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Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, shortlisting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization.[1] Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies are used to undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies which support all aspects of recruitment have become widespread.[2]



Job analysisEdit

In situations where new jobs are created or the nature of a job has substantially changed, a job analysis might be undertaken to document the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) required or sought for the job. From these the relevant information is captured in a person specification.[3]


Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external recruitment advertising, using appropriate media, such as job portals, local or national newspapers, social media (such as LinkedIn or RiteSite), business media, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, or in a variety of ways via the internet.

Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates—who, in many cases, may be content in the current positions and are not actively looking to move. This initial research for candidates—also called name generation—produces contact information for potential candidates, whom the recruiter can then discreetly contact and screen.[3]

Screening and selectionEdit

Various psychological tests can assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessments are also available to measure physical ability. Recruiters and agencies may use applicant tracking systems to filter candidates, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance-based assessment.[4] In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.[3]

Employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass soft skills such as interpersonal or team leadership.[5] Many companies, including multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities, are also often concerned about whether candidate fits the prevailing company culture.[6] Companies and recruitment agencies are now turning to video screening as a way to notice these skills without the need to invite the candidates in physical.[7] Screening as a practice for hiring has undergone continual change over the years and often organizations are using video to maintain the aforementioned standards they set for themselves and the industry.

Disabled candidatesEdit

The word disability carries few positive connotations for most employers. Research has shown that employer biases tend to improve through first-hand experience and exposure with proper supports for the employee[8] and the employer making the hiring decisions. As for most companies, money and job stability are two of the contributing factors to the productivity of a disabled employee, which in return equates to the growth and success of a business. Hiring disabled workers produce more advantages than disadvantages.[9] There is no difference in the daily production of a disabled worker.[10] Given their situation, they are more likely to adapt to their environmental surroundings and acquaint themselves with equipment, enabling them to solve problems and overcome adversity as with other employees. The U.S. IRS grants companies Disabled Access Credit when they meet eligibility criteria.[11]


Many major corporations recognize the need for diversity in hiring to compete successfully in a global economy.[12]

Recruitment process outsourcingEdit

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is a form of Business process outsourcing (BPO) where a company engages a third party provider to manage all or part of its recruitment process.


Internal recruitment or internal mobility (not to be confused with internal recruiters) refers to the process of a candidate being selected from the existing workforce to take up a new job in the same organization, perhaps as a promotion, or to provide career development opportunity, or to meet a specific or urgent organizational need. Advantages include the organization's familiarity with the employee and their competencies insofar as they are revealed in their current job, and their willingness to trust said employee. It can be quicker and have a lower cost to hire someone internally.[13]

An employee referral program is a system where existing employees recommend prospective candidates for the job offered, and in some organizations if the suggested candidate is hired, the employee receives a cash bonus.[14]

Niche firms tend to focus on building ongoing relationships with their candidates, as the same candidates may be placed many times throughout their careers. Online resources have developed to help find niche recruiters.[15] Niche firms also develop knowledge on specific employment trends within their industry of focus (e.g., the energy industry) and are able to identify demographic shifts such as aging and its impact on the industry.[16]

Social recruiting is the use of social media for recruiting including sites like Facebook and Twitter or career-oriented social networking sites such as LinkedIn and XING.[17][18] It is a rapidly growing sourcing technique, especially with middle-aged people. On Google+, the fastest-growing age group is 45–54. On Twitter, the expanding generation is people from ages 55–64.[19]

Mobile recruiting is a recruitment strategy that uses mobile technology to attract, engage and convert candidates. Mobile recruiting is often cited as a growing opportunity for recruiters to connect with candidates more efficiently with "over 89% of job seekers saying their mobile device will be an important tool and resource for their job search."[20]

Some recruiters work by accepting payments from job seekers, and in return help them to find a job. This is illegal in some countries, such as in the United Kingdom, in which recruiters must not charge candidates for their services (although websites such as LinkedIn may charge for ancillary job-search-related services). Such recruiters often refer to themselves as "personal marketers" and "job application services" rather than as recruiters.

Using multiple-criteria decision analysis[21] tools such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and combining it with conventional recruitment methods provides an added advantage by helping the recruiters to make decisions when there are several diverse criteria to be considered or when the applicants lack past experience; for instance, recruitment of fresh university graduates.[22]

Multi tier recruitment modelEdit

In some companies where the recruitment volume is high, it is common to see a multi tier recruitment model where the different sub-functions are grouped together to achieve efficiency.

An example of a 3 tier recruitment model:

  • Tier 1 - Contact/ Help desk - This tier acts as the first point of contact where recruitment requests are being raised. If the requests are simple to fulfil or are queries in nature, resolution may take place at this tier
  • Tier 2 - Administration - This tier manages mainly the administration processes
  • Tier 3 - Process - This tier manages the process and how the requests get fulfilled


A recruitment strategy is a plan an organization enacts to form a recruiting process and establish a candidate pool. An organization uses recruitment strategies to identify a hiring vacancy, establish a timeline, and identify goals throughout the recruitment process.[23] Recruitment strategies are typically the responsibility of the human resources department.[24]


Organizations define their own recruiting strategies to identify who they will recruit, as well as when, where, and how that recruitment should take place[25]. Common recruiting strategies answer the following questions[26]:

  • What type of individuals should be targeted?
  • What recruitment message should be communicated?
  • How can the targeted individuals best be reached?
  • When should the recruitment campaign begin?
  • What should be the nature of a site visit?


Organizations develop recruitment objectives, and the recruitment strategy follows these objectives. Typically, organizations develop pre- and post-hire objectives and incorporate these objectives into a holistic recruitment strategy.[26] Once an organization deploys a recruitment strategy it conducts recruitment activities. This typically starts by advertising a vacant position.[27]

Professional AssociationsEdit

There are numerous professional associations for human resources professionals. Such associations typically offer benefits such as member directories, publications, discussion groups, awards, local chapters, vendor relations, government lobbying, and job boards.[28]

Professional associations also offer a recruitment resource for human resources professionals.[29]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "What is recruitment".
  2. ^ Sulich, Adam (2016-02-06). "Mathematical models and non-mathematical methods in recruitment and selection processes". Reviewed papers form 17th international conference. Mekon 2015. 1. ISBN 978-80-248-3684-3.
  3. ^ a b c [1], Acas. Accessed 7 March 2017
  4. ^ Teacher's Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment. "What is Performance-Based Learning and Assessment, and Why is it Important", Chapter 1, ISBN 0871202611
  5. ^ "SULICH Adam; Mathematical models and non-mathematical methods in recruitment and selection processes". Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  6. ^ Hays Quarterly Report Sharing our recruiting know-how, Nick Deligiannis, April - June 2012
  7. ^ "How companies and not-for-profit organisations can benefit from video interviewing - TeloInterview". Retrieved 2018-01-12.
  8. ^ Darling, Peter (Aug 2007). "Disabilities and the Workplace". Business NH Magazine. 24 (8): 28.
  9. ^ N/A. "DISCUSSION: ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND STATISTICS". Valdosta State University. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  10. ^ "General discussion topics in recruitment".
  11. ^ N/A. "Tax Benefits for Businesses Who Have Employees with Disabilities". IRS. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Dan Schawbel (15 August 2012). "The Power Within: Why Internal Recruiting & Hiring Are on the Rise". Time. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  14. ^ Editor (15 July 2015). "What is an employee referral program?". Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  15. ^ "How to Find Recruiters in Your Niche". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  16. ^ "The New Energy Crisis: Power Industry in for a Jolt as About Half of Workforce Readies for Retirement".
  17. ^ "Social Recruiting and Your Job Search". About. Archived from the original on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
  18. ^ "Atlassian's social hiring spree pays off". iTnews.
  19. ^ Meister, Jeanne (January 6, 2014). "2014: The Year Social HR Matters". Forbes. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  20. ^ "INFOGRAPHIC: The Rise Of Mobile Job Search | Glassdoor Blog". Glassdoor Blog. Retrieved 2016-01-08.
  21. ^ Malara Z., Miśko R. and Sulich A. “Wroclaw University of Technology graduates' career paths”, Vesnik of Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno. Series 5. Economics. Sociology. Biology , vol. 6 no. 3, pp. 6-12, 2016.
  22. ^ Zarei, Mohammad Hossein; Wong, Kuan Yew (2014). "Making the recruitment decision for fresh university graduates: A study of employment in an industrial organisation". International Journal of Management and Decision Making. 13 (4): 380. doi:10.1504/IJMDM.2014.065357.
  23. ^ "Recruitment Strategy - Recruitment Dictionary - Hiring Resources - Recruitee". Hiring Resources. 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  24. ^; "Recruitment Strategies". Recruiter. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  25. ^ "Recruitment strategy: A call to action". Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  26. ^ a b Breaugh, James A. (2013-10-15). "Establishing Recruitment Objectives and Developing a Recruitment Strategy for Attaining Them". The Oxford Handbook of Recruitment. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199756094.013.0020.
  27. ^ Breaugh, James (2016). Talent Acquisition: A Guide to Understanding and Managing the Recruiting Process. SHRM Foundation.
  28. ^ "The Changing Environment of Professional HR Associations « Cornell HR Review". 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  29. ^ "4.3 Recruitment Strategies – Human Resource Management". Retrieved 2019-01-02.

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