John Wiley & Sons, Inc., commonly known as Wiley (//), is an American multinational publishing company founded in 1807 that focuses on academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books, journals, and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, and educational materials for undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education students.
New York City, United States
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.|
|Nonfiction topics||Science, technology, medicine, professional development, higher education|
|Revenue||US$1.7 billion (2017)|
|No. of employees||5,100|
The company was established in 1807 when Charles Wiley opened a print shop in Manhattan. The company was the publisher of 19th century American literary figures like James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal, religious, and other non-fiction titles. The firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley later shifted its focus to scientific, technical, and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests.
Wiley's son John (born in Flatbush, New York, 4 October 1808; died in East Orange, New Jersey, 21 February 1891) took over the business when Charles Wiley died in 1826. The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co., then Wiley & Putnam, and then John Wiley. The company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business.
Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, and higher education.
In 1989, Wiley acquired the life science publisher Liss.
In 2005, Wiley acquired the British medical publisher Whurr.
Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's role in the evolution of publishing against a social, cultural, and economic backdrop. Wiley has also created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes.
High-growth and emerging marketsEdit
In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006 (though it has had a sales presence since 1966), and has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, Brazil, effective May 1, 2012.
Strategic acquisition and divestitureEdit
Wiley's scientific, technical, and medical business was expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007 for US$1.12 billion, its largest purchase to that time.[self-published source?] The combined business, named Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly (also known as Wiley-Blackwell), publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, reference works, databases, and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences, medicine and allied health, engineering, the humanities, and the social sciences. Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell also publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies; among them are the American Cancer Society (ACS), for which it publishes Cancer, the flagship ACS journal; the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing; and the American Anthropological Association. Other journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, Hepatology, International Finance and Liver Transplantation.
Launched as a pilot in 1997 with fifty journals and expanded through 1998, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, reference works, and books, including backfile content. Journals previously from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley also began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. Interscience was supplanted by Wiley Online Library in 2010.
On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel (including the Frommer's brand), culinary, general interest, nautical, pets, and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research, learning, and professional practices, and on lifelong learning through digital technology". On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc. On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks, dictionaries and study guides. In 2013, Wiley sold its pets, crafts and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books. HarperCollins acquired parts of Wiley Canada's trade operations in 2013; the remaining Canadian trade operations were merged into Wiley U.S.
In 2021, Wiley acquired the Hindawi publishing firm for $298 million in cash to expand its open access journals portfolio. Wiley stated it would keep the Hindawi journals under their previous brand and continue developing the open source publishing platform Phenom.
In 2021, Wiley announced the acquisition of eJournalPress (EJP), a provider of web-based technology solutions for scholarly publishing companies.
Brands and partnershipsEdit
Wiley's Professional Development brands include For Dummies, Jossey-Bass, Pfeiffer, Wrox Press, J.K. Lasser, Sybex, Fisher Investments Press, and Bloomberg Press. The STMS business is also known as Wiley-Blackwell, formed following the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007. Brands include The Cochrane Library and more than 1,500 journals.
Wiley has publishing alliances with partners including Microsoft, CFA Institute, the Culinary Institute of America, the American Institute of Architects, the National Geographic Society, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Wiley-Blackwell also publishes journals on behalf of more than 700 professional and scholarly society partners including the New York Academy of Sciences, American Cancer Society, The Physiological Society, British Ecological Society, American Association of Anatomists, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and The London School of Economics and Political Science, making it the world's largest society publisher.
Wiley partners with GreyCampus to provide professional learning solutions[buzzword] around big data and digital literacy. Wiley has also partnered with five other higher-education publishers to create CourseSmart, a company developed to sell college textbooks in eTextbook format on a common platform. In 2002, Wiley created a partnership with French publisher Anuman Interactive in order to launch a series of e-books adapted from the For Dummies collection. In 2013, Wiley partnered with American Graphics Institute to create an online education video and e-book subscription service called The Digital Classroom.
In 2016, Wiley launched a worldwide partnership with Christian H. Cooper to create a program for candidates taking the Financial Risk Manager exam offered by the Global Association of Risk Professionals. The program will be built on the existing Wiley efficient learning platform and Christian's legacy Financial Risk Manager product. The partnership is built on the view the FRM designation will rapidly grow to be one of the premier financial designations for practitioners that will track the growth of the Chartered Financial Analyst designation. The program will serve tens of thousands of FRM candidates worldwide and is based on the adaptive learning technology of Wiley's efficient learning platform and Christian's unique writing style and legacy book series.
With the integration of digital technology and the traditional print medium, Wiley has stated that in the near future its customers will be able to search across all its content regardless of original medium and assemble a custom product in the format of choice. Web resources are also enabling new types of publisher-customer interactions within the company's various businesses.
In 2016, Wiley started a collaboration with the open access publisher Hindawi to help convert nine Wiley journals to full open access. In 2018 a further announcement was made indicating that the Wiley-Hindawi collaboration would launch an additional four new fully open access journals.
On January 18, 2019, Wiley signed a contract with Project DEAL to begin open access to its academic journals for more than 700 academic institutions. It is the first contract between a publisher and a leading research nation (Germany) toward open access to scientific research.
Higher Education's "WileyPLUS" is an online product that combines electronic versions of texts with media resources and tools for instructors and students. It is intended to provide a single source from which instructors can manage their courses, create presentations, and assign and grade homework and tests; students can receive hints and explanations as they work on homework, and link back to relevant sections of the text.
"Wiley Custom Select" launched in February 2009 as a custom textbook system allowing instructors to combine content from different Wiley textbooks and lab manuals and add in their own material. The company has begun to make content from its STMS business available to instructors through the system, with content from its Professional/Trade business to follow.
In January 2008, Wiley launched a new version of its evidence-based medicine (EBM) product, InfoPOEMs with InfoRetriever, under the name Essential Evidence Plus, providing primary-care clinicians with point-of-care access to the most extensive source of EBM information via their PDAs/handheld devices and desktop computers. Essential Evidence Plus includes the InfoPOEMs daily EBM content alerting service and two new content resources—EBM Guidelines, a collection of practice guidelines, evidence summaries, and images, and e-Essential Evidence, a reference for general practitioners, nurses, and physician assistants providing first-contact care.
Architecture and designEdit
In October 2008, Wiley launched a new online service providing continuing education units (CEU) and professional development hour (PDH) credits to architects and designers. The initial courses are adapted from Wiley books, extending their reach into the digital space. Wiley is an accredited AIA continuing education provider.
Wiley Online LibraryEdit
Wiley Online Library is a subscription-based library of John Wiley & Sons that launched on August 7, 2010, replacing Wiley InterScience. It is a collection of online resources covering life, health, and physical sciences as well as social science and the humanities. To its members, Wiley Online Library delivers access to over 4 million articles from 1,600 journals, more than 22,000 books, and hundreds of reference works, laboratory protocols, and databases from John Wiley & Sons and its imprints, including Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley-VCH, and Jossey-Bass.
Governance and operationsEdit
While the company is led by an independent management team and Board of Directors, the involvement of the Wiley family is ongoing, with sixth-generation members (and siblings) Peter Booth Wiley as the non-executive chairman of the board and Bradford Wiley II as a Director and past chairman of the board. Seventh-generation members Jesse and Nate Wiley work in the company's Professional/Trade and Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly businesses, respectively.
Wiley has been publicly owned since 1962, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange since 1995; its stock is traded under the symbols NYSE: WLY (for its Class A stock) and NYSE: WLYB (for its class B stock).
Wiley's operations are organized into three business divisions:
- Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly (STMS), also known as Wiley-Blackwell
- Professional Development
- Global Education
The company has approximately 10,000 employees worldwide, with headquarters in Hoboken, New Jersey, since 2002.
In 2008, Wiley was named for the second consecutive year to Forbes magazine's annual list of the "400 Best Big Companies in America". In 2007, Book Business magazine cited Wiley as "One of the 20 Best Book Publishing Companies to Work For". For two consecutive years, 2006 and 2005, Fortune magazine named Wiley one of the "100 Best Companies to Work For". Wiley Canada was named to Canadian Business magazine's 2006 list of "Best Workplaces in Canada", and Wiley Australia has received the Australian government's "Employer of Choice for Women" citation every year since its inception in 2001. In 2004, Wiley was named to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Best Workplaces for Commuters" list. Working Mother magazine in 2003 listed Wiley as one of the "100 Best Companies for Working Mothers", and that same year, the company received the Enterprise Award from the New Jersey Business & Industry Association in recognition of its contribution to the state's economic growth. In 1998, Financial Times selected Wiley as one of the "most respected companies" with a "strong and well thought out strategy" in its global survey of CEOs.
In August 2009, the company announced a proposed reduction of Wiley-Blackwell staff in content management operations in the UK and Australia by approximately 60, in conjunction with an increase of staff in Asia. In March 2010, it announced a similar reorganization of its Wiley-Blackwell central marketing operations that would lay off approximately 40 employees. The company's position was that the primary goal of this restructuring was to increase workflow efficiency. In June 2012, it announced the proposed closing of its Edinburgh facility in June 2013 with the intention of relocating journal content management activities currently performed there to Oxford and Asia. The move would lay off approximately 50 employees.
Gender pay gapEdit
Wiley reported a mean 2017 gender pay gap of 21.1% for its UK workforce, while the median was 21.5%. The gender bonus gaps are far higher, at 50.7% for the median measure and 42.3% for the mean. Wiley said: "Our mean and median bonus gaps are driven by our highest earners, who are predominantly male."
The entire editorial board of the European Law Journal resigned over a dispute about contract terms and the behavior of its publisher, Wiley. Wiley did not allow the editorial board members to decide over editorial appointments and decisions.
A majority of the editorial board of the journal Diversity & Distributions resigned in 2018 after Wiley allegedly blocked the publication of a letter protesting the publisher's decision to make the journal entirely open access.
Wiley makes some articles disappear from their journals without any explanation.
Manipulation of bibliometricsEdit
According to Goodhart's law and concerned academics like the signatories of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment, commercial academic publishers benefit from manipulation of bibliometrics and scientometrics like the journal impact factor, which is often used as proxy of prestige and can influence revenues, including public subsidies in the form of subscriptions and free work from academics.
Five Wiley journals, which exhibited unusual levels of self-citation, had their journal impact factor of 2019 suspended from Journal Citation Reports in 2020, a sanction which hit 34 journals in total.
Publication of "Paper Mill" generated papersEdit
In April, 2022, the journal Science revealed that a Ukrainian company, International Publisher Ltd., run by Ksenia Badziun, operates a Russian website where academics can purchase authorships in soon to be published academic papers. In the 2 year period analyzed by researchers, they found that at least 419 articles "appeared to match manuscripts that later appeared in dozens of different journals" and that "More than 100 of these identified papers were published in 68 journals run by established publishers, including Elsevier, Oxford University Press, Springer Nature, Taylor & Francis, Wolters Kluwer, and Wiley-Blackwell." Wiley-Blackwell claimed that they were examining the specific papers that were identified and brought to their attention.
A 2013 lawsuit brought by a stock photo agency for alleged violation of a 1997 license was dismissed for procedural reasons.
A 2014 ruling by the District Court for the Southern District of New York, later affirmed by the Second Circuit, says that Wiley infringed on the copyright of photographer Tom Bean by using his photos beyond the scope of the license it had purchased. The case was connected to a larger set of copyright infringement cases brought by photo agency DRK against various publishers.
In 2018, a Southern District of New York court upheld the award of over $39 million to Wiley and other textbook publishers in a vast litigation against Book Dog Books, a re-seller of used books which was found to hold and distribute counterfeit copies. The Court found that circumstantial evidence was sufficient to establish distribution of 116 titles for which counterfeit copies had been presented and of other 5 titles. It also found that unchallenged testimony on how the publishers' usually acquired licenses from authors was sufficient to establish the publishers' copyright on the books in question.
Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & SonsEdit
In 2008, John Wiley & Sons filed suit against Thailand native Supap Kirtsaeng over the sale of textbooks made outside of the United States and then imported into the country. In 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court held 6–3 that the first-sale doctrine applied to copies of copyrighted works made and sold abroad at lower prices, reversing the Second Circuit decision which had favored Wiley.
Internet Archive lawsuitEdit
In June 2020, Wiley was one of a group of publishers who sued the Internet Archive, arguing that its collection of e-books was denying authors and publishers revenue and accusing the library of "willful mass copyright infringement".
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Minden is a stock photography agency that licenses photographs to publishers, including Wiley. [...] In 1997, Minden licensed a number of photographs to Wiley for use in several educational publications. Compl. [...] In the instant action, Minden alleges that Wiley infringed the copyrights in the licensed photographs by exceeding the limitations imposed in the licenses.
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DRK contends that its licenses with Wiley for the images at issue in these instances were limited in scope in terms of the print run, media, and/or geographic distribution, and that Wiley violated the license terms by printing more units than authorized, selling the photographs beyond the licensed geographic distribution areas, and/or using the photographs electronically without permission. [...] The record establishes that Wiley infringed on DRK's copyrights for the Three Bean Instances. [...] Because Wiley has failed to raise any issue of material fact as to whether it exceeded the scope of its license for the Three Bean Instances, summary judgment is granted in DRK's favor for these instances.
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Scorched-earth litigation ensued, including numerous discovery motions, followed by appeals of determinations made by the Magistrate Judge, and multiple motions for summary judgment (followed by motions for reconsideration). [...] Defendants now resurrect that argument, contending that no reasonable jury could find sufficient evidence of distribution for 116 works. [...] Defendants continued to purchase from sources that they knew sold counterfeits. [...] Further, the jury learned that Defendants kept inadequate records. [...] Defendants acknowledge that infringement can be established through circumstantial evidence. [...] Second, Defendants challenge the five works for which Plaintiffs did not present a counterfeit copy. However, the jury heard that Defendants had purchased copies of those works from Best Books World, a known counterfeiter [...] But deposition testimony revealed that those distributors considered Defendants to be one of the most prevalent suppliers of counterfeit books and had ceased doing business with Defendants based on their history of infringement. [...] Defendants assert that Plaintiffs failed to demonstrate ownership for thirteen titles, meaning that Plaintiffs failed to establish statutory standing to sue for those works. [...] In each instance, while the copyright registrations submitted in evidence identified someone other than Cengage or Pearson as the copyright holder, trial testimony established that the person or entity listed was either the textbook's author or a publishing company acquired by Cengage or Pearson. Plaintiffs maintained that Cengage or Pearson were granted exclusive licenses for these works. Although Plaintiffs did not submit documentation, Cengage representative Jessica Stitt testified that Cengage owns or holds the exclusive license for every Cengage title. [...] Defendants never challenged this testimony, nor did they ask any questions regarding Plaintiffs' ownership of these works. No contradictory evidence of ownership presented. The jury was entirely justified in concluding that Plaintiffs established ownership for all works.
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