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original.
Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion.
Relationship with other types of intergroup attitudesEdit
Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts. Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and often occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, and discrimination refers to actions.
Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people emotionally react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, and then evaluate those characteristics.
Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are:
- Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance
- Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped groups
- Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields
Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group. Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping.
Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance, Katz and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative.
By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are frequently ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are respectively predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources (e.g., college space) are perceived as warm, whereas high-status (e.g., economically or educationally successful) groups are considered competent. The groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions. The model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected. This model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content.
Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid, repressed, and authoritarian people. This idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person.
Stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, and social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup level (see social identity approaches: social identity theory and self-categorization theory), an individual must see themselves as part of a group and being part of that group must also be salient for the individual.
Craig McGarty, Russell Spears, and Vincent Y. Yzerbyt (2002) argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, and vice versa.
Stereotypes can help make sense of the world. They are a form of categorization that helps to simplify and systematize information. Thus, information is more easily identified, recalled, predicted, and reacted to. Stereotypes are categories of objects or people. Between stereotypes, objects or people are as different from each other as possible. Within stereotypes, objects or people are as similar to each other as possible.
Gordon Allport has suggested possible answers to why people find it easier to understand categorized information. First, people can consult a category to identify response patterns. Second, categorized information is more specific than non-categorized information, as categorization accentuates properties that are shared by all members of a group. Third, people can readily describe object in a category because objects in the same category have distinct characteristics. Finally, people can take for granted the characteristics of a particular category because the category itself may be an arbitrary grouping.
A complementary perspective theorizes how stereotypes function as time- and energy-savers that allow people to act more efficiently. Yet another perspective suggests that stereotypes are people's biased perceptions of their social contexts. In this view, people use stereotypes as shortcuts to make sense of their social contexts, and this makes a person's task of understanding his or her world less cognitively demanding.
In the following situations, the overarching purpose of stereotyping is for people to put their collective self (their ingroup membership) in a positive light:
- when stereotypes are used for explaining social events
- when stereotypes are used for justifying activities of one's own group (ingroup) to another group (outgroup)
- when stereotypes are used for differentiating the ingroup as positively distinct from outgroups
As mentioned previously, stereotypes can be used to explain social events. Henri Tajfel described his observations of how some people found that the anti-Semitic contents of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion only made sense if Jews have certain characteristics. Therefore, according to Tajfel, Jews were stereotyped as being evil and yearning for world domination to match the anti-Semitic ‘facts’ as presented in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
People create stereotypes of an outgroup to justify the actions that their ingroup has committed (or plans to commit) towards that outgroup. For example, according to Tajfel, Europeans stereotyped Turkish, Indian, and Chinese people as being incapable of achieving financial advances without European help. This stereotype was used to justify European colonialism in Turkey, India, and China.
An assumption is that people want their ingroup to have a positive image relative to outgroups, and so people want to differentiate their ingroup from relevant outgroups in a desirable way. If an outgroup does not affect the ingroup’s image, then from an image preservation point of view, there is no point for the ingroup to be positively distinct from that outgroup.
People can actively create certain images for relevant outgroups by stereotyping. People do so when they see that their ingroup is no longer as clearly and/or as positively differentiated from relevant outgroups, and they want to restore the intergroup differentiation to a state that favours the ingroup.
Social functions: self-categorizationEdit
People change their stereotype of their ingroups and outgroups to suit context. People are likely to self-stereotype their ingroup as homogenous in an intergroup context, and they are less likely to do so in an intragroup context where the need to emphasise their group membership is not as great. Stereotypes can emphasise a person’s group membership in two steps: First, stereotypes emphasise the person’s similarities with ingroup members on relevant dimensions, and also the person’s differences from outgroup members on relevant dimensions. Second, the more the stereotypes emphasise within-group similarities and between-group differences, the more salient the person’s social identity becomes, and the more depersonalised that person is. A depersonalised person abandons individual differences and embraces the stereotypes associated with their relevant group membership.
Stereotypes are an indicator of ingroup consensus. When there are intragroup disagreements over stereotypes of the ingroup and/or outgroups, ingroup members take collective action to prevent other ingroup members from diverging from each other.
John C. Turner proposed in 1987 that if ingroup members disagree on an outgroup stereotype, then one of three possible collective actions follow: First, ingroup members may negotiate with each other and conclude that they have different outgroup stereotypes because they are stereotyping different subgroups of an outgroup (e.g., Russian gymnasts versus Russian boxers). Second, ingroup members may negotiate with each other, but conclude that they are disagreeing because of categorical differences amongst themselves. Accordingly, in this context, it is better to categorise ingroup members under different categories (e.g., Democrats versus Republican) than under a shared category (e.g., American). Finally, ingroup members may influence each other to arrive at a common outgroup stereotype.
Different disciplines give different accounts of how stereotypes develop: Psychologists may focus on an individual's experience with groups, patterns of communication about those groups, and intergroup conflict. As for sociologists, they may focus on the relations among different groups in a social structure. They suggest that stereotypes are the result of conflict, poor parenting, and inadequate mental and emotional development. Once stereotypes have formed, there are two main factors that explain their persistence. First, the cognitive effects of schematic processing (see schema) make it so that when a member of a group behaves as we expect, the behavior confirms and even strengthens existing stereotypes. Second, the affective or emotional aspects of prejudice render logical arguments against stereotypes ineffective in countering the power of emotional responses.
Correspondence bias refers to the tendency to ascribe a person's behavior to disposition or personality, and to underestimate the extent to which situational factors elicited the behavior. Correspondence bias can play an important role in stereotype formation.
For example, in a study by Roguer and Yzerbyt (1999) participants watched a video showing students who were randomly instructed to find arguments either for or against euthanasia. The students that argued in favor of euthanasia came from the same law department or from different departments. Results showed that participants attributed the students' responses to their attitudes although it had been made clear in the video that students had no choice about their position. Participants reported that group membership, i.e., the department that the students belonged to, affected the students' opinions about euthanasia. Law students were perceived to be more in favor of euthanasia than students from different departments despite the fact that a pretest had revealed that subjects had no preexisting expectations about attitudes toward euthanasia and the department that students belong to. The attribution error created the new stereotype that law students are more likely to support euthanasia.
Nier et al. (2012) found that people who tend to draw dispositional inferences from behavior and ignore situational constraints are more likely to stereotype low-status groups as incompetent and high-status groups as competent. Participants listened to descriptions of two fictitious groups of Pacific Islanders, one of which was described as being higher in status than the other. In a second study, subjects rated actual groups – the poor and wealthy, women and men – in the United States in terms of their competence. Subjects who scored high on the measure of correspondence bias stereotyped the poor, women, and the fictitious lower-status Pacific Islanders as incompetent whereas they stereotyped the wealthy, men, and the high-status Pacific Islanders as competent. The correspondence bias was a significant predictor of stereotyping even after controlling for other measures that have been linked to beliefs about low status groups, the just-world hypothesis and social dominance orientation.
Research has shown that stereotypes can develop based on a cognitive mechanism known as illusory correlation – an erroneous inference about the relationship between two events. If two statistically infrequent events co-occur, observers overestimate the frequency of co-occurrence of these events. The underlying reason is that rare, infrequent events are distinctive and salient and, when paired, become even more so. The heightened salience results in more attention and more effective encoding, which strengthens the belief that the events are correlated.
In the intergroup context, illusory correlations lead people to misattribute rare behaviors or traits at higher rates to minority group members than to majority groups, even when both display the same proportion of the behaviors or traits. Black people, for instance, are a minority group in the United States and interaction with blacks is a relatively infrequent event for an average white American. Similarly, undesirable behavior (e.g. crime) is statistically less frequent than desirable behavior. Since both events "blackness" and "undesirable behavior" are distinctive in the sense that they are infrequent, the combination of the two leads observers to overestimate the rate of co-occurrence. Similarly, in workplaces where women are underrepresented and negative behaviors such as errors occur less frequently than positive behaviors, women become more strongly associated with mistakes than men.
In a landmark study, David Hamilton and Richard Gifford (1976) examined the role of illusory correlation in stereotype formation. Subjects were instructed to read descriptions of behaviors performed by members of groups A and B. Negative behaviors outnumbered positive actions and group B was smaller than group A, making negative behaviors and membership in group B relatively infrequent and distinctive. Participants were then asked who had performed a set of actions: a person of group A or group B. Results showed that subjects overestimated the frequency with which both distinctive events, membership in group B and negative behavior, co-occurred, and evaluated group B more negatively. This despite the fact the proportion of positive to negative behaviors was equivalent for both groups and that there was no actual correlation between group membership and behaviors. Although Hamilton and Gifford found a similar effect for positive behaviors as the infrequent events, a meta-analytic review of studies showed that illusory correlation effects are stronger when the infrequent, distinctive information is negative.
Hamilton and Gifford's distinctiveness-based explanation of stereotype formation was subsequently extended. A 1994 study by McConnell, Sherman, and Hamilton found that people formed stereotypes based on information that was not distinctive at the time of presentation, but was considered distinctive at the time of judgement. Once a person judges non-distinctive information in memory to be distinctive, that information is re-encoded and re-represented as if it had been distinctive when it was first processed.
One explanation for why stereotypes are shared is that they are the result of a common environment that stimulates people to react in the same way.
The problem with the ‘common environment’ explanation in general is that it does not explain how shared stereotypes can occur without direct stimuli. Research since the 1930s suggested that people are highly similar with each other in how they describe different racial and national groups, although those people have no personal experience with the groups they are describing.
Socialization and upbringingEdit
Another explanation says that people are socialised to adopt the same stereotypes. Some psychologists believe that although stereotypes can be absorbed at any age, stereotypes are usually acquired in early childhood under the influence of parents, teachers, peers, and the media.
If stereotypes are defined by social values, then stereotypes only change as per changes in social values. The suggestion that stereotype content depend on social values reflects Walter Lippman's argument in his 1922 publication that stereotypes are rigid because they cannot be changed at will.
Studies emerging since the 1940s refuted the suggestion that stereotype contents cannot be changed at will. Those studies suggested that one group’s stereotype of another group would become more or less positive depending on whether their intergroup relationship had improved or degraded. Intergroup events (e.g., World War Two, Persian Gulf conflict) often changed intergroup relationships. For example, after WWII, Black American students held a more negative stereotype of people from countries that were the United States’s WWII enemies. If there are no changes to an intergroup relationship, then relevant stereotypes do not change.
According to a third explanation, shared stereotypes are neither caused by the coincidence of common stimuli, nor by socialisation. This explanation posits that stereotypes are shared because group members are motivated to behave in certain ways, and stereotypes reflect those behaviours. It is important to note from this explanation that stereotypes are the consequence, not the cause, of intergroup relations. This explanation assumes that when it is important for people to acknowledge both their ingroup and outgroup, they will emphasise their difference from outgroup members, and their similarity to ingroup members.
The dual-process model of cognitive processing of stereotypes asserts that automatic activation of stereotypes is followed by a controlled processing stage, during which an individual may choose to disregard or ignore the stereotyped information that has been brought to mind.
A number of studies have found that stereotypes are activated automatically. Patricia Devine (1989), for example, suggested that stereotypes are automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of a stereotyped group and that the unintentional activation of the stereotype is equally strong for high- and low-prejudice persons. Words related to the cultural stereotype of blacks were presented subliminally. During an ostensibly unrelated impression-formation task, subjects read a paragraph describing a race-unspecified target person's behaviors and rated the target person on several trait scales. Results showed that participants who received a high proportion of racial words rated the target person in the story as significantly more hostile than participants who were presented with a lower proportion of words related to the stereotype. This effect held true for both high- and low-prejudice subjects (as measured by the Modern Racism Scale). Thus, the racial stereotype was activated even for low-prejudice individuals who did not personally endorse it. Studies using alternative priming methods have shown that the activation of gender and age stereotypes can also be automatic.
Subsequent research suggested that the relation between category activation and stereotype activation was more complex. Lepore and Brown (1997), for instance, noted that the words used in Devine's study were both neutral category labels (e.g., "Blacks") and stereotypic attributes (e.g., "lazy"). They argued that if only the neutral category labels were presented, people high and low in prejudice would respond differently. In a design similar to Devine's, Lepore and Brown primed the category of African-Americans using labels such as "blacks" and "West Indians" and then assessed the differential activation of the associated stereotype in the subsequent impression-formation task. They found that high-prejudice participants increased their ratings of the target person on the negative stereotypic dimensions and decreased them on the positive dimension whereas low-prejudice subjects tended in the opposite direction. The results suggest that the level of prejudice and stereotype endorsement affects people's judgements when the category – and not the stereotype per se – is primed.
Research has shown that people can be trained to activate counterstereotypic information and thereby reduce the automatic activation of negative stereotypes. In a study by Kawakami et al. (2000), for example, participants were presented with a category label and taught to respond "No" to stereotypic traits and "Yes" to nonstereotypic traits. After this training period, subjects showed reduced stereotype activation. This effect is based on the learning of new and more positive stereotypes rather than the negation of already existing ones.
Automatic behavioral outcomesEdit
Empirical evidence suggests that stereotype activation can automatically influence social behavior. For example, Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996) activated the stereotype of the elderly among half of their participants by administering a scrambled-sentence test where participants saw words related to age stereotypes. Subjects primed with the stereotype walked significantly more slowly than the control group (although the test did not include any words specifically referring to slowness), thus acting in a way that the stereotype suggests that elderly people will act. In another experiment, Bargh, Chen, and Burrows also found that because the stereotype about blacks includes the notion of aggression, subliminal exposure to black faces increased the likelihood that randomly selected white college students reacted with more aggression and hostility than participants who subconsciously viewed a white face. Similarly, Correll et al. (2002) showed that activated stereotypes about blacks can influence people's behavior. In a series of experiments, black and white participants played a video game, in which a black or white person was shown holding a gun or a harmless object (e.g., a mobile phone). Participants had to decide as quickly as possible whether to shoot the target. When the target person was armed, both black and white participants were faster in deciding to shoot the target when he was black than when he was white. When the target was unarmed, the participants avoided shooting him more quickly when he was white. Time pressure made the shooter bias even more pronounced.
Stereotypes can be efficient shortcuts and sense-making tools. They can, however, keep people from processing new or unexpected information about each individual, thus biasing the impression formation process. Early researchers believed that stereotypes were inaccurate representations of reality. A series of pioneering studies in the 1930s found no empirical support for widely held racial stereotypes. By the mid-1950s, Gordon Allport wrote that, "It is possible for a stereotype to grow in defiance of all evidence."
Research on the role of illusory correlations in the formation of stereotypes suggests that stereotypes can develop because of incorrect inferences about the relationship between two events (e.g., membership in a social group and bad or good attributes). This means that at least some stereotypes are inaccurate.
Empirical social science research shows that stereotypes are often accurate. Jussim et al. reviewed four studies concerning racial and seven studies that examined gender stereotypes about demographic characteristics, academic achievement, personality and behavior. Based on that, the authors argued that some aspects of ethnic and gender stereotypes are accurate while stereotypes concerning political affiliation and nationality are much less accurate. A study by Terracciano et al. also found that stereotypic beliefs about nationality do not reflect the actual personality traits of people from different cultures.
Attributive ambiguity refers to the uncertainty that members of stereotyped groups experience in interpreting the causes of others' behavior toward them. Stereotyped individuals who receive negative feedback can attribute it either to personal shortcomings, such as lack of ability or poor effort, or the evaluator's stereotypes and prejudice toward their social group. Alternatively, positive feedback can either be attributed to personal merit or discounted as a form of sympathy or pity.
Crocker et al. (1991) showed that when black participants were evaluated by a white person who was aware of their race, black subjects mistrusted the feedback, attributing negative feedback to the evaluator's stereotypes and positive feedback to the evaluator's desire to appear unbiased. When the black participants' race was unknown to the evaluator, they were more accepting of the feedback.
Attributional ambiguity has been shown to affect a person's self-esteem. When they receive positive evaluations, stereotyped individuals are uncertain of whether they really deserved their success and, consequently, they find it difficult to take credit for their achievements. In the case of negative feedback, ambiguity has been shown to have a protective effect on self-esteem as it allows people to assign blame to external causes. Some studies, however, have found that this effect only holds when stereotyped individuals can be absolutely certain that their negative outcomes are due to the evaluators's prejudice. If any room for uncertainty remains, stereotyped individuals tend to blame themselves.
Attributional ambiguity can also make it difficult to assess one's skills because performance-related evaluations are mistrusted or discounted. Moreover, it can lead to the belief that one's efforts are not directly linked to the outcomes, thereby depressing one's motivation to succeed.
Stereotype threat occurs when people are aware of a negative stereotype about their social group and experience anxiety or concern that they might confirm the stereotype. Stereotype threat has been shown to undermine performance in a variety of domains.
Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson conducted the first experiments showing that stereotype threat can depress intellectual performance on standardized tests. In one study, they found that black college students performed worse than white students on a verbal test when the task was framed as a measure of intelligence. When it was not presented in that manner, the performance gap narrowed. Subsequent experiments showed that framing the test as diagnostic of intellectual ability made black students more aware of negative stereotypes about their group, which in turn impaired their performance. Stereotype threat effects have been demonstrated for an array of social groups in many different arenas, including not only academics but also sports, chess and business.
Not only has stereotype threat been widely criticized by on a theoretical basis, but has failed several attempts to replicate it's experimental evidence. The findings in support of the concept have been suggested by multiple methodological reviews to be the product of publication bias.
Stereotypes lead people to expect certain actions from members of social groups. These stereotype-based expectations may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies, in which one's inaccurate expectations about a person's behavior, through social interaction, prompt that person to act in stereotype-consistent ways, thus confirming one's erroneous expectations and validating the stereotype.
Word, Zanna, and Cooper (1974) demonstrated the effects of stereotypes in the context of a job interview. White participants interviewed black and white subjects who, prior to the experiments, had been trained to act in a standardized manner. Analysis of the videotaped interviews showed that black job applicants were treated differently: They received shorter amounts of interview time and less eye contact; interviewers made more speech errors (e.g., stutters, sentence incompletions, incoherent sounds) and physically distanced themselves from black applicants. In a second experiment, trained interviewers were instructed to treat applicants, all of whom were white, like the whites or blacks had been treated in the first experiment. As a result, applicants treated like the blacks of the first experiment behaved in a more nervous manner and received more negative performance ratings than interviewees receiving the treatment previously afforded to whites.
A 1977 study by Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid found a similar pattern in social interactions between men and women. Male undergraduate students were asked to talk to female undergraduates, whom they believed to be physically attractive or unattractive, on the phone. The conversations were taped and analysis showed that men who thought that they were talking to an attractive woman communicated in a more positive and friendlier manner than men who believed that they were talking to unattractive women. This altered the women's behavior: Female subjects who, unknowingly to them, were perceived to be physically attractive behaved in a friendly, likeable, and sociable manner in comparison with subjects who were regarded as unattractive.
Because stereotypes simplify and justify social reality, they have potentially powerful effects on how people perceive and treat one another. As a result, stereotypes can lead to discrimination in labor markets and other domains. For example, Tilcsik (2011) has found that employers who seek job applicants with stereotypically male heterosexual traits are particularly likely to engage in discrimination against gay men, suggesting that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is partly rooted in specific stereotypes and that these stereotypes loom large in many labor markets. Agerström and Rooth (2011) showed that automatic obesity stereotypes captured by the Implicit Association Test can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. Similarly, experiments suggest that gender stereotypes play an important role in judgments that affect hiring decisions.
Stereotypes can affect self-evaluations and lead to self-stereotyping. For instance, Correll (2001, 2004) found that specific stereotypes (e.g., the stereotype that women have lower mathematical ability) affect women's and men's evaluations of their abilities (e.g., in math and science), such that men assess their own task ability higher than women performing at the same level. Similarly, a study by Sinclair et al. (2006) has shown that Asian American women rated their math ability more favorably when their ethnicity and the relevant stereotype that Asian Americans excel in math was made salient. In contrast, they rated their math ability less favorably when their gender and the corresponding stereotype of women's inferior math skills was made salient. Sinclair et al. found, however, that the effect of stereotypes on self-evaluations is mediated by the degree to which close people in someone's life endorse these stereotypes. People's self-stereotyping can increase or decrease depending on whether close others view them in stereotype-consistent or inconsistent manner.
Stereotyping can also play a central role in depression, when people have negative self-stereotypes about themselves, according to Cox, Abramson, Devine, and Hollon (2012). This depression that is caused by prejudice (i.e., "deprejudice") can be related to a group membership (e.g., Me–Gay–Bad) or not (e.g., Me–Bad). If someone holds prejudicial beliefs about a stigmatized group and then becomes a member of that group, they may internalize their prejudice and develop depression. People may also show prejudice internalization through self-stereotyping because of negative childhood experiences such as verbal and physical abuse.
Role in art and cultureEdit
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Stereotypes are common in various cultural media, where they take the form of dramatic stock characters. These characters are found in the works of playwright Bertold Brecht, Dario Fo, and Jacques Lecoq, who characterize their actors as stereotypes for theatrical effect. In commedia dell'arte this is similarly common. The instantly recognizable nature of stereotypes mean that they are effective in advertising and situation comedy. These stereotypes change, and in modern times only a few of the stereotyped characters shown in John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress would be recognizable.
Media stereotypes of women first emerged in the early 20th century. Various stereotypic depictions or "types" of women appeared in magazines, including Victorian ideals of femininity, the New Woman, the Gibson Girl, the Femme fatale, and the Flapper. More recently, artists such as Anne Taintor and Matthew Weiner (the producer of Mad Men) have used vintage images or ideas to insert their own commentary of stereotypes for specific eras. Weiner's character Peggy Olson continually battles gender stereotypes throughout the series, excelling in a workplace dominated by men.
Some contemporary studies indicate that racial, ethnic and cultural stereotypes are still widespread in Hollywood blockbuster movies. Portrayals of Latin Americans in film and print media are restricted to a narrow set of characters. Latin Americans are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Latino macho or the Latina vixen, gang members, (illegal) immigrants, or entertainers. By comparison, they are rarely portrayed as working professionals, business leaders or politicians.
Stereotypes are also common in video games, with women being portrayed as stereotypes such as the "damsel in distress" or as sexual objects (see Gender representation in video games). Black men are portrayed most often in stereotypical roles such as athletes and gangsters (see Racial representations in video games).
In literature and art, stereotypes are clichéd or predictable characters or situations. Throughout history, storytellers have drawn from stereotypical characters and situations to immediately connect the audience with new tales. Sometimes such stereotypes can be sophisticated, such as Shakespeare's Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Arguably a stereotype that becomes complex and sophisticated ceases to be a stereotype per se by its unique characterization. Thus while Shylock remains politically unstable in being a stereotypical Jew, the subject of prejudicial derision in Shakespeare's era, his many other detailed features raise him above a simple stereotype and into a unique character, worthy of modern performance. Simply because one feature of a character can be categorized as being typical does not make the entire character a stereotype.
Despite their proximity in etymological roots, cliché and stereotype are not used synonymously in cultural spheres. For example, a cliché is a high criticism in narratology where genre and categorization automatically associates a story within its recognizable group. Labeling a situation or character in a story as typical suggests it is fitting for its genre or category. Whereas declaring that a storyteller has relied on cliché is to pejoratively observe a simplicity and lack of originality in the tale. To criticize Ian Fleming for a stereotypically unlikely escape for James Bond would be understood by the reader or listener, but it would be more appropriately criticized as a cliché in that it is overused and reproduced. Narrative genre relies heavily on typical features to remain recognizable and generate meaning in the reader/viewer.
In cultural studies, critic Homi Bhabha has theorized that cultural stereotypes prevail because they work through repetition and ambivalence, easily shifting between contradictory meanings. Thus in colonial culture the 'native' is simultaneously stereotyped as sly and indolent, lascivious and impotent. Similarly, Rey Chow has shown that the "ethnic" in contemporary culture comes from split stereotypes reinforced by the influences of global capital. More recently, Jörg Schweinitz has discussed the history of stereotyping in film, while Mrinalini Chakravorty has considered how contemporary global novels traffic in cultural stereotypes to make ethical demands of readers.
- McGarty, Craig; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.; Spears, Russel (2002). "Social, cultural and cognitive factors in stereotype formation" (PDF). Stereotypes as explanations: The formation of meaningful beliefs about social groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-521-80047-1.
- Judd, Charles M.; Park, Bernadette (1993). "Definition and assessment of accuracy in social stereotypes". Psychological Review. 100 (1): 109–128. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.1.109.
- Cox, William T. L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Devine, Patricia G.; Hollon, Steven D. (2012). "Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Depression: The Integrated Perspective" (PDF). Perspectives on Psychological Science. 7 (5): 427–449. PMID 26168502. doi:10.1177/1745691612455204.
- στερεός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- τύπος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- Online Etymology Dictionary
- Kleg, Milton (1993). Hate Prejudice and Racism. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 135–137. ISBN 978-0-585-05491-9.
- Fiske, Susan T. (1998). "Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination". In Gilbert, Daniel T.; Fiske, Susan T.; Lindzey, Gardner. The Handbook of Social Psychology. Volume Two (4th ed.). Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-19-521376-8.
- Denmark, Florence L. (2010). "Prejudice and Discrimination". In Weiner, Irving B.; Craigheaid, W. Edward. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Volume Three (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley. p. 1277. ISBN 978-0-470-47921-6.
- Katz, Daniel; Braly, Kenneth W. (1935). "Racial prejudice and racial stereotypes". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. 30 (2): 175–193. doi:10.1037/h0059800.
- Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A., & Turner, J. C. (1994). Stereotyping and social reality. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Devine, Patricia G. (1989). "Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 56 (1): 5–18. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168.
- Tajfel, Henri (1981). "Social stereotypes and social groups". In Turner, John C.; Giles, Howard. Intergroup behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 144–167. ISBN 978-0-631-11711-7.
- Tilcsik, András (2011). "Pride and Prejudice: Employment Discrimination against Openly Gay Men in the United States". American Journal of Sociology. 117 (2): 586–626. PMID 22268247. doi:10.1086/661653.
- Operario, Don; Fiske, Susan T. (2003). "Stereotypes: Content, Structures, Processes, and Context". In Brown, Rupert; Gaertner, Samuel L. Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 22–44. ISBN 978-1-4051-0654-2.
- Fiske, Susan T.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Glick, Peter; Xu, Jun (2002). "A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow From Perceived Status and Competition" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. 82 (6): 878–902. PMID 12051578. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248.
- Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T. (2002). "Doddering But Dear: Process, Content, and Function in Stereotyping of Older Persons". In Nelson, Todd D. Ageism: Stereotyping and Prejudice against Older Persons. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-262-14077-5.
- Dovidio, John F.; Gaertner, Samuel L. (2010). "Intergroup Bias". In Susan T., Fiske; Gilbert, Daniel T.; Lindzey, Gardner. Handbook of Social Psychology. Volume Two (5th ed.). Hooboken, N.J.: John Wiley. p. 1085. ISBN 978-0-470-13747-5.
- Cuddy, Amy J. C.; et al. (2009). "Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences" (PDF). British Journal of Social Psychology. British Psychological Society. 48 (1): 1–33. doi:10.1348/014466608X314935.
- Macrae CN, Stangor C, Hewstone M. (eds.) "Stereotypes and stereotyping." 1995, p. 4
- McGarty, Craig; Spears, Russel; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y. (2002). "Conclusion: stereotypes are selective, variable and contested explanations". Stereotypes as explanations: The formation of meaningful beliefs about social groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 186–199. ISBN 978-0-521-80047-1.
- Allport, Gordon W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-201-00175-4.
- Haslam, S. A., Turner, J. C., Oakes, P. J., Reynolds, K. J., & Doosje, B. (2002). From personal pictures in the head to collective tools in the word: how shared stereotypes allow groups to represent and change social reality. In C. McGarty, V. Y. Yzerbyt, & R. Spears (Eds.). Stereotypes as explanations: The formation of meaningful beliefs about social groups (pp. 157-185). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Akert, R. M. (2010). Social Psychology (7th edition). New York: Pearson.
- Mackie, Diane M.; Hamilton, David L.; Susskind, Joshua; Rosselli, Francine (1996). "Social Psychological Foundations of Stereotype Formation". In MacRae, C. Neil; Stangor, Charles; Hewstone, Miles. Stereotypes and Stereotyping. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-57230-053-8.
- Rogier, Anouk; Yzerbyt, Vincent (1999). "Social attribution, correspondence bias, and the emergence of stereotypes" (PDF). Swiss Journal of Psychology. 58 (4): 233–240. doi:10.1024/1421-0126.96.36.199. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Nier, Jason A.; Bajaj, Priya; McLean, Meghan C.; Schwartz, Elizabeth (2012). "Group status, perceptions of agency, and the correspondence bias: Attributional processes in the formation of stereotypes about high and low status groups". Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 16: 1–12. doi:10.1177/1368430212454925.
- Mullen, Brian; Johnson, Craig (1990). "Distinctiveness-based illusory correlations and stereotyping: A meta-analytic integration". British Journal of Social Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the British Psychological Society. 29 (1): 11–28. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1990.tb00883.x.
- Meiser, Thorsten (2006). "Contingency Learning and Biased Group Impressions". In Fiedler, Klaus; Justin, Peter. Information Sampling and Adaptive Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 183–209. ISBN 978-0-521-83159-8.
- Hamilton, David L.; Gifford, Robert K. (1976). "Illusory correlation in interpersonal perception: A cognitive basis of stereotypic judgments". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Elsevier. 12 (4): 392–407. doi:10.1016/S0022-1031(76)80006-6.
- Berndsen, Mariëtte; Spears, Russel; van der Pligt, Joop; McGarty, Craig (2002). "Illusory correlation and stereotype formation: making sense of group differences and cognitive biases". In McGarty, Craig; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.; Spears, Russel. Stereotypes as explanations: The formation of meaningful beliefs about social groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 90–110. ISBN 978-0-521-80047-1.
- Stroessner, Steven J.; Plaks, Jason E. (2001). "Illusory Correlation and Stereotype Formation: Tracing the Arc of Research Over a Quarter Century". In Moskowitz, Gordon B. Cognitive Social Psychology: The Princeton Symposium on the Legacy and Future of Social Cognition. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 247–259. ISBN 0-8058-3414-1.
- Moskowitz, Gordon B. (2005). Social Cognition: Understanding Self and Others. New York: Guilford Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-59385-085-2.
- McConnell, Allen R.; Sherman, Steven J.; Hamilton, David L. (1994). "Illusory correlation in the perception of groups: an extension of the distinctiveness-based account" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 67 (3): 414–429. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.524.
- Katz, Daniel; Braley, Kenneth (1933). "Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 28 (3): 280–290. doi:10.1037/h0074049.
- Meenes, Max (1943). "A Comparison of Racial Stereotypes of 1935 and 1942". Journal of Social Psychology. 17 (2): 327–336. doi:10.1080/00224545.1943.9712287.
- Haslam, S. Alexander; Turner, John C.; Oakes, Penelope J.; McGarty, Craig; Hayes, Brett K. (1992). "Context-dependent variation in social stereotyping 1: The effects of intergroup relations as mediated by social change and frame of reference". European Journal of Social Psychology. 22 (1): 3–20. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420220104.
- Devine, Patricia G.; Monteith, Margo J. (1999). "Automaticty and Control in Stereotyping". In Chaiken, Shelly; Trope, Yaacov. Dual-Process Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 341–342. ISBN 978-1-57230-421-5.
- Bargh, John A. (1994). "The Four Horsemen of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, Control in Social Cognition". In Wyer, Robert S.; Srull, Thomas K. Handbook of Social Cognition. Two (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8058-1056-1.
- Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Hardin, Curtis D. (1996). "Automatic Stereotyping" (PDF). Psychological Science. 7 (3): 136–141. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00346.x.
- Perdue, Charles W.; Gurtman, Michael B. (1990). "Evidence for the automaticity of ageism". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 26 (3): 199–216. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(90)90035-K.
- Brown, Rupert (2010). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4051-1306-9.
- Lepore, Lorella; Brown, Rupert (1997). "Category and Stereotype Activation: Is Prejudice Inevitable?" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 72 (2): 275–287. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065.
- Kawakami, Kerry; et al. (2000). "Just say no (to stereotyping): effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78 (5): 871–888. PMID 10821195. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111.
- Gawronski, Bertram; et al. (2008). "When "Just Say No" is not enough: Affirmation versus negation training and the reduction of automatic stereotype activation". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 44 (2): 370–377. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.12.004.
- Wheeler, S. Christian; Petty, Richard E. (2001). "The Effects of Stereotype Activation on Behavior: A Review of Possible Mechanisms" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 127 (6): 797–826. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.127.6.797. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Devos, Thierry; Huynh, Que-Lam; Banaji, Mahzarin D. (2012). "Implicit self and identity". In Leary, Mark R.; Tangney, June Price. Handbook of self and identity (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. p. 164–165. ISBN 978-1-4625-0305-6.
- Dijksterhuis, Ap (2001). "Automatic social influence: The perception-behavior links as an explanatory mechanism for behavior matching". In Forgas, Joseph P.; Williams, Kipling D. Social influence: direct and indirect processes. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. p. 99–100.
- Operario, Din; Fiske, Susan T. (2001). "Causes and Consequences of Stereotypes in Organizations". In London, Manuel. How People Evaluate Others in Organizations. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. p. 2012. ISBN 978-0-8058-3612-7.
- Bargh, John A.; Chen, Mark; Burrows, Lara (1996). "Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation on Action" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 71 (2): 230–244. PMID 8765481. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Correll, Joshua; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M.; Wittenbrink, Bernd (2002). "The Police Officer's Dilemma: Using Ethnicity to Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83 (6): 1314–1329. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Yueh-Ting Lee, Lee J. Jussim, and Clark R. McCauley, eds. (September 1995). Stereotype Accuracy: Toward Appreciating Group Differences. American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-55798-307-7.
- Jussim, Lee; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Harber, Kent; Cohen, Florette (2009). "The unbearable accuracy of stereotypes". In Nelson, Todd D. Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. New York: Psychology Press. pp. 199–227. ISBN 978-0-8058-5952-2.
- Terracciano, A; Abdel-Khalek, AM; Adám, N; Adamovová, L; Ahn, CK; Ahn, HN; Alansari, BM; Alcalay, L; et al. (2005). "National Character Does Not Reflect Mean Personality Trait Levels in 49 Cultures". Science. 310 (5745): 96–100. PMC . PMID 16210536. doi:10.1126/science.1117199.
- Zemore, Sarah E.; Fiske, Susan T.; Kim, Hyun-Jeong (2000). "Gender Stereotypes and the Dynamics of Social Interaction". In Eckes, Thomas; Trautner, Hanns Martin. The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-0-585-30065-8.
- Crocker, Jennifer; Major, Brenda; Stelle, Claude (1998). "Social Stigma". In Gilbert, Daniel T.; Fiske, Susan T.; Lindzey, Gardner. The Handbook of Social Psychology. Volume Two (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 519–521. ISBN 978-0-19-521376-8.
- Whiteley, Bernard E.; Kite, Mary E. (2010). The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. pp. 428–435. ISBN 978-0-495-59964-7.
- Crocker, Jennifer; Voelkl, Kristin; Testa, Maria; Major, Brenda (1991). "Social stigma: The affective consequences of attributional ambiguity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 60 (2): 218– 228. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
- Osborne, Jason W. (2007). "Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety". Educational Psychology. 27 (1): 135–154. doi:10.1080/01443410601069929.
- Quinn, Diane M.; Kallen, Rachel W.; Spencer, Steven J. (2010). "Stereotype Threat". In Dividio, John F.; et al. The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. pp. 379–394. ISBN 978-1-4129-3453-4.
- Inzlicht, Michael; Tullett, Alexa M.; Gutsell, Jennifer N. (2012). "Stereotype Threat Spillover: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Coping with Threats to Social Identity". In Inzlicht, Michael; Schmader, Toni. Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-973244-9.
- Aronson, Joshua; Stelle, Claude M. (2005). "Chapter 24: Stereotypes and the Fragility of Academic Competence, Motivation, and Self-Concept". In Elliot, Andrew J.; Dweck, Carol S. Handbook of Competence and Motivation. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 436, 443. ISBN 978-1-59385-123-1.
- Steele, Claude M.; Aronson, Joshua (November 1995). "Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 69 (5): 797–811. PMID 7473032. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527.
- Stone, Jeff; Lynch, Christian I.; Sjomeling, Mike; Darley, John M. (1999). "Stereotype threat effects on Black and White athletic performance". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 77 (6): 1213–1227. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.
- Maass, Anne; D'Ettole, Claudio; Cadinu, Mara (2008). "Checkmate? The role of gender stereotypes in the ultimate intellectual sport" (PDF). European Journal of Social Psychology. 38 (2): 231–245. doi:10.1002/ejsp.440.
- Gupta, V. K.; Bhawe, N. M. (2007). "The Influence of Proactive Personality and Stereotype Threat on Women's Entrepreneurial Intentions". Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 13 (4): 73–85. doi:10.1177/10717919070130040901.
- Arthur Robert Jensen "The g factor: the science of mental ability" 1998 ISBN 0-275-96103-6,Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881, pages 513-515: "the phenomenon of stereotype threat can be explained in terms of a more general construct, test anxiety, which has been studied since the early days of psychometrics. Test anxiety tends to lower performance levels on tests in proportion to the degree of complexity and the amount of mental effort they require of the subject. The relatively greater effect of test anxiety in the black samples, who had somewhat lower SAT scores, than the white subjects in the Stanford experiments constitutes an example of the Yerkes-Dodson law ... by conducting the same type of experiment using exclusively white (or black) subjects, divided into lower- and higher-ability groups, it might be shown that the phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat has nothing to do with race as such, but results from the interaction of ability level with test anxiety as a function of test complexity."
- Stoet, G.; Geary, D. C. (2012). "Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement?". Review of General Psychology. 16: 93–102. doi:10.1037/a0026617. Pdf.
- Fryer, R. G.; Levitt, S. D.; List, J. A. (2008). "Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study". American Economic Review. 98 (2): 370–375. doi:10.1257/aer.98.2.370.
- Yong, Ed (9 September 2016). "A Worrying Trend for Psychology’s 'Simple Little Tricks'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle (1 January 2013). "An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance." (PDF). Developmental Psychology. 49: 1886–1897. PMID 23356523. doi:10.1037/a0031412.
- Flore, Paulette C.; Wicherts, Jelte M. (2014). "Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? A meta-analysis". Journal of School Psychology. 53 (1): 25–44. ISSN 0022-4405. PMID 25636259. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2014.10.002.
- Kassin, Saul M.; Fein, Steven; Markus, Hazel Rose (2011). Social psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-495-81240-1.
- Brown, Rupert (2010). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 94–97. ISBN 978-1-4051-1306-9.
- Chen, Mark; Bargh, John A. (1997). "Nonconscious Behavioral Confirmation Processes: The Self-Fulfilling Consequences of Automatic Stereotype Activation" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 33 (5): 541–560. doi:10.1006/jesp.1997.1329. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Word, Carl O.; Zanna, Mark P.; Cooper, Joel (1974). "The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Elsevier. 10 (2): 109–120. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(74)90059-6.
- Snyder, Mark; Tanke, Elizabeth D.; Berscheid, Ellen (1977). "Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 35 (9): 656–666. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.116.
- Banaji, Mahzarin R. (2002). "The Social Psychology of Stereotypes". In Smelser, Neil; Baltes, Paul. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: Pergamon. pp. 15100–15104. ISBN 978-0-08-043076-8. doi:10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/01754-X.
- Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L. (2008). "Stereotypes and prejudice create workplace discrimination". In Brief, Arthur P. Diversity at Work. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13–52. ISBN 978-0-521-86030-7.
- Agerström, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof (2011). "The role of automatic obesity stereotypes in real hiring discrimination". Journal of Applied Psychology. 96 (4): 790–805. PMID 21280934. doi:10.1037/a0021594.
- Davison, Heather K.; Burke, Michael J. (2000). "Sex Discrimination in Simulated Employment Contexts: A Meta-analytic Investigation". Journal of Vocational Behavior. 56 (2): 225–248. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1999.1711.
- Rudman, Laurie A.; Glick, Peter (2001). "Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash toward Agentic Women" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues. 57 (4): 743–762. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00239.
- Sinclair, Stacey; Huntsinger, Jeff (2006). "The Interpersonal Basis of Self-Stereotyping". In Levin, Shana; Van Laar, Colette. Stigma and Group Inequality: Social Psychological Perspectives. Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8058-4415-3.
- Correll, Shelley J. (2001). "Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessments" (PDF). American Journal of Sociology. 106 (6): 1691–1730. doi:10.1086/321299.
- Correll, Shelley J. (2004). "Constraints into Preferences: Gender, Status, and Emerging Career Aspirations" (PDF). American Sociological Review. 69 (1): 93–113. doi:10.1177/000312240406900106.
- Sinclair, Stacey; Hardin, Curtis D.; Lowery, Brian S. (2006). "Self-Stereotyping in the Context of Multiple Social Identities" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. 90 (4): 529–542. PMID 16649853. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1689.
- Kitch, Carolyn L. (2001). The Girl on the Magazine Cover: The Origins of Visual Stereotypes in American Mass Media. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-0-8078-2653-9.
- van Ginneken, Jaap (2007). Screening Difference: How Hollywood's Blockbuster Films Imagine Race, Ethnicity, and Culture. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742555839.
- Román, Ediberto (2000). "Who Exactly Is Living La Vida Loca: The Legal and Political Consequences of Latino-Latina Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes in Film and Other Media". Journal of Gender, Race & Justice. 4 (1): 37–68.
- Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture (Routledge) https://www.routledge.com/The-Location-of-Culture-2nd-Edition/Bhabha/p/book/9780203820551
- Rey Chow, The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Columbia UP) https://cup.columbia.edu/book/the-protestant-ethnic-and-the-spirit-of-capitalism/9780231124218
- Jörg Schweinitz, Film and Stereotype (Columbia UP) https://cup.columbia.edu/book/film-and-stereotype/9780231151481
- Mrinalini Chakravorty, In Stereotype (Columbia UP) https://cup.columbia.edu/book/in-stereotype/9780231165976
- Hilton, James L.; von Hippel, William (1996). "Stereotypes". Annual Review of Psychology. 47 (1): 237–271. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.237.
- Stuart Ewen, Elizabeth Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality. New York (Seven Stories Press) 2006
- Stereotype & Society A Major Resource: Constantly updated and archived
- Regenberg, Nina (2007). "Are Blonds Really Dumb?". In mind (magazine) (3).
- Are Stereotypes True?
- Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance, Margaret Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, Nalini Ambady Research about the effects of 'positive' and negative stereotypes on encouraging/discouraging performance.
- Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 0679313184. OCLC 55682258..
- Crawford, M. & Unger, R. (2004). Women and Gender: A Feminist Psychology. McGraw Hill New York. New York. 45-49.
- Spitzer, B.L.; Henderson, K; Zavian, M. T. (1999). "Gender differences in population versus media body sizes: A comparison over four decades". Sex Roles. 40: 545–565. doi:10.1023/a:1018836029738.
|Look up stereotype in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Interview with social psychologists Susan Fiske and Mike North about the stereotyping of older people
- How gender stereotypes influence emerging career aspirations – lecture by Stanford University sociologist Shelley Correll on 21 October 2010
- Social Psychology Network Stereotyping
- Stereotypes – Media Smarts, Canada's Centre for Digital and Media Literacy
- Age and Health based stereotyping Age and Health based stereotyping