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Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race. Policies of racial segregation may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized.

Contents

WorldwideEdit

According to World Values Survey data, as analyzed by The Washington Post, the least tolerant country worldwide is Jordan.[1]. According to this study, racial tolerance is also low in ethnically diverse Asian countries, while Western and Central Europe and the United States are relatively racially tolerant.[1]

More than 30 years of field experiment studies have found significant levels of discrimination against non-whites in labor, housing, and product markets in 10 different countries.[2]

IndiaEdit

According to the World Values Survey, the second most racist country is India, where people from other countries are treated differently by some Indian people, based both on skin color and country of origin.[1] African people are especially affected by racism in India, denied living accommodations and even attacked and killed.[3][4][5]

The NetherlandsEdit

A study conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2013 found significant levels of discrimination against job applicants with Arabic-sounding names.[6]

AfricaEdit

Blacks in African countries have committed many racial crimes against other races, mostly Asians and Middle Easterners and Whites to drive them out[7][8].

LiberiaEdit

One of the few countries that enshrine racial discrimination in their constitution is Liberia: Whites cannot be made citizens there.[9]

United StatesEdit

With regard to employment, multiple audit studies have found strong evidence of racial discrimination in the United States' labor market, with magnitudes of employers' preferences of white applicants found in these studies ranging from 50% to 240%. Other such studies have found significant evidence of discrimination in car sales, home insurance applications, provision of medical care, and hailing taxis.[10]

EmploymentEdit

Racial discrimination in the workplace falls into two basic categories:[11]

  • Disparate Treatment: An employer's policies discriminate based upon any immutable racial characteristic, such as skin, eye or hair color, and certain facial features;
  • Disparate Impact: Although an employer may not intend to discriminate based on racial characteristics, its policies nonetheless have an adverse effect based upon race.

Discrimination may occur at any point in the employment process, including pre-employment inquiries, hiring practices, compensation, work assignments and conditions, privileges granted to employees, promotion, employee discipline and termination.[12]

Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the University of Chicago and MIT found in a 2004 study that there was widespread racial discrimination in the workplace. In their study, candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" were 50% more likely than those whose names were merely perceived as "sounding black" to receive callbacks for interviews. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States' long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)[13]

Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City, finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half the rate of equally qualified whites.[14][15] Another recent audit by UCLA sociologist S. Michael Gaddis examines the job prospects of black and white college graduates from elite private and high quality state higher education institutions. This research finds that blacks who graduate from an elite school such as Harvard have about the same prospect of getting an interview as whites who graduate from a state school such as UMass Amherst.[16]

A 2001 study of workplace evaluation in a large US company showed that Black supervisors rate White subordinates lower than average and vice versa.[17]

HousingEdit

Multiple experimental audit studies conducted in the United States have found that blacks and Hispanics experience discrimination in about one in five and one in four housing searches, respectively.[10]

A 2014 study also found evidence of racial discrimination in an American rental apartment market.[18]

Effects on healthEdit

Studies have shown an association between reported racial discrimination and adverse physical and mental health outcomes.[19] This evidence has come from multiple countries, including the United States,[20][21][22][23] the United Kingdom,[24] and New Zealand.[25]

Reverse discriminationEdit

Reverse discrimination is a term for allegations that the member of a dominant or majority group has suffered discrimination for the benefit of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.

United StatesEdit

In the United States, courts have upheld race-conscious policies when they are used to promote a diverse work or educational environment.[26][27] Some critics have described those policies as discriminating against white people. In response to arguments that such policies (e.g. affirmative action) constitute discrimination against whites, sociologists note that the purpose of these policies is to level the playing field to counteract discrimination.[28][29]

PerceptionsEdit

A 2016 poll found that 38% of US citizens thought that Whites faced a lot of discrimination. Among Democrats, 29% thought there was some discrimination against Whites in the United States, while 49% of Republicans thought the same.[30] Similarly, another poll conducted earlier in the year found that 41% of US citizens believed there was "widespread" discrimination against whites.[31] There is evidence that some people are motivated to believe they are the victims of reverse discrimination because the belief bolsters their self-esteem.[32]

LawEdit

In the United States, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits all racial discrimination based on race.[33] Although some courts have taken the position that a white person must meet a heightened standard of proof to prove a reverse-discrimination claim, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) applies the same standard to all claims of racial discrimination without regard to the victim's race.[33]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "A fascinating map of the world's most and least racially tolerant countries". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  2. ^ Riach, P. A.; Rich, J. (November 2002). "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place". The Economic Journal. 112 (483): F480–F518. doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00080. Controlled experiments, using matched pairs of bogus transactors, to test for discrimination in the marketplace have been conducted for over 30 years, and have extended across 10 countries. Significant, persistent and pervasive levels of discrimination have been found against non-whites and women in labour, housing and product markets. 
  3. ^ CNN, Huizhong Wu. "African students hospitalized in roving mob attacks in India". CNN. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  4. ^ "India Is Racist, And Happy About It". Outlook. India. 29 June 2009. 
  5. ^ Elizabeth Soumya. "Africans decry 'discrimination' in India". Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  6. ^ Blommaert, L.; Coenders, M.; van Tubergen, F. (19 December 2013). "Discrimination of Arabic-Named Applicants in the Netherlands: An Internet-Based Field Experiment Examining Different Phases in Online Recruitment Procedures". Social Forces. 92 (3): 957–82. doi:10.1093/sf/sot124. 
  7. ^ Parsons, Timothy (2003). The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780325070681. 
  8. ^ "'The horror experienced is almost incomprehensible'". NewsComAu. Retrieved 2017-08-16. 
  9. ^ Ludwig, Bernadette (2016-01-15). "A Black Republic: Citizenship and naturalisation requirements in Liberia". Migration Letters. 13 (1): 84–99. ISSN 1741-8992. 
  10. ^ a b Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana (August 2008). "The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets". Annual Review of Sociology. 34 (1): 181–209. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740. PMC 2915460 . PMID 20689680. 
  11. ^ Larson, Aaron (10 January 2017). "Racial Discrimination Law". ExpertLaw. ExpertLaw.com. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  12. ^ "Facts About Race/Color Discrimination". U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  13. ^ Bertrand, M.; Mullainathan, S. (2004). "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination". American Economic Review. 94 (4): 991–1013. doi:10.1257/0002828042002561. 
  14. ^ "Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment," 2009, American Sociological Review, by Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski
  15. ^ "The Mark of a Criminal Record," 2003, American Journal of Sociology, by Devah Pager
  16. ^ Gaddis, S. M. (June 2015). "Discrimination in the Credential Society: An Audit Study of Race and College Selectivity in the Labor Market". Social Forces. 93 (4): 1451–1479. doi:10.1093/sf/sou111. 
  17. ^ Elvira, Marta; Town, Robert (2001-10-01). "The Effects of Race and Worker Productivity on Performance Evaluations". Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society. 40 (4): 571–590. doi:10.1111/0019-8676.00226. ISSN 1468-232X. 
  18. ^ Ewens, Michael; Tomlin, Bryan; Wang, Liang Choon (March 2014). "Statistical Discrimination or Prejudice? A Large Sample Field Experiment". Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (1): 119–34. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00365. 
  19. ^ Pascoe, EA; Smart Richman, L (July 2009). "Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 135 (4): 531–54. PMID 19586161. 
  20. ^ Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A. (22 November 2008). "Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 32 (1): 20–47. doi:10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0. 
  21. ^ Landrine, H.; Klonoff, E. A. (1 May 1996). "The Schedule of Racist Events: A Measure of Racial Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative Physical and Mental Health Consequences". Journal of Black Psychology. 22 (2): 144–168. doi:10.1177/00957984960222002. 
  22. ^ Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux (June 2006). "Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents". Journal of Research on Adolescence. 16 (2): 187–216. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00128.x. 
  23. ^ Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S. (February 2003). "Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings From Community Studies". American Journal of Public Health. 93 (2): 200–208. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200. 
  24. ^ Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; B?cares, Laia (July 2016). "Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (7): 1294–1300. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303121. 
  25. ^ Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James (June 2006). "Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study". The Lancet. 367 (9527): 2005–2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68890-9. 
  26. ^ Biskupic, Joan (April 22, 2009). "Court tackles racial bias in work promotions". USA Today. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  27. ^ "The Struggle for Access in Law School Admissions". Academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  28. ^ "Ten Myths About Affirmative Action". Understandingprejudice.org. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  29. ^ Pincus, F. L. (1 November 1996). "Discrimination Comes in Many Forms: Individual, Institutional, and Structural" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 40 (2): 186–194. doi:10.1177/0002764296040002009. 
  30. ^ "Discrimination and conflicts in U.S. society". U.S. Politics & Policy. Pew Research Center. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  31. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (17 August 2016). "Six in 10 Americans Say Racism Against Blacks Is Widespread". Gallup. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  32. ^ Wilkins, Clara L.; Hirsch, Alexander A.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Inkles, Michael P. (23 February 2016). "The threat of racial progress and the self-protective nature of perceiving anti-White bias". Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 20 (6): 801–812. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  33. ^ a b "Section 15: Race & Color Discrimination". EEOC Compliance Manual. 19 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 

Further readingEdit