War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan (or the US War in Afghanistan or the Afghanistan War), code named Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–14) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present), followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001, when the United States of America and its allies successfully drove the Taliban from power in order to deny al-Qaeda a safe base of operations in Afghanistan. Since the initial objectives were completed, a coalition of over 40 countries (including all NATO members) formed a security mission in the country. The war has since mostly involved US and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The war in Afghanistan is the longest war in US history. This war was entered into without any forward planning or thought of long term stabilisation of Afghanistan.
Following the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the US, which President George W. Bush blamed on Osama bin Laden who was living or hiding in Afghanistan and had already been wanted since 1998, President Bush demanded that the Taliban, who were de facto ruling the country, hand over bin Laden. The Taliban declined to extradite him unless they were provided clear evidence of his involvement in the attacks, which the US refused to provide and dismissed as a delaying tactic and then on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom. To justify the War, the Bush administration claimed that Afghanistan only had "selective sovereignty", and that intervention was necessary because the Taliban threatened the sovereignty of other states. The two were later joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance – the Afghan opposition which had been fighting the Taliban in the ongoing civil war since 1996. By December 2001, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were mostly defeated in the country, and at the Bonn Conference new Afghan interim authorities (mostly from the Northern Alliance) elected Hamid Karzai to head the Afghan Interim Administration. The United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the new authority with securing Kabul, which after a 2002 loya jirga (grand assembly) became the Afghan Transitional Administration. A nationwide rebuilding effort was also made following the end of the totalitarian Taliban regime. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. NATO became involved in ISAF in August 2003, and later that year assumed leadership of it. At this stage, ISAF included troops from 43 countries with NATO members providing the majority of the force. One portion of US forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command; the rest remained under direct US command.
Following defeat in the initial invasion, the Taliban was reorganized by its leader Mullah Omar, and launched an insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF in 2003. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban (and its ally Haqqani Network) - and to a lesser extent Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups - waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, and turncoat killings against coalition forces. The Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. From 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians – ISAF responded by increasing troops for counter-insurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages. Violence sharply escalated from 2007 to 2009. Troop numbers began to surge in 2009 and continued to increase through 2011 when roughly 140,000 foreign troops operated under ISAF and US command in Afghanistan. Of these 100,000 were from the US On 1 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, Pakistan. NATO leaders in 2012 commended an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces, and later the United States announced that its major combat operations would end in December 2014, leaving a residual force in the country. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military, officially ending their combat operations in the war. On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and officially transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. The NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF.
At the beginning of Donald Trump's presidency in early 2017, there were fewer than 9,000 American troops in Afghanistan. By early summer 2017, troop levels increased by about 50%; there were no formal plans to withdraw. In August 2019, the US planned to negotiate with the Taliban to reduce troop levels back to where they had been when Trump took office, but Trump canceled the negotiations. The Taliban remains by far the largest single group fighting against the Afghan government and foreign troops.
Hundreds of thousands of people have been killed in the war. Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors, over 62,000 Afghan national security forces were killed, as well as over 31,000 civilians and even more Taliban.
- 1 Before the start of war
- 1.1 Origins of Afghanistan's civil war
- 1.2 Warlord rule (1992–1996)
- 1.3 Taliban Emirate vs Northern Alliance
- 1.4 Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline
- 1.5 11 September attacks
- 1.6 US ultimatum to the Taliban
- 2 History
- 3 Impact on Afghan society
- 4 War crimes
- 5 Costs
- 6 Stability problems
- 7 Afghan security forces
- 8 Tactics/strategy of anti-government elements
- 9 Insider attacks
- 10 Reactions
- 11 Human rights abuses
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Sources
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Before the start of warEdit
Origins of Afghanistan's civil warEdit
This section does not cite any sources. (August 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Afghanistan's political order began to break down with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by his distant cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in a bloodless 1973 Afghan coup d'état. Daoud Khan had served as prime minister since 1953 and promoted economic modernization, emancipation of women, and Pashtun nationalism. This was threatening to neighboring Pakistan, faced with its own restive Pashtun population. In the mid-1970s, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto began to encourage Afghan Islamist leaders such as Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar to fight against the regime. In 1978, Daoud Khan was killed in a coup by Afghan's Communist Party, his former partner in government, known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). The PDPA pushed for a socialist transformation by abolishing arranged marriages, promoting mass literacy and reforming land ownership. This undermined the traditional tribal order and provoked opposition across rural areas. The PDPA's crackdown was met with open rebellion, including Ismail Khan's Herat Uprising. The PDPA was beset by internal leadership differences and was weakened by an internal coup on 11 September 1979 when Hafizullah Amin ousted Nur Muhammad Taraki. The Soviet Union, sensing PDPA weakness, intervened militarily three months later, to depose Amin and install another PDA faction led by Babrak Karmal.
The entry of Soviet forces in Afghanistan in December 1979 prompted its Cold War rivals, the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and China to support rebels fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In contrast to the secular and socialist government, which controlled the cities, religiously motivated mujahideen held sway in much of the countryside. Beside Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and Khan, other mujahideen commanders included Jalaluddin Haqqani. The CIA worked closely with Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence to funnel foreign support for the mujahideen. The war also attracted Arab volunteers, known as "Afghan Arabs", including Osama bin Laden.
After the withdrawal of the Soviet military from Afghanistan in May 1989, the PDPA regime under Najibullah held on until 1992, when the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the regime of aid, and the defection of Uzbek general Abdul Rashid Dostum cleared the approach to Kabul. With the political stage cleared of socialists, the warlords, some of them Islamist, vied for power. By then, Bin Laden had left the country and the United States' interest in Afghanistan also diminished.
Warlord rule (1992–1996)Edit
In 1992, Rabbani officially became president of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, but had to battle other warlords for control of Kabul. In late 1994, Rabbani's defense minister, Ahmad Shah Massoud, defeated Hekmatyar in Kabul and ended ongoing bombardment of the capital. Massoud tried to initiate a nationwide political process with the goal of national consolidation. Other warlords, including Ismail Khan in the west and Dostum in the north, maintained their fiefdoms.
In 1994, Mohammed Omar, a mujahideen member who taught at a Pakistani madrassa, returned to Kandahar and formed the Taliban movement. His followers were religious students, known as the Talib and they sought to end warlordism through strict adherence to Islamic law. By November 1994, the Taliban had captured all of Kandahar Province. They declined the government's offer to join in a coalition government and marched on Kabul in 1995.
Taliban Emirate vs Northern AllianceEdit
The Taliban's early victories in 1994 were followed by a series of costly defeats. Pakistan provided strong support to the Taliban. Analysts such as Amin Saikal described the group as developing into a proxy force for Pakistan's regional interests, which the Taliban denied. The Taliban started shelling Kabul in early 1995, but were driven back by Massoud.
On 27 September 1996, the Taliban, with military support by Pakistan and financial support from Saudi Arabia, seized Kabul and founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. They imposed their fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in areas under their control, issuing edicts forbidding women to work outside the home, attend school, or to leave their homes unless accompanied by a male relative. According to the Pakistani expert Ahmed Rashid, "between 1994 and 1999, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" on the side of the Taliban.
Massoud and Dostum, former arch-enemies, created a United Front against the Taliban, commonly known as the Northern Alliance. In addition to Massoud's Tajik force and Dostum's Uzbeks, the United Front included Hazara factions and Pashtun forces under the leadership of commanders such as Abdul Haq and Haji Abdul Qadir. Abdul Haq also gathered a limited number of defecting Pashtun Taliban. Both agreed to work together with the exiled Afghan king Zahir Shah. International officials who met with representatives of the new alliance, which the journalist Steve Coll referred to as the "grand Pashtun-Tajik alliance", said, "It's crazy that you have this today … Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara … They were all ready to buy in to the process … to work under the king's banner for an ethnically balanced Afghanistan." The Northern Alliance received varying degrees of support from Russia, Iran, Tajikistan and India. The Taliban captured Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998 and drove Dostum into exile.
The conflict was brutal. According to the United Nations (UN), the Taliban, while trying to consolidate control over northern and western Afghanistan, committed systematic massacres against civilians. UN officials stated that there had been "15 massacres" between 1996 and 2001. The Taliban especially targeted the Shia Hazaras. In retaliation for the execution of 3,000 Taliban prisoners by Uzbek general Abdul Malik Pahlawan in 1997, the Taliban executed about 4,000 civilians after taking Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998.
Bin Laden's 055 Brigade was responsible for mass killings of Afghan civilians. The report by the United Nations quotes eyewitnesses in many villages describing "Arab fighters carrying long knives used for slitting throats and skinning people".
By 2001, the Taliban controlled as much as 90% of Afghanistan, with the Northern Alliance confined to the country's northeast corner. Fighting alongside Taliban forces were some 28,000–30,000 Pakistanis (usually also Pashtun) and 2,000–3,000 Al-Qaeda militants. Many of the Pakistanis were recruited from madrassas. A 1998 document by the US State Department confirmed that "20–40 percent of [regular] Taliban soldiers are Pakistani." The document said that many of the parents of those Pakistani nationals "know nothing regarding their child's military involvement with the Taliban until their bodies are brought back to Pakistan". According to the US State Department report and reports by Human Rights Watch, other Pakistani nationals fighting in Afghanistan were regular soldiers, especially from the Frontier Corps, but also from the Pakistani Army providing direct combat support.
In August 1996, Bin Laden was forced to leave Sudan and arrived in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. He had founded Al-Qaeda in the late 1980s to support the Mujahideen's war against the Soviets, but became disillusioned by infighting among warlords. He grew close to Mullah Omar and moved Al-Qaeda's operations to eastern Afghanistan.
The 9/11 Commission in the US found that under the Taliban, al-Qaeda was able to use Afghanistan as a place to train and indoctrinate fighters, import weapons, coordinate with other jihadists, and plot terrorist actions. While al-Qaeda maintained its own camps in Afghanistan, it also supported training camps of other organizations. An estimated 10,000 to 20,000 men passed through these facilities before 9/11, most of whom were sent to fight for the Taliban against the United Front. A smaller number were inducted into al-Qaeda.
After the August 1998 United States embassy bombings were linked to bin Laden, President Bill Clinton ordered missile strikes on militant training camps in Afghanistan. US officials pressed the Taliban to surrender bin Laden. In 1999, the international community imposed sanctions on the Taliban, calling for bin Laden to be surrendered. The Taliban repeatedly rebuffed these demands.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Special Activities Division paramilitary teams were active in Afghanistan in the 1990s in clandestine operations to locate and kill or capture Osama bin Laden. These teams planned several operations, but did not receive the order to proceed from President Clinton. Their efforts built relationships with Afghan leaders that proved essential in the 2001 invasion.
Change in US policy toward AfghanistanEdit
During the Clinton administration, the US tended to favor Pakistan and until 1998–1999 had no clear policy toward Afghanistan. In 1997, for example, the US State Department's Robin Raphel told Massoud to surrender to the Taliban. Massoud responded that, as long as he controlled an area the size of his hat, he would continue to defend it from the Taliban. Around the same time, top foreign policy officials in the Clinton administration flew to northern Afghanistan to try to persuade the United Front not to take advantage of a chance to make crucial gains against the Taliban. They insisted it was the time for a cease-fire and an arms embargo. At the time, Pakistan began a "Berlin-like airlift to resupply and re-equip the Taliban", financed with Saudi money.
US policy toward Afghanistan changed after the 1998 US embassy bombings. Subsequently, Osama bin Laden was indicted for his involvement in the embassy bombings. In 1999 both the US and the United Nations enacted sanctions against the Taliban via United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267, which demanded the Taliban surrender Osama bin Laden for trial in the US and close all terrorist bases in Afghanistan. The only collaboration between Massoud and the US at the time was an effort with the CIA to trace bin Laden following the 1998 bombings. The US and the European Union provided no support to Massoud for the fight against the Taliban.
By 2001 the change of policy sought by CIA officers who knew Massoud was underway. CIA lawyers, working with officers in the Near East Division and Counter-terrorist Center, began to draft a formal finding for President George W. Bush's signature, authorizing a covert action program in Afghanistan. It would be the first in a decade to seek to influence the course of the Afghan war in favor of Massoud. Richard A. Clarke, chair of the Counter-Terrorism Security Group under the Clinton administration, and later an official in the Bush administration, allegedly presented a plan to incoming Bush National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice in January 2001.
A change in US policy was effected in August 2001. The Bush administration agreed on a plan to start supporting Massoud. A meeting of top national security officials agreed that the Taliban would be presented with an ultimatum to hand over bin Laden and other al-Qaeda operatives. If the Taliban refused, the US would provide covert military aid to anti-Taliban groups. If both those options failed, "the deputies agreed that the United States would seek to overthrow the Taliban regime through more direct action."
Northern Alliance on the eve of 9/11Edit
Ahmad Shah Massoud was the only leader of the United Front in Afghanistan. In the areas under his control, Massoud set up democratic institutions and signed the Women's Rights Declaration. As a consequence, many civilians had fled to areas under his control. In total, estimates range up to one million people fleeing the Taliban.
In late 2000, Ahmad Shah Massoud, a Tajik nationalist and leader of the Northern Alliance, invited several other prominent Afghan tribal leaders to a jirga in northern Afghanistan "to settle political turmoil in Afghanistan". Among those in attendance were Pashtun nationalists, Abdul Haq and Hamid Karzai.
In early 2001, Massoud and several other Afghan leaders addressed the European Parliament in Brussels, asking the international community to provide humanitarian help. The Afghan envoy asserted that the Taliban and al-Qaeda had introduced "a very wrong perception of Islam" and that without the support of Pakistan and Osama bin Laden, the Taliban would not be able to sustain their military campaign for another year. Massoud warned that his intelligence had gathered information about an imminent, large-scale attack on US soil.
On 9 September 2001, two French-speaking Algerians posing as journalists killed Massoud in a suicide attack in Takhar Province of Afghanistan. The two perpetrators were later alleged to be members of al-Qaeda. They were interviewing Massoud before detonating a bomb hidden in their video camera. Both of the alleged al-Qaeda men were subsequently killed by Massoud's guards.
In the 1990s, Russia controlled all export pipelines from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan and reportedly refused to allow the use of its pipelines for Kazakh and Turkmeni natural gas. Therefore, international oil companies operating in that region started looking for routes that avoided both Iran and Russia. The 1998 United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, interrupted that process.
11 September attacksEdit
On the morning of 11 September 2001, a total of 19 Arab men—15 of whom were from Saudi Arabia—carried out four coordinated attacks in the United States. Four commercial passenger jet airliners were hijacked. The hijackers – members of al-Qaeda's Hamburg cell – intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and more than 2,000 people in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours from damage related to the crashes, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, in rural Pennsylvania, after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington, D.C., to target the White House, or the US Capitol. No one aboard the flights survived. According to the New York State Health Department, the death toll among responders including firefighters and police was 836 as of June 2009. Total deaths were 2,996, including the 19 hijackers.
US ultimatum to the TalibanEdit
The Taliban publicly condemned the 11 September attacks. US President George W. Bush issued an ultimatum to the Taliban to hand over Osama bin Laden, "close immediately every terrorist training camp, hand over every terrorist and their supporters, and give the United States full access to terrorist training camps for inspection." Osama bin Laden was protected by the traditional Pashtun laws of hospitality. In the weeks ahead and at the beginning of the US and NATO invasion of Afghanistan, the Taliban demanded evidence of bin Laden's guilt, and subsequently offered to hand over Osama bin Laden. US President George W. Bush rejected the offer, citing policies such as "we do not negotiate with terrorists." Britain's then deputy prime minister, John Prescott, claimed the group's expressions amount to an admission of guilt for the 11 September attacks.
After the US invasion, the Taliban repeatedly requested for due diligence investigation and willingness to handover Osama to a third country for due prosecutions. The United States refused and continued bombardments of Kabul airport and other cities. Haji Abdul Kabir, the third most powerful figure in the ruling Taliban regime, told reporters: "If the Taliban is given evidence that Osama bin Laden is involved, we would be ready to hand him over to a third country."  At an 15 October 2001 meeting in Islamabad, Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil, the foreign minister of Afghanistan, offered to remove Osama bin Laden to the custody of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) to be tried for the 9/11 terror attacks. The OIC is a large organization of 57 member states. Muttawakil by this point had dropped the condition that the US furnish evidence of Osama bin Laden's involvement in the 9/11 attacks as a precondition for the transfer of Osama bin Laden by Afghanistan to the OIC for trial.
2001 – 2017Edit
|2001||US invasion of Afghanistan|
|2003–2005||Taliban resurgence, war with Afghan forces|
|2006||War between NATO forces and Taliban|
|2007||US build-up, ISAF war against Taliban|
|2008||Reassessment and renewed commitment and Taliban attacks on supply lines|
|2008–2009||US action into Pakistan|
|2009||US reinforcements, Taliban progress|
|2010||American–British offensive and Afghan peace initiative|
|2011||US and NATO drawdown|
|2014||2014: Withdrawal continues and the insurgency increases|
|2015–2016||Taliban negotiations and Taliban infighting|
|2015–2018||Taliban offensive in Helmand Province|
|2017||Events and Donald Trump's Afghan policy|
In January 2018, the BBC reported that the Taliban are openly active in 70% of the country (being in full control of 14 districts and have an active and open physical presence in a further 263) and that Islamic State is more active in the country than ever before. Following attacks by the Taliban and Islamic State that killed scores of civilians, President Trump and Afghan officials decided to rule out any talks with the Taliban.
On 15 February 2018, The New York Times reported the rise of Afghan civilians being intentionally targeted by the Taliban, based on an annual United Nations report released a week earlier. This report offered a detailed assessment of the 16 year Afghan war, showing the rise of complex bombing attacks deliberately targeting civilians in 2017, having 10,453 Afghan civilians wounded or killed. As the US and Afghan government are publishing fewer statistics, the U.N. report is one of the most reliable indicators about the war's impact by 2018. The report emphasizes the rise of "complex attacks", a type of suicide assault that is becoming more deadly, described by the New York Times as the hallmark of the war in 2018. These attacks are referred to as the Taliban's ferocious response to US President Trump's new strategy of war (an increased pace of aerial bombardments targeting Taliban and Islamic State Militants), giving the message that the Taliban can strike at will, even in the capital city, Kabul. The U.N. report included a statement showing the Taliban's position, the Taliban blamed the U.S and its allies for fighting war in Afghanistan, and it denied targeting civilians. The New York Times quoted Atiqullah Amarkhel, a retired general and military analyst based in Kabul, saying that the UN report proved the failure of peace talks, as the Taliban and the US government are both determined for victory rather than negotiating settlement. He said "More airstrikes mean more suicide attacks," proving the intensification of the war by 2018.
In August 2018, the Taliban launched a series of offensives, the largest being the Ghazni offensive. During the Ghazni offensive the Taliban seized Ghazni, Afghanistan's sixth largest city for several days but eventually retreated. The Taliban were successful in killing hundreds of Afghan soldiers and police and captured several government bases and districts.
Following the offensives Erik Prince, the private military contractor and former head of Blackwater, advocated additional privatization of the war. However, the then-US Defense Secretary James Mattis rebuked the idea, saying, “When Americans put their nation's credibility on the line, privatizing it is probably not a wise idea.”
In September 2018, the United Nations raised concerns over the increasing number of civilian casualties due to air strikes in Afghanistan. The US air force dropped around 3,000 bombs in the first six months of the year, to force Taliban militants for peace talks. In a statement issued by the UNAMA, it reminded all the parties involved in the conflict "to uphold their obligations to protect civilians from harm.”
On 17 October 2018, days before parliamentary election, Abdul Jabar Qahraman, an election candidate was killed in an attack by Taliban. The Taliban issued a statement, warning teachers and students to not participate in the upcoming elections or use schools as polling centers.
On 17 December 2018, US diplomats held talks with Taliban, at the United Arab Emirates on possibly ending the war. The Taliban gave conditions of a pullout date for US-led troops before any talks with the Kabul government and has demanded that Washington not oppose the establishment of an Islamist government. However, the US officials have insisted in keeping some troops and at least a couple of bases in the country. The meeting was described by US officials as “part of efforts by the United States and other international partners to promote an intra-Afghan dialogue aimed at ending the conflict in Afghanistan.”
On 25 January 2019, Afghanistan's president Ashraf Ghani said that more than 45,000 members of the Afghan security forces had been killed since he became president in 2014. He also said that there had been fewer than 72 international casualties during the same period. A January 2019 report by the US government estimated that 53.8% of Afghanistan's districts were controlled or influenced by the government, with 33.9% contested and 12.3% under insurgent control or influence.
On 4 February 2019, Taliban attacked a checkpoint in northern Baghlan province. 21 people, including 11 policemen were killed. The same day, another attack took place in northern Samangan province that killed 10 people.
On 25 February 2019, peace talks began between the Taliban and the United States in Qatar, with Taliban co-founder Abdul Ghani Barada notably present. US special envoy Zalmay Khalilzad reported that this round of negotiations were "more productive than they have been in the past" and that a draft version of a peace agreement had been agreed upon. The deal involved the withdrawal of US and international troops from Afghanistan and the Taliban not allowing other jihadist groups to operate within the country. The Taliban also reported that progress was being made in the negotiations.
On 30 April 2019, Afghan government forces undertook clearing operations directed against both ISIS-K and the Taliban in eastern Nangarhar Province, after the two groups fought for over a week over a group of villages in an area of illegal talc mining. The National Directorate of Security claimed 22 ISIS-K fighters were killed and two weapons caches destroyed, while the Taliban claimed US-backed Afghan forces killed seven civilians; a provincial official said over 9,000 families had been displaced by the fighting.
On 28 July, President Ashraf Ghani’s running mate Amrullah Saleh’s office was attacked by a suicide bomber and a few militants. At least 20 people were killed and 50 injured, with Saleh also amongst the injured ones. During the six-hour-long operation, more than 150 civilians were rescued and three militants were killed.
By August, the Taliban controlled more territory than at any point since 2001. The Washington Post reported that the US was close to reaching a peace deal with the Taliban and was preparing to withdraw 5,000 troops from Afghanistan. The same month, however, it was later confirmed that some Taliban leaders, including Taliban emir Hibatullah Akhunzada's brother Hafiz Ahmadullah and some other relatives, were killed in a bomb blast at the Khair Ul Madarais mosque, which was located in the Quetta suburb of Kuchlak and had long served as the main meeting place of members of the Taliban. In September, the US canceled the negotiations.
On September 3, 2019, Taliban claimed responsibility of the suicide attack in the Afghanistan’s capital, targeting the Green Village Compound in Kabul. According to the reports, nearly 16 civilians died, while 119 were reported to be injured.
On September 15, 38 Taliban fighters, including two senior commanders, were killed in a joint US-Afghan military operation.
On September 17, 2019, a suicide bomber attacked the campaign rally of President Ashraf Ghani, killing 26 people and wounding 42. Less than an hour later, the Taliban carried out another suicide bomb attack near the US Embassy and the Afghan Defense Ministry, killing 22 people and wounded around 38.
On October 27, 2019, 80 Taliban fighters were killed as a result of joint Afghan-US military operations in Kandahar and Faryab.
The New York Times reports that the US created a 'void' that allowed other countries to step in. For example, Iran is making efforts to expand influence into Afghanistan and fill the vacuum. In the past two decades, the US took out two of Iran's regional enemies: Saddam Hussein through the Iraq War as well as the Taliban. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are other 'dominant players'. Once enemies, Iran and the Taliban have strengthened ties, with Russian assistance as well, to 'bleed' the American force. Lately the Taliban has been 'diversifying' its sources by calling for economic support from Dubai, UAE and Bahrain. Pakistan has also given economic support and encouraged increased Iran-Taliban ties.
The article says that Afghans yearn for the days when they were at the center of the thriving Silk Road connecting China to Europe. Iran plans to build roads from Afghanistan to the Persian gulf so that Afghanistan would not be landlocked anymore. Herat is sometimes referred to as 'Little Iran' and during the Soviet–Afghan War many Afghans fled to Iran in refuge.
China has also been quietly expanding its influence. Since 2010 China has signed mining contracts with Kabul and is even building a military base in Badakshan to counter regional terrorism (from the ETIM). China has donated billions of dollars in aid over the years to Afghanistan, which plays a strategic role in the Belt and Road Initiative. The Diplomat says that China has the potential to play an important role in bringing peace and stability to the region.
In 2017, Donald Trump said that the US is 'losing' the war and had considered firing the US generals in charge.
Impact on Afghan societyEdit
According to the Watson Institute for International Studies Costs of War Project, roughly 31,000 civilians had been killed as a result of the war up to the middle of 2016. A report titled Body Count put together by Physicians for Social Responsibility, Physicians for Global Survival and the Nobel Peace Prize-winning International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) concluded that 106,000–170,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the fighting in Afghanistan at the hands of all parties to the conflict.
A U.N. report over the year 2009 stated that, of the 1,500 civilians having died from January until the end of August 2009, 70% were blamed on "anti-government elements".
The US website of The Weekly Standard stated in 2010, referring to a UN Report, that 76% of civilian deaths in Afghanistan over the past year had been "caused by the Taliban". That is a misquotation of the UNAMA Report, which does not attribute numbers of deaths directly to the Taliban, but to "anti-government elements" (AGE) and to "pro-government forces" (PGF). Over the period January until June 2010, indeed the report published in August 2010 stated that, of all 3,268 civilian casualties (dead or wounded), 2,477 casualties (76%) were caused by AGE, 386 caused by PGF (11%).
Over the whole of 2010, with a total of 2,777 civilians killed, the UN reported 2,080 civilian deaths caused by "anti-government elements" (75%), "pro-government forces" caused 440 deaths, and 257 deaths "could not be attributed to any party".
In July 2011, a UN report said "1,462 non-combatants died" in the first six months of 2011 (insurgents 80%). In 2011 a record 3,021 civilians were killed, the fifth successive annual rise. According to a UN report, in 2013 there were 2,959 civilian deaths with 74% being blamed on anti-government forces, 8% on Afghan security forces, 3% on ISAF forces, 10% to ground engagements between anti-Government forces and pro-Government forces and 5% of the deaths were unattributed. 60% of Afghans have direct personal experience and most others report suffering a range of hardships. 96% have been affected either personally or from the wider consequences.
In 2015, according to the United Nations (UN) annual report there were 3,545 civilian deaths and 7,457 people wounded. The anti-government elements were responsible for 62% of the civilians killed or wounded. The pro-government forces caused 17% of civilian deaths and injuries – including United States and NATO troops, which were responsible for about 2% of the casualties.
In 2016, a total of 3,498 civilians deaths and 7,920 injuries were recorded by the United Nations. The UN attributed 61% of casualties to anti-government forces. Afghan security forces caused about 20% of the overall casualties, while pro-government militias and Resolute Support Mission caused 2% each. Air strikes by US and NATO warplanes resulted in at least 127 civilian deaths and 108 injuries. While, the Afghan air force accounted for at least 85 deaths and 167 injuries. The UN was not able to attribute responsibility for the remaining 38 deaths and 65 injuries resulting from air strikes.
During the parliamentary elections on 20 October 2018, several explosions targeting the polling stations took place. At least 36 people were killed and 130 were injured. Previously, ten election candidates were killed during the campaigning by the Taliban and the Islamic State group.
On 28 December 2018 a report issued by UNICEF revealed that during the first nine months of 2018, five thousand children were killed or injured in Afghanistan. Manuel Fontaine UNICEF Director of Emergency Programs said the world has forgotten children living in conflict zones.
According to the Human Rights Watch, more than 10,000 civilians were killed or wounded during 2018, out of which one third were children. Reportedly, countless deadly attacks were carried out in urban areas by insurgents. Airstrikes and night raids by the US and Afghan forces also caused heavy civilian casualties.
Since 2001, more than 5.7 million former refugees have returned to Afghanistan, but 2.2 million others remained refugees in 2013. In January 2013 the UN estimated that 547,550 were internally displaced persons, a 25% increase over the 447,547 IDPs estimated for January 2012
Afghans who interpreted for the British army have been tortured and killed in Afghanistan, including their families. As of May 2018 the UK government has not resettled any interpreter or family member in the UK.
From 1996 to 1999, the Taliban controlled 96% of Afghanistan's poppy fields and made opium its largest source of revenue. Taxes on opium exports became one of the mainstays of Taliban income. According to Rashid, "drug money funded the weapons, ammunition and fuel for the war." In The New York Times, the Finance Minister of the United Front, Wahidullah Sabawoon, declared the Taliban had no annual budget but that they "appeared to spend US$300 million a year, nearly all of it on war". He added that the Taliban had come to increasingly rely on three sources of money: "poppy, the Pakistanis and bin Laden".
By 2000 Afghanistan accounted for an estimated 75% of the world's opium supply and in 2000 produced an estimated 3276 tonnes from 82,171 hectares (203,050 acres). Omar then banned opium cultivation and production dropped to an estimated 74 metric tonnes from 1,685 hectares (4,160 acres). Some observers say the ban – which came in a bid for international recognition at the United Nations – was issued only to raise opium prices and increase profit from the sale of large existing stockpiles. 1999 had yielded a record crop and had been followed by a lower but still large 2000 harvest. The trafficking of accumulated stocks continued in 2000 and 2001. In 2002, the UN mentioned the "existence of significant stocks of opiates accumulated during previous years of bumper harvests". In September 2001 – before 11 September attacks against the US – the Taliban allegedly authorized Afghan peasants to sow opium again.
Soon after the invasion opium production increased markedly. By 2005, Afghanistan was producing 90% of the world's opium, most of which was processed into heroin and sold in Europe and Russia. In 2009, the BBC reported that "UN findings say an opium market worth $65bn (£39bn) funds global terrorism, caters to 15 million addicts, and kills 100,000 people every year".
United States officials have stated that winning the War on drugs in Afghanistan is integral for winning the War on Terror in Afghanistan, asking for international assistance in drug eradication efforts.
As of 2017, the Afghan government has cooperated with Taliban forces to provide education services: in Khogyani District, the government is given "nominal control" by local Taliban fighters in return for paying the wages of teachers whom the Taliban appoint in local schools.
War crimes (a serious violation of the laws and customs of war giving rise to individual criminal responsibility) have been committed by both sides including civilian massacres, bombings of civilian targets, terrorism, use of torture and the murder of prisoners of war. Additional common crimes include theft, arson, and destruction of property not warranted by military necessity.
On August the 7th 2010, Taliban gunmen killed medical aid workers in Afghanistan. After returning from an on foot trip to provide medical aid and care, the group of six Americans, a Briton, a German and four Afghans was accosted and shot by gunmen in a nearby forest in the Hindu Kush mountains. This attack was the largest massacre on aid workers in Afghanistan and the Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack.The Taliban claimed the Christian aid group which had been active in Afghanistan was responsible for spying, and that they were not providing any actual aid. This attack on aid workers constitutes one of the many war crimes committed by the Taliban.
In 2011, The New York Times reported that the Taliban was responsible for 3⁄4 of all civilian deaths in the war in Afghanistan. In 2013 the UN stated that the Taliban had been placing bombs along transit routes.
In 2015, Amnesty International reported that the Taliban committed mass murder and gang rape of Afghan civilians in Kunduz. Taliban fighters killed and raped female relatives of police commanders and soldiers as well as midwives. One female human rights activist described the situation in the following manner:
"When the Taliban asserted their control over Kunduz, they claimed to be bringing law and order and Shari'a to the city. But everything they've done has violated both. I don't know who can rescue us from this situation."
On July 25th 2019, there were three explosions in the capital of Kabul that killed at least fifteen people, leaving dozens wounded. The attack was targeting a bus government officials from the ministry of mines and petroleum. The attacks left five women and children dead. Minutes later, a suicide bomber blew himself up nearby and this resulted in another seven dead. A spokesman for the Taliban claimed responsibility for the attacks.
In December 2001, the Dasht-i-Leili massacre took place, where between 250 and 3,000 Taliban fighters who had surrendered, were shot and/or suffocated to death in metal truck containers during transportation by Northern Alliance forces. Reports place US ground troops at the scene. The Irish documentary Afghan Massacre: The Convoy of Death investigated these allegations and claimed that mass graves of thousands of victims were found by UN investigators and that the US blocked investigations into the incident.
NATO and alliesEdit
On 21 June 2003, David Passaro, a CIA contractor and former United States Army Ranger, killed Abdul Wali, a prisoner at a US base 16 km (10 mi) south of Asadabad, in Kunar Province. Passaro was found guilty of one count of felony assault with a dangerous weapon and three counts of misdemeanor assault. On 10 August 2009, he was sentenced to 8 years and 4 months in prison.
In 2002, two unarmed civilian Afghan prisoners were tortured and later killed by US armed forces personnel at the Bagram Theater Internment Facility (also Bagram Collection Point or B.C.P.) in Bagram, Afghanistan. The prisoners, Habibullah and Dilawar, were chained to the ceiling and beaten, which caused their deaths. Military coroners ruled that both the prisoners' deaths were homicides. Autopsies revealed severe trauma to both prisoners' legs, describing the trauma as comparable to being run over by a bus. Fifteen soldiers were charged.
During the summer of 2010, ISAF charged five United States Army soldiers with the murder of three Afghan civilians in Kandahar province and collecting their body parts as trophies in what came to be known as the Maywand District murders. In addition, seven soldiers were charged with crimes such as hashish use, impeding an investigation and attacking the whistleblower, Specialist Justin Stoner. Eleven of the twelve soldiers were convicted on various counts.
A British Royal Marine Sergeant, identified as Sergeant Alexander Blackman from Taunton, Somerset, was convicted at court martial in Wiltshire of the murder of an unarmed, reportedly wounded, Afghan fighter in Helmand Province in September 2011. In 2013, he received a life sentence from the court martial in Bulford, Wiltshire, and was dismissed with disgrace from the Royal Marines. In 2017, after appeal to the Court Martial Appeal Court (CMAC), his conviction was lessened to manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility and the sentence was reduced to seven years effectively releasing Blackman due to time served.
On 11 March 2012, the Kandahar massacre occurred when sixteen civilians were killed and six wounded in the Panjwayi District of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. Nine of the victims were children, and eleven of the dead were from the same family. United States Army Staff Sergeant Robert Bales was taken into custody and charged with sixteen counts of premeditated murder. After pleading guilty to sixteen counts of premeditated murder, Bales was sentenced to life in prison without parole and dishonorably discharged from the United States Army.
On 3 October 2015, the USAF attacked a hospital operated by Doctors Without Borders in Kunduz. 42 people were killed and over 30 were injured in the airstrike. Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights said that it may have been a war crime. Under the Law of Armed Conflict, medical facilities lose their protections if they are used for hostile actions.[relevant? ] A 700-page investigation was published[by whom?] and it was determined to not be in violation with the Law of Armed Conflict.[non-primary source needed] Eleven days after the attack, a US tank made its way into the hospital compound. Doctors Without Borders officials said: "Their unannounced and forced entry damaged property, destroyed potential evidence and caused stress and fear for the MSF team." An investigation was approved by General John F Campbell on November 21, 2015. The team had full access to classified information, and the investigation includes more than 3,000 pages of documentary evidence, much of it classified. The Commander of USFOR-A (United States Forces - Afghanistan) concluded that certain personnel failed to comply with the rules of engagement and the law of armed conflict. However, the investigation did not conclude that these failures amounted to a war crime. The label "war crimes" is typically reserved for intentional acts—intentionally targeting civilians or intentionally targeting protected objects (like hospitals).[according to whom?] Under the law of armed conflict, persons participating in hostilities must assess the military necessity of an action based on the information readily available to them at the time; they cannot be judged based on information that subsequently comes to light.[non-primary source needed] The investigation found that the incident resulted from a mixture of human errors and equipment failures, and that none of the personnel knew they were striking a medical facility,
In September 2018, the United States threatened to arrest and impose sanctions on International Criminal Court judges and other officials if they tried to charge any US soldier who served in Afghanistan with war crimes. The US further claimed that they would not cooperate in any way with the International Criminal Court in the Hague if it carries out a prospective investigation into allegations of war crimes by US military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan. On 12 April 2019 a panel of ICC judges decided that they would not open an investigation in Afghanistan. The Court's chief prosecutor Fatou Bensouda provided a report that established "a reasonable basis" that crimes had been committed, but they decided against continuing because the US and other parties would not cooperate.
The cost of the war reportedly was a major factor as US officials considered drawing down troops in 2011. The estimate for the cost of deploying one US soldier in Afghanistan is over US$1 million a year.
In March 2019, the United States Department of Defense estimated fiscal obligations of $737,592,000,000 have incurred expended during FY2001 to FY2018 in Afghanistan, at a cost of $3,714 per taxpayer. However Brown University research came up with a higher figure of $ 975 Billion for FY2001 to FY2019.
For FY2019, the United States Department of Defense requested ~$46,300,000,000 for Operation FREEDOM'S SENTINEL (US codename for War in Afghanistan) and Related Missions
According to "Investment in Blood", a book by Frank Ledwidge, summations for the UK contribution to the war in Afghanistan came to £37bn ($56.46 billion).
Criticism of costsEdit
In 2011, the independent Commission on Wartime Contracting reported to Congress that, during the previous decade in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States had lost between $31 and $60 billion to waste and fraud and that this amount may continue to increase.
In the summer of 2013, preparing for withdrawal the following year, the US military destroyed over 77,000 metric tons of equipment and vehicles worth over $7 billion that could not be shipped back to the United States. Some was sold to Afghans as scrap metal. In 2013, the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, a US government oversight body, criticized the misuse or waste of hundreds of millions of dollars in US aid, including the $772 million purchase of aircraft for the Afghan military especially since "the Afghans lack the capacity to operate and maintain them."
In a 2008 interview, the then-head US Central Command General David H. Petraeus, insisted that the Taliban were gaining strength. He cited a recent increase in attacks in Afghanistan and in neighboring Pakistan. Petraeus insisted that the problems in Afghanistan were more complicated than the ones he had faced in Iraq during his tour and required removing widespread sanctuaries and strongholds.
Observers have argued that the mission in Afghanistan is hampered by a lack of agreement on objectives, a lack of resources, lack of coordination, too much focus on the central government at the expense of local and provincial governments, and too much focus on the country instead of the region.
In 2009, Afghanistan moved three places in Transparency International's annual index of corruption, becoming the world's second most-corrupt country just ahead of Somalia. In the same month, Malalai Joya, a former member of the Afghan Parliament and the author of "Raising My Voice", expressed opposition to an expansion of the US military presence and her concerns about the future. "Eight years ago, the US and NATO—under the banner of women's rights, human rights, and democracy—occupied my country and pushed us from the frying pan into the fire. Eight years is enough to know better about the corrupt, mafia system of President Hamid Karzai. My people are crushed between two powerful enemies. From the sky, occupation forces bomb and kill civilians … and on the ground, the Taliban and warlords continue their crimes. It is better that they leave my country; my people are that fed up. Occupation will never bring liberation, and it is impossible to bring democracy by war."
Pakistan plays a central role in the conflict. A 2010 report published by the London School of Economics says that Pakistan's ISI has an "official policy" of support to the Taliban. "Pakistan appears to be playing a double-game of astonishing magnitude," the report states. Amrullah Saleh, former director of Afghanistan's intelligence service, stated, "We talk about all these proxies [Taliban, Haqqanis] but not the master of proxies, which is the Pakistan army. The question is what does Pakistan's army want to achieve …? They want to gain influence in the region" About the presence of foreign troops in Afghanistan he stated: "[T]hey fight for the US national interest but … without them we will face massacre and disaster and God knows what type of a future Afghanistan will have."
Afghan security forcesEdit
Afghan National ArmyEdit
US policy called for boosting the Afghan National Army to 134,000 soldiers by October 2010. By May 2010 the Afghan Army had accomplished this interim goal and was on track to reach its ultimate number of 171,000 by 2011. This increase in Afghan troops allowed the US to begin withdrawing its forces in July 2011.
In 2010, the Afghan National Army had limited fighting capacity. Even the best Afghan units lacked training, discipline and adequate reinforcements. In one new unit in Baghlan Province, soldiers had been found cowering in ditches rather than fighting. Some were suspected of collaborating with the Taliban. "They don't have the basics, so they lay down," said Capt. Michael Bell, who was one of a team of US and Hungarian mentors tasked with training Afghan soldiers. "I ran around for an hour trying to get them to shoot, getting fired on. I couldn't get them to shoot their weapons." In addition, 9 out of 10 soldiers in the Afghan National Army were illiterate.
The Afghan Army was plagued by inefficiency and endemic corruption. US training efforts were drastically slowed by the problems. US trainers reported missing vehicles, weapons and other military equipment, and outright theft of fuel. Death threats were leveled against US officers who tried to stop Afghan soldiers from stealing. Afghan soldiers often snipped the command wires of IEDs instead of marking them and waiting for US forces to come to detonate them. This allowed insurgents to return and reconnect them. US trainers frequently removed the cell phones of Afghan soldiers hours before a mission for fear that the operation would be compromised. American trainers often spent large amounts of time verifying that Afghan rosters were accurate—that they are not padded with "ghosts" being "paid" by Afghan commanders who stole the wages.
Desertion was a significant problem. One in every four combat soldiers quit the Afghan Army during the 12-month period ending in September 2009, according to data from the US Defense Department and the Inspector General for Reconstruction in Afghanistan.
In early 2015, Philip Munch of the Afghanistan Analysts' Network wrote that '..the available evidence suggests that many senior ANSF members, in particular, use their positions to enrich themselves. Within the ANSF there are also strong external loyalties to factions who themselves compete for influence and access to resources. All this means that the ANSF may not work as they officially should. Rather it appears that the political economy of the ANSF prevents them from working like modern organisations – the very prerequisite' of the Resolute Support Mission. Formal and informal income, Munch said, which can be generated through state positions, is rent-seeking – income without a corresponding investment of labour or capital. 'Reportedly, ANA appointees also often maintain clients, so that patron-client networks, structured into competing factions, can be traced within the ANA down to the lowest levels. ... There is evidence that Afghan officers and officials, especially in the higher echelons, appropriate large parts of the vast resource flows which are directed by international donors into the ANA.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction has reported that roughly half of Afghan soldiers brought to the United States for training go absent without leave which may inhibit the operational readiness of their units back in Afghanistan, negatively impact the morale of other trainees and home units and pose security risks to the United States.
Afghan National PoliceEdit
The Afghan National Police provides support to the Afghan army. Police officers in Afghanistan are also largely illiterate. Approximately 17% of them tested positive for illegal drugs in 2010. They were widely accused of demanding bribes. Attempts to build a credible Afghan police force were faltering badly, according to NATO officials. A quarter of the officers quit every year, making the Afghan government's goals of substantially building up the police force even harder to achieve.
Tactics/strategy of anti-government elementsEdit
The armed opposition or anti-government elements – some Western news media tend to address them all simply as "Taliban" – have from 2008 into 2009 shifted their tactics from frontal attacks on pro-government forces to guerrilla type activities, including suicide, car and road side bombs (IEDs), and targeted assassinations, said a UNAMA report in July 2009. Mr. Maley, an Afghanistan expert at the Australian National University, stated in 2009 that IEDs had become Taliban's weapon of choice.
ISAF conception of Taliban strategyEdit
In 2009, Colonel Richard Kemp, formerly Commander of British forces in Afghanistan and current intelligence coordinator for the British government – thus part of the anti-Taliban coalition (ISAF), made these comments about the Taliban tactics and strategy as he perceived them:
Like Hamas in Gaza, the Taliban in southern Afghanistan are masters at shielding themselves behind the civilian population and then melting in among them for protection. Women and children are trained and equipped to fight, collect intelligence, and ferry arms and ammunition between battles. Female suicide bombers are increasingly common. The use of women to shield gunmen as they engage NATO forces is now so normal it is deemed barely worthy of comment. Schools and houses are routinely booby-trapped. Snipers shelter in houses deliberately filled with women and children.
Beginning in 2011, insurgent forces in Afghanistan began using a tactic of insider attacks on ISAF and Afghan military forces. In the attacks, Taliban personnel or sympathizers belonging to, or pretending to belong to, the Afghan military or police forces attack ISAF personnel, often within the security of ISAF military bases and Afghan government facilities. In 2011, for example, 21 insider attacks killed 35 coalition personnel. Forty-six insider attacks killed 63 and wounded 85 coalition troops, mostly American, in the first 11 months of 2012. The attacks continued but began diminishing towards the planned 31 December 2014 ending of combat operations in Afghanistan by ISAF. However, on 5 August 2014, a gunman in an Afghan military uniform opened fire on a number of international military personnel, killing a US general and wounding about 15 officers and soldiers, including a German brigadier general and 8 US troops, at a training base west of Kabul.
In November 2001, the CNN reported widespread relief amongst Kabul's residents after the Taliban fled the city, with young men shaving off their beards and women taking off their burqas. Later that month the BBC's longtime Kabul correspondent Kate Clark reported that "almost all women in Kabul are still choosing to veil" but that many felt hopeful that the ousting of the Taliban would improve their safety and access to food.[A 1]
A 2006 WPO opinion poll found that the majority of Afghans endorsed America's military presence, with 83% of Afghans stating that they had a favorable view of the US military forces in their country. Only 17% gave an unfavorable view. The majority of Afghans, among all ethnic groups including Pashtuns, stated that the overthrowing of the Taliban was a good thing. 82% of Afghans as a whole and 71% of those living in the war zone held this anti-Taliban view. The Afghan population gave the USA one of its most favorable ratings in the world. A solid majority (81%) of Afghans stated that they held a favorable view of the USA. However, the majority of Afghans (especially those in the war zone) held negative views on Pakistan and most Afghans also stated that they believe that the Pakistani government was allowing the Taliban to operate from its soil.
Polls of Afghans displayed strong opposition to the Taliban and significant support of the US military presence. However, the idea of permanent US military bases was not popular in 2005.
According to a May 2009 BBC poll, 69% of Afghans surveyed thought it was at least mostly good that the US military came in to remove the Taliban—a decrease from 87% of Afghans surveyed in 2005. 24% thought it was mostly or very bad—up from 9% in 2005. The poll indicated that 63% of Afghans were at least somewhat supportive of a US military presence in the country—down from 78% in 2005. Just 18% supported increasing the US military's presence, while 44% favored reducing it. 90% of Afghans surveyed opposed the Taliban, including 70% who were strongly opposed. By an 82%–4% margin, people said they preferred the current government to Taliban rule.
In a June 2009 Gallup survey, about half of Afghan respondents felt that additional US forces would help stabilize the security situation in the southern provinces. But opinions varied widely; residents in the troubled South were mostly mixed or uncertain, while those in the West largely disagreed that more US troops would help the situation.
In December 2009, many Afghan tribal heads and local leaders from the south and east called for US troop withdrawals. "I don't think we will be able to solve our problems with military force," said Muhammad Qasim, a Kandahar tribal elder. "We can solve them by providing jobs and development and by using local leaders to negotiate with the Taliban." "If new troops come and are stationed in civilian areas, when they draw Taliban attacks civilians will end up being killed," said Gulbadshah Majidi, a lawmaker and close associate of Mr. Karzai. "This will only increase the distance between Afghans and their government."
In late January 2010, Afghan protesters took to the streets for three straight days and blocked traffic on a highway that links Kabul and Kandahar. The Afghans were demonstrating in response to the deaths of four men in a NATO-Afghan raid in the village of Ghazni. Ghazni residents insisted that the dead were civilians.
A 2015 survey by Langer Research Associates found that 77% of Afghans support the presence of US forces; 67% also support the presence of NATO forces. Despite the problems in the country, 80% of Afghans still held the view that it was a good thing for the United States to overthrow the Taliban in 2001. More Afghans blame the Taliban or al-Qaeda for the country's violence (53%) than those who blame the USA (12%).
- Reporting in Kabul had been severely limited first by the Taliban's ban on nearly all foreign news organizations and subsequently by US bombing which destroyed Al Jazeera's Kabul headquarters and damaged the BBC's and Associated Press' offices; no journalists died as a result of the US bombing. https://cpj.org/2002/03/attacks-on-the-press-2001-afghanistan.php Archived 26 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
A 47-nation global survey of public opinion conducted in June 2007 by the Pew Global Attitudes Project found considerable opposition to the NATO military operations in Afghanistan. Only Israel and Kenya citizens were in favor of the war. On the other hand, in 41 of the 47 countries pluralities wanted NATO troops out of Afghanistan as soon as possible. The authors of the survey mentioned a "global unease with major world powers" and in America that "Afghan War not worth it". In 32 out of 47 countries majorities wanted NATO troops out of Afghanistan as soon as possible. Majorities in 7 out of 12 NATO member countries wanted troops withdrawn as soon as possible.
In 2008 there was a strong opposition to war in Afghanistan in 21 of 24 countries surveyed. Only in the US and Great Britain did half the people support the war, with a larger percentage (60%) in Australia. Since then, public opinion in Australia and Britain has shifted, and the majority of Australians and British now also want their troops to be brought home from Afghanistan. Authors of articles on the issue mentioned that "Australians lose faith in Afghan War effort" and "cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace". Of the seven NATO countries in the survey, not one showed a majority in favor of keeping NATO troops in Afghanistan – one, the US, came close to a majority (50%). Of the other six NATO countries, five had majorities of their population wanting NATO troops removed from Afghanistan as soon as possible.
The 2009 global survey reported that majorities or pluralities in 18 out of 25 countries wanted NATO to remove their troops from Afghanistan as soon as possible.:22 Despite American calls for NATO allies to send more troops to Afghanistan, there was majority or plurality opposition to such action in every one of the NATO countries surveyed.:39
Public opinion in 2001Edit
When the invasion began in October 2001, polls indicated that about 88% of Americans and about 65% of Britons backed military action.
A large-scale 37-nation poll of world opinion carried out by Gallup International in late September 2001 found that large majorities in most countries favored a legal response, in the form of extradition and trial, over a military response to 9/11: only three countries out of the 37 surveyed—the US, Israel and India—did majorities favor military action. In the other 34 countries surveyed, the poll found many clear majorities that favored extradition and trial instead of military action: in the United Kingdom (75%), France (67%), Switzerland (87%), Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (83%), Panama (80%) and Mexico (94%).
An Ipsos-Reid poll conducted between November and December 2001 showed that majorities in Canada (66%), France (60%), Germany (60%), Italy (58%), and the UK (65%) approved of US airstrikes while majorities in Argentina (77%), China (52%), South Korea (50%), Spain (52%), and Turkey (70%) opposed them.
Development of public opinionEdit
In a 47-nation June 2007 survey of global public opinion, the Pew Global Attitudes Project found international opposition to the war. Out of the 47 countries surveyed, 4 had a majority that favored keeping foreign troops: the US (50%), Israel (59%), Ghana (50%), and Kenya (60%). In 41, pluralities wanted NATO troops out as soon as possible. In 32 out of 47, clear majorities wanted war over as soon as possible. Majorities in 7 out of 12 NATO member countries said troops should be withdrawn as soon as possible.
A 24-nation Pew Global Attitudes survey in June 2008 similarly found that majorities or pluralities in 21 of 24 countries want the US and NATO to remove their troops from Afghanistan as soon as possible. Only in three out of the 24 countries—the US (50%), Australia (60%), and Britain (48%)—did public opinion lean more toward keeping troops there until the situation has stabilized.
Following that June 2008 global survey, however, public opinion in Australia and Britain diverged from that in the US. A majority of Australians and Britons now want their troops home. A September 2008 poll found that 56% of Australians opposed continuation of their country's military involvement. A November 2008 poll found that 68% of Britons wanted their troops withdrawn within the next 12 months.
In the US, a September 2008 Pew survey found that 61% of Americans wanted US troops to stay until the situation has stabilized, while 33% wanted them removed as soon as possible. Public opinion was divided over Afghan troop requests: a majority of Americans continued to see a rationale for the use of military force in Afghanistan. A slight plurality of Americans favored troop increases, with 42%–47% favoring some troop increases, 39%–44% wanting reduction, and 7–9% wanting no changes. Just 29% of Democrats favored troop increases while 57% wanted to begin reducing troops. Only 36% of Americans approved of Obama's handling of Afghanistan, including 19% of Republicans, 31% of independents, and 54% of Democrats.
In a December 2009 Pew Research Center poll, only 32% of Americans favored increasing US troops in Afghanistan, while 40% favored decreasing them. Almost half of Americans, 49%, believed that the US should "mind its own business" internationally and let other countries get along the best they can. That figure was an increase from 30% who said that in December 2002.
An April 2011 Pew Research Center poll showed little change in American views, with about 50% saying that the effort was going very well or fairly well and only 44% supporting NATO troop presence in Afghanistan.
Protests, demonstrations and ralliesEdit
The war has been the subject of large protests around the world starting with the large-scale demonstrations in the days leading up to the invasion and every year since. Many protesters consider the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan to be unjustified aggression. The deaths of Afghan civilians caused directly and indirectly by the US and NATO bombing campaigns is a major underlying focus of the protests. In January 2009, Brave New Foundation launched Rethink Afghanistan, a national campaign for non-violent solutions in Afghanistan built around a documentary film by director and political activist Robert Greenwald. Dozens of organizations planned (and eventually held) a national march for peace in Washington, D.C. on 20 March 2010.
Human rights abusesEdit
Multiple accounts document human rights violations in Afghanistan.
The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIGRC) called the Taliban's terrorism against the Afghan civilian population a war crime. According to Amnesty International, the Taliban commit war crimes by targeting civilians, including killing teachers, abducting aid workers and burning school buildings. Amnesty International said that up to 756 civilians were killed in 2006 by bombs, mostly on roads or carried by suicide attackers belonging to the Taliban.
NATO has alleged that the Taliban have used civilians as human shields. As an example, NATO pointed to the victims of NATO air strikes in Farah province in May 2009, during which the Afghan government claims up to 150 civilians were killed. NATO stated it had evidence the Taliban forced civilians into buildings likely to be targeted by NATO aircraft involved in the battle. A spokesman for the ISAF commander said: "This was a deliberate plan by the Taliban to create a civilian casualty crisis. These were not human shields; these were human sacrifices. We have intelligence that points to this." according to the US State Department, the Taliban committed human rights violations against women in Afghanistan.
White phosphorus useEdit
White phosphorus has been condemned by human rights organizations as cruel and inhumane because it causes severe burns. White phosphorus burns on the bodies of civilians wounded in clashes near Bagram were confirmed. The US claims at least 44 instances in which militants have used white phosphorus in weapons or attacks. In May 2009, the US confirmed that Western military forces in Afghanistan use white phosphorus to illuminate targets or as an incendiary to destroy bunkers and enemy equipment. US forces used white phosphorus to screen a retreat in the Battle of Ganjgal when regular smoke munitions were not available.
Human rights abuses against Afghan refugeesEdit
Human rights abuses against Afghan refugees and asylum seekers have been documented. This includes mistreatment of refugees who lived in Iran, Pakistan, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, US, Europe, and other NATO members countries.
Afghan refugees in Iran, for example, were not allowed attend public schools, "faced with restrictions on property ownership, freedom of movement, and access to government services...bullying, and physical abuse accompany many Afghan children throughout their adolescence...whether playing at recess or standing in line for bread at the naanvai, they hear jeers like 'Go back to your country,' and 'Dirty Afghan' daily", denied participation in any form of elections, and legally restricted to take a handful of minimum paid jobs, and frequent target of scapegoating. As the price of citizenship for their family members, Afghan children as young as 14 were recruited to fight in Iraq and Syria for a six-month tour.
Afghan refugees were regularly denied visa to travel between countries to visit their family members, faced long delays (usually a few years) in processing of their visa applications to visit family members for purposes such as weddings, gravely ill family member, burial ceremonies, and university graduation ceremonies; potentially violating rights including free movement, right to family life and the right to an effective remedy. Racism, low wage jobs including below minimum wage jobs, lower than inflation rate salary increases, were commonly practiced in Europe and the Americas. Many Afghan refugees were not permitted to visit their family members for a decade or two. Studies have shown abnormally high mental health issues and suicide rates among Afghan refugees and their children living in the west.
- "Operation Enduring Freedom Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "The elite force who are ready to die". the Guardian. 27 October 2001.
- Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.48
- "Pakistan's 'fanatical' Uzbek militants". BBC. 11 June 2014.
- "Pakistan's militant Islamic groups". BBC. 13 January 2002.
- "Evaluating the Uighur Threat". the long war journal. 9 October 2008.
- Start of the Taliban insurgency after the fall of the Taliban regime.
- "News – Resolute Support Mission". Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- "Role of Pakistan in afghan war".
- "Taliban storm Kunduz city". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- The Taliban's new leadership is allied with al Qaeda, The Long War Journal, 31 July 2015
- Rod Nordland; Jawad Sukhanyar; Taimoor Shah (19 June 2017). "Afghan Government Quietly Aids Breakaway Taliban Faction". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Matthew DuPée (January 2018). "Red on Red: Analyzing Afghanistan's Intra-Insurgency Violence". Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Seldin, Jeff (18 November 2017). "Afghan Officials: Islamic State Fighters Finding Sanctuary in Afghanistan". VOA News. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Uzbek militants in Afghanistan pledge allegiance to ISIS in beheading video". khaama.com.
- "Central Asian groups split over leadership of global jihad". The Long War Journal. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Who is Lashkar-e-Jhangvi?". Voanews.com. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- "ISIS 'OUTSOURCES' TERROR ATTACKS TO THE PAKISTANI TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN: U.N. REPORT". Newsweek. 15 August 2017.
- ‘‘Al Qaeda’s Profile: Slimmer but More Menacing,’’ Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 9, 2003
- "'Afghan Taliban leader Mullah Omar is dead'". The Express Tribune. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "'The Kennedys of the Taliban movement' lose their patriarch". NBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "Mullah Najibullah: Too Radical for the Taliban". Newsweek. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "The Afghan National Security Forces Beyond 2014: Will They Be Ready?" (PDF). Centre for Security Governance. February 2014.
- Akmal Dawi. "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voanews.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Rassler, Don; Vahid Brown (14 July 2011). "The Haqqani Nexus and the Evolution of al-Qaida" (PDF). Harmony Program. Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Reuters. "Sirajuddin Haqqani dares US to attack N Waziristan, by Reuters, Published: September 24, 2011". Tribune. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Perlez, Jane (14 December 2009). "Rebuffing U.S., Pakistan Balks at Crackdown". The New York Times.
- "Afghanistan after the Western Drawdown". Google books. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- "In Afghanistan, al-Qaeda is working more closely with the Taliban, Pentagon says". the Washington post. 6 May 2016.
- Bill Roggio (26 April 2011). "How many al Qaeda operatives are now left in Afghanistan? – Threat Matrix". Longwarjournal.org. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Al Qaeda in Afghanistan Is Attempting A Comeback". The Huffington Post. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Rod Nordland; Mujib Mashal (26 January 2019). "U.S. and Taliban Edge Toward Deal to End America's Longest War". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "War-related Death, Injury, and Displacement in Afghanistan and Pakistan 2001–2014" (PDF). brown.edu. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- New Year May Bring Renewed War to Afghanistan
Over 2,500 Afghan soldiers killed from Jan-May: US report
"'It's a Massacre': Blast in Kabul Deepens Toll of a Long War". New York Times. 27 January 2018.
- "Scores Killed in Fresh Kunduz Fighting". Foxnews.com. 26 November 2001. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- Morello, Carol; Loeb, Vernon (6 December 2001). "Friendly fire kills 3 GIs". Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- Terry McCarthy/Kunduz (18 November 2001). "A Volatile State of Siege After a Taliban Ambush". Time. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- John Pike (9 December 2001). "VOA News Report". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "US Bombs Wipe Out Farming Village". Rawa.org. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- UK military deaths in Afghanistan
- OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS FATALITIES as of: December 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT Archived 6 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Number of Afghanistan UK Military and Civilian casualties (7 October 2001 to 30 November 2014)" (PDF). www.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Over 2,000 Canadians were wounded in Afghan mission: report". National Post. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "U.S. Department of Labor – Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation". Dol.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- T. Christian Miller (23 September 2009). "U.S. Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries". Projects.propublica.org. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Iraj. "Deadliest Year for the ANSF: Mohammadi". Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- 7,000 killed (2015), 18,500 killed (2016), total of 25,500 reported killed in 2015–16
- Seldin, Jeff (18 November 2017). "Afghan Officials: Islamic State Fighters Finding Sanctuary in Afghanistan". VOA News. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- Daniel Brown (9 November 2018). "The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have killed at least 500,000 people, according to a new report that breaks down the toll". Business Insider. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Crawford, Neta (August 2016). "Update on the Human Costs of War for Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2001 to mid-2016" (PDF). brown.edu. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF).
- "Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF).
- "US War in Afghanistan: 1999–Present". Council on Foreign Relations. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "US War in Afghanistan". NBC News. 2015. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Lamothe, Dan (6 January 2015). "This new graphic shows the state of the US war in Afghanistan". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Michael Cox; Doug Stokes (9 February 2012). US Foreign Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-19-958581-6. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Robert M. Cassidy () (2004). Peacekeeping in the Abyss: British and American Peacekeeping Doctrine and Practice After the Cold War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-275-97696-5. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- David P. Auerswald; Stephen M. Saideman (5 January 2014). NATO in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone. Princeton University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-1-4008-4867-6. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Peter Dahl Thruelsen, From Soldier to Civilian: DISARMAMENT DEMOBILISATION REINTEGRATION IN AFGHANISTAN, DIIS REPORT 2006:7 Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 12, supported by Uppsala Conflict Database Project, Uppsala University.
- Maloney, S (2005). Enduring the Freedom: A Rogue Historian in Afghanistan. Washington, D.C: Potomac Books Inc.
- Darlene Superville and Steven R. Hurst. "Updated: Obama speech balances Afghanistan troop buildup with exit pledge". cleveland.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014. and Arkedis, Jim (23 October 2009). "Why Al Qaeda Wants a Safe Haven". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "A Timeline of the U.S. War in Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Ayub, Fatima; Kouvo, Sari (2008). "Righting the course? Humanitarian intervention, the war on terror and the future of Afghanistan". International Affairs. 84: 641–657.
- "Indictment #S(9) 98 Cr. 1023" Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine (PDF). United States District Court, Southern District of New York.
- "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Operation Enduring Freedom". www.history.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- Vulliamy, Ed; Wintour, Patrick; Traynor, Ian; Ahmed, Kamal (7 October 2001). "After the September Eleventh Terrorist attacks on America, "It's time for war, Bush and Blair tell Taliban – We're ready to go in – PM|Planes shot at over Kabul"". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Canada in Afghanistan: 2001". National Post. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Can the Northern Alliance Control Kabul?". Time. 12 November 2001. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "Saira Shah: Pursuing Truth Behind Enemy Lines". 2 February 2002. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- Felbab-Brown, V (2012). "Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan". Stability: International Journal of Security and Development. 1 (1): 4–19. doi:10.5334/sta.af.
- Rubin, Alyssa J. (22 December 2009). "NATO Chief Promises to Stand by Afghanistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "The Taliban Resurgence in Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006.
- Rothstein, Hy S (15 August 2006). Afghanistan: and the troubled future of unconventional warfare By Hy S. Rothstein. ISBN 978-81-7049-306-8.
- "AIHRC Calls Civilian Deaths War Crime". Tolonews. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011.
- Starkey, Jerome (30 September 2010). "Karzai's Taliban talks raise spectre of civil war warns former spy chief". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Ten Stories the world should know more about, 2007". www.un.org. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF). nato.int. 4 March 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "A timeline of US troops in Afghanistan since 2001". CNS News. 15 October 2015. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- KURTZLEBEN, DANIELLE (6 July 2016). "CHART: How The US Troop Levels In Afghanistan Have Changed Under Obama". NPR. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "NATO to endorse Afghan exit plan, seeks routes out". Reuters. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- DeYoung, Karen (27 May 2014). "Obama to leave 9,800 US troops in Afghanistan". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Rogers, Simon; Chalabi, Mona (10 August 2010). "Afghanistan civilian casualties". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "US formally ends the war in Afghanistan" (online). CBA News. Associated Press. 28 December 2014. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Sune Engel Rasmussen in Kabul (28 December 2014). "Nato ends combat operations in Afghanistan". Kabul: The Guardian. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "A Timeline of the US War in Afghanistan". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
- Walsh, Eric (9 February 2017). "Trump speaks with Afghan leader, US commander calls for more troops". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Troop Contributing Nations" (PDF). Resolute Support Mission. May 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Landler, Mark; Gordon, Michael R. (18 June 2017). "As US Adds Troops in Afghanistan, Trump's Strategy Remains Undefined". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
- Lamothe, Dan; Hudson, John; Constable, Pamela (1 August 2019). "US preparing to withdraw thousands of troops from Afghanistan in initial deal with Taliban". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
- Sanger, David; Mashal, Mujib (8 September 2019). "After Trump Calls Off Talks, Afghanistan Braces for Violence". New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- "TSG IntelBrief: Afghanistan 16.0". The Soufan Group. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- Crawford, Neta (August 2016). "Update on the Human Costs of War for Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2001 to mid-2016" (PDF). brown.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan Justice Project. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013.
- "Afghanistan: Further Information on Fear for Safety and New Concern: Deliberate and Arbitrary Killings: Civilians in Kabul". Amnesty International. 16 November 1995. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Afghanistan: escalation of indiscriminate shelling in Kabul". International Committee of the Red Cross. 1995. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Marcela Grad (1 March 2009). Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. Webster University Press. p. 310.
- "II. BACKGROUND". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008.
- Amin Saikal (13 November 2004). Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival (2006 1st ed.). I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd., London New York. p. 352. ISBN 1-85043-437-9.
- "Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban, Extremists". National Security Archive. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Video on YouTube
- Coll 2004, p. 14.
- "The Taliban's War on Women: A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan" (PDF). Physicians for Human Rights. 1998. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Maley, William (2009). The Afghanistan wars. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.
- Peter Tomsen said that up until 9/11, Pakistani military and ISI officers, along with thousands of regular Pakistani armed forces personnel, had been involved in the fighting in Afghanistan.Tomsen, Peter (2011). Wars of Afghanistan. PublicAffairs. p. 322. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.
- Video on YouTube
- Tomsen, Peter (2011). Wars of Afghanistan. PublicAffairs. p. 565. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.
- Coll 2004, p. 558.
- "The lost lion of Kabul". The New Statesman. 2011. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Newsday (October 2001). "Taliban massacres outlined for UN". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Newsday (2001). "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers". newsday.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2002. Retrieved 12 October 2001.
- Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (February 1999). "Afghanistan: Situation in, or around, Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal/ethnic group and who is currently in control". Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Incitement of Violence Against Hazaras by Governor Niazi". Afghanistan: the Massacre in Mazar-I Sharif. Human Rights Watch. November 1998. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
- Ahmed Rashid (11 September 2001). "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Girardet 2011, p. 416.
- Rashid 2000, p. 91.
- "Pakistan's support of the taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- 911 Commission 2004, p. 66.
- 911 Commission 2004, p. 67.
- Coll 2004.
- "9/11 Represented a Dramatic Failure of Policy and People". US Congressman Dana Rohrabacher. 2004. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Security Council demands that Taliban turn over Osama bin Laden to appropriate authorities" (Press release). United Nations. 15 October 1999. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Risen 2008.
- Coll 2004, p. 720.
- Julian Borger (24 March 2004). "Bush team 'agreed plan to attack the Taliban the day before September 11'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310.
- "Inside the Taliban 06 – N.G." YouTube. 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Inside the Taliban". National Geographic. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014.
- "Massoud in the European Parliament 2001". EU media. 2001. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Council of Afghan opposition". Corbis. 2001. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 65.
- Senior diplomat and Afghanistan expert Peter Tomsen wrote: "The 'Lion of Kabul' [Abdul Haq] and the 'Lion of Panjshir' [Ahmad Shah Massoud] … Haq, Massoud, and Karzai, Afghanistan's three leading moderates, could transcend the Pashtun—non-Pashtun, north-south divide."Tomsen, Peter (2011). Wars of Afghanistan. PublicAffairs. p. 566. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.
- "Defense Intelligence Agency" (PDF). National Security Archive. 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Taliban Foe Hurt and Aide Killed by Bomb". The New York Times. Afghanistan. 10 September 2001. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Burns, John F. (9 September 2002). "Threats and Responses: Assassination; Afghans, Too, Mark a Day of Disaster: A Hero Was Lost". The New York Times. Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- McWilliam, Ian (27 December 2002). "Central Asia pipeline deal signed". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- Alikozai, Hasib Danish. "Taliban Vows to Protect TAPI Gas Pipeline Project". voanews.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Diplomat, Catherine Putz, The. "TAPI Moves Into Afghanistan, Taliban Promise to Protect the Project". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Holmes, Stephen (2006). "Al Qaeda, 11 September 2001". In Diego Gambetta (ed.). Making sense of suicide missions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929797-9.
- Keppel, Gilles; Milelli, Jean-Pierre; Ghazaleh, Pascale (2008). Al Qaeda in its own words. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02804-3.
- "Chapter of the 9/11 Commission Report detailing the history of the Hamburg Cell Archived 16 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine". 9/11 Commission.
- "9 Years Later, Nearly 900 9/11 Responders Have Died, Survivors Fight for Compensation". FOX News. 11 September 2010. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "The US refuses to negotiate with the Taliban". BBC History. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "In Afghanistan, US is fighting tribal insurgency, not jihad". The Baltimore Sun. 2 March 2010. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "Bush Rejects Taliban Bin Laden Offer". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- "Bush rejects Taliban offer to surrender bin Laden". The Independent. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- "CNN.com – US rejects Taliban offer to try bin Laden – October 7, 2001". edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2004. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- Staff and agencies (14 October 2001). "US warplanes launch new wave of attacks". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- Staff and agencies (14 October 2001). "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- Inter Press Service, 3 May 2011, "US Refusal of 2001 Taliban Offer Gave bin Laden a Free Pass Archived 25 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine"
- "Taliban threaten 70% of Afghanistan, BBC finds". BBC. 31 January 2018. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Afghanistan Protection of Civilians Annual Report, United Nations" (PDF). United Nations. 8 February 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "More Afghan Civilians Being Deliberately Targeted, U.N. Says". The New York Times. 15 February 2018. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "Ex-Blackwater CEO's plan to end the war in Afghanistan". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
- "Erik Prince's Plan to Privatize the War in Afghanistan". The Atlantic. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Privatizing Afghanistan War Not A Wise Idea: Mattis". Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "U.N. concerned over spike in civilian casualties in Afghan air strikes". Reuters. 25 September 2018. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Afghan election candidate killed in Taliban attack". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Staggering Afghan death toll revealed". 25 January 2019. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Nordland, Rod (1 February 2019). "Afghan Government Control Over Country Falters, US Report Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- "At least 21 people killed in Taliban attacks in Afghanistan". Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "US peace envoy meets Taliban co-founder". 25 February 2019. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "At least 23 Afghan security forces killed in Taliban attack". Archived from the original on 4 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Sediqi, Abdul Qadir. "Afghan forces launch attacks to clear warring militants from east Afghanistan". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "At least 20 killed, 50 injured in attack on VP candidate's office in Kabul - government". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "America and the Taliban inch towards a peace deal in Afghanistan". The Economist. 7 August 2019. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- Lamothe, Dan; Hudson, John; Constable, Pamela (1 August 2019). "US preparing to withdraw thousands of troops from Afghanistan in initial deal with Taliban". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- Farmer, Ben; Mehsud, Saleem (16 August 2019). "Family of Taliban leader killed in 'assassination attempt' on eve of historic US peace deal". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Brother of Afghan Taliban leader killed in Pakistan mosque blast". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Taliban's Attack in Kabul Raises Question on the Peace Agreement". True News Source. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "Dozens killed by Taliban suicide bombings in Afghanistan". The Oxford Times. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- Gall, Carlotta (5 August 2017). "In Afghanistan, US Exits, and Iran Comes In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "Trump says US losing war, compares Afghanistan to NYC restaurant consultant". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- Diplomat, Sudha Ramachandran , The. "Is China Bringing Peace to Afghanistan?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
- "Body Count – Casualty Figures after 10 Years of the 'War on Terror' – Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan" Archived 30 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine (PDF), by IPPNW, PGS and PSR, First international edition (March 2015)
- Gabriela Motroc (7 April 2015). "US War on Terror has reportedly killed 1.3 million people in a decade". Australian National Review. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- "220,000 killed in US war in Afghanistan 80,000 in Pakistan: report". Daily Times. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
- "August deadliest month of 2009 for Afghan civilians, UN says". CNN. 26 September 2009. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 10 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- 'Afghan civilian casualties rise thirty-one per cent in first six months of 2010' Archived 26 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Press Release UNAMA, 10 August 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- "Afghanistan: Attack on Logar hospital kills dozens". BBC News. 25 June 2011. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- "Afghan civilian deaths rise, insurgents responsible for most casualties – UN". U.N. News Centre. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- Damien Pearse and agencies (4 February 2012). "Afghan civilian death toll reaches record high". Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Civilian casualties in Afghanistan up 14 per cent last year, says new UN report Archived 23 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine UN.org.
- Afghanistan, Opinion survey 2009, by ICRC and Ipsos
- "Afghan civilian casualties hit a record 11,000 in 2015". Al Jazeera English. 15 February 2016. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Jolly, David (14 February 2016). "Afghanistan Had Record Civilian Casualties in 2015, U.N. Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Sharp rise in children killed and maimed in Afghan war, UN report reveals". The Guardian. 6 February 2017. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Afghan civilian casualties at record high in 2016: UN". Al Jazeera English. 6 February 2017. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Afghanistan election: Voters defy violence to cast ballots". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- "World has failed to protect children in conflict in 2018: UNICEF". Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Children suffering 'atrocities' as number of countries in conflict hits new peak: UNICEF". Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Afghanistan: Rights on the Precipice". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Kristof, Nicholas D., "A Merciful War", Archived 28 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, 1 February 2002. "Now aid is pouring in and lives are being saved on an enormous scale. UNICEF, for example, has vaccinated 734,000 children against measles over the last two months, in a country where virtually no one had been vaccinated against the disease in the previous 10 years. Because measles often led to death in Afghanistan, the vaccination campaign will save at least 35,000 children's lives each year. ... Heidi J. Larson of UNICEF says that if all goes well, child and maternal mortality rates will drop in half in Afghanistan over the next five years. That would mean 112,000 fewer children and 7,500 fewer pregnant women dying each year."
- UNHCR country operations profile – Afghanistan Archived 4 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine unhcr.org
- Afghan Refugees, Costs of War, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), 2012
- "UNHCR - The UN Refugee Agency". www.unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Afghanistan". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Afghans fleeing war find misery in urban slums Archived 17 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Feb. 2012, Amnesty International
"Afghan refugees abandoned by their own government, report finds: About half a million Afghans who fled homes because of violence are living in desperate conditions, says Amnesty" Archived 5 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 23 February 2012
- Afghan interpreters' scheme utter failure, say MPs Archived 29 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine BBC
- Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud (2010). Opium: uncovering the politics of the poppy. Harvard University Press. pp. 52ff.
- Thourni, Francisco E. (2006). Frank Bovenkerk (ed.). The Organized Crime Community: Essays in Honor of Alan A. Block. Springer. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-387-39019-2.
- Lyman, Michael D. (2010). Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control. Elsevier. p. 309. ISBN 978-1-4377-4450-7.
- "Is Afghanistan's Drug Trade Paying Al Qaeda?". ABC News. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
- "Afghanistan riddled with drug ties". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
- "Afghan opium fuels 'global chaos'". BBC News. 21 October 2009. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- Coyne, Christopher; Hall Blanco, Abigail; Burns, Scott (2016). "The War on Drugs in Afghanistan: Another Failed Experiment with Interdiction". The Independent Review. 21 (1): 95–119. JSTOR 43999678.
- Mujib Mashal (25 December 2017). "In Tangled Afghan War, a Thin Line of Defense Against ISIS". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- ISAF Spokesman Discusses Progress in Afghanistan Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. International Security Assistance Force/NATO. 25 July 2011.
- Successes and challenges in Afghan girls' education Archived 23 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 11 October 2012.
- Gary D. Solis (15 February 2010). The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 301–303. ISBN 978-1-139-48711-5. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Nordland, Rod (7 August 2010). "Gunmen Kill Medical Aid Workers in Afghanistan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Rod Nordland (10 February 2011). "Afghan Rights Groups Shift Focus to Taliban". The New York Times. p. A6. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Kegley, Charles W.; Shannon L Blanton (2011). World Politics: Trend and Transformation. Cengage. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-495-90655-1.
- Spencer Ackerman (19 February 2013). "Afghanistan Gets Safer for Civilians as U.N. Warns Taliban of 'War Crimes'". Wired. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
"This is a war crime and people will be held responsible in the future for this war crime," said Ján Kubiš, the U.N.'s man in Afghanistan.
- "Afghanistan: Harrowing accounts emerge of the Taliban's reign of terror in Kunduz". Amnesty International. 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "Three blasts rock Afghanistan's Kabul, killing more than a dozen". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Harding, Luke (14 September 2002). "Afghan Massacre Haunts Pentagon". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Starved, hurt and buried alive in Afghanistan". Independent Online. 2 May 2002. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
- Dasht-e-Leili Photos; Sheberghan Prison and Pit Locations at Dasht-e-Leili Archived 3 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Physicians for Human Rights, Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- "As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed, US silent". McClatchy Newspapers. 12 November 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008.
- "US blocked probes into Afghan prisoner killings". AFP. 10 July 2009. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014.
- Weigl, Andrea (14 February 2007). "Passaro will serve 8 years for beating". The News and Observer. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009.
- Dunbar, Elizabeth (14 February 2007). "Passaro Sentenced To 8-plus Years". Star News. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Tim Golden (20 May 2005). "In US Report, Brutal Details of 2 Afghan Inmates' Deaths". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008.
- White, Josh (12 March 2005). "2 Died After '02 Beatings by US Soldiers". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- Golden, Tim (22 May 2005). "Army Faltered in Investigating Detainee Abuse". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
- Barbara Starr (10 September 2010). "Army: 12 soldiers killed Afghans, mutilated corpses". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Additional charges filed in Afghan civilians' deaths". Seattle Times. 24 August 2010. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Hal Bernton (8 September 2010). "Stryker soldiers allegedly took corpses' fingers". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "US military drops 'kill team' charges against soldier". The Guardian. London. 4 February 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Marine convicted of Afghan murder named". BBC News. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Marine guilty of Afghanistan murder". BBC News. 8 November 2013. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- "Royal Marine Alexander Blackman to be free in weeks after new sentence". BBC. 28 March 2017. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "Army drops one charge against soldier accused in Afghan massacre". Reuters. 1 June 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "No one asked their names". Al Jazeera. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Taimoor Shah; Graham Bowley (12 March 2012). "An Afghan Comes Home to a Massacre". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Jack Healy (23 August 2013). "Soldier Sentenced to Life Without Parole in Deaths of Afghan Civilians". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Updated death toll – 42 people killed in the US airstrikes on Kunduz hospital". Medecins Sans Frontieres. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- "Doctors Without Borders says US airstrike hit hospital in Afghanistan; at least 19 dead". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "US tank entered compound of bombed Afghan hospital without permission: MSF". Daily News and Analysis India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- DoD Law of War Manual - June 2015 Updated Dec 2016. United States Department of Defense. 2016.
- "Obama's Pentagon Covered Up War Crimes in Afghanistan, Says Amnesty International". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "US threatens to arrest ICC judges if they pursue Americans for Afghan war crimes". France 24. Archived from the original on 10 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "US: No Cooperation with ICC Probe of Alleged Afghan War Crimes". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Gazis, Olivia (12 April 2019). Bolton claims victory as International Criminal Court rejects investigation into alleged US war crimes Archived 15 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. CBS News. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- Kennedy, Merrit (12 April 2019). ICC Rejects Probe Into US Actions in Afghanistan Archived 14 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. NPR. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- Cooper, Helene (21 June 2011). "Cost of Wars a Rising Issue as Obama Weighs Troop Levels". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Analysis of the FY2011 Defense Budget" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Estimated Cost to Each US Taxpayer of Each of the Wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2019.
- "Afghanistan War Cost, Timeline, and Economic Impact". The Balance. 15 June 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "U.S.Department of Defense FISCAL YEAR 2019 BUDGET REQUEST" (PDF). February 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (30 May 2013). "Afghanistan war has cost Britain more than £37bn, new book claims". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Lardner, Richard (30 August 2011). "Military Spending Waste: Up To $60 Billion In Iraq, Afghanistan War Funds Lost To Poor Planning, Oversight, Fraud". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "US scraps tons of gear as it leaves Afghanistan: Report". Hurryiet Daily News. Agence France-Presse. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Kabul: US money wasted". The Week (page 7). 9 August 2013.
- Carlotta Gall (1 October 2008). "Insurgents in Afghanistan Are Gaining, Petraeus Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- "Afghanistan: Changing the Frame, Changing the Game. Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center". Belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Research – CPI – Overview". Transparency.org. Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Lupick, Travis (12 November 2009). "Suspended Afghan MP Malalai Joya wants NATO's mission to end". Straight.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Discussion Papers" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Jamestown Foundation Terrorism Conference 2010, Amrullah Saleh speech". 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- 2010 Terrorism Conference. Vimeo. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- O'Hanlon, Michael E. "A Bright Spot Among Afghan Woes" Archived 15 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Brookings Institution, 19 May 2010.
- What Mr. Obama changed. Archived 20 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Washington Post. 3 December 2009.
- Al Pessin (9 December 2009). "Afghan Forces Could Start to Lead Soon, Big Challenges Remain". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 10 December 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Cahn, Dianna (9 December 2009). "Troops fear corruption outweighs progress of Afghan forces". Stripes.com. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "US trainers bemoan Afghan corruption". UPI.com. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Illiteracy undermines Afghan army". Air Force Times. 14 September 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "US surge is big, Afghan army is crucial". MSNBC. Associated Press. 5 December 2009. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Corruption, indiscipline slow Afghan training". Army Times. 11 October 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Training Afghanistan troops gets tough for US troops as trust issues worsen". Daily News. New York. 13 December 2009. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Filkins, Dexter (2 December 2009). "With Troop Pledge, New Demands on Afghans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "POLITICS: Afghan Army Turnover Rate Threatens US War Plans". 24 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- Philip Munch (20 January 2015). Resolute Support Lite: NATO's New Mission versus the Political Economy of the Afghan National Security Forces (PDF) (Report). Afghanistan Analysts' Network. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Munch 2015, p.6, and Giustozzi, A. & Quentin, P., "The Afghan National Army: sustainability challenges beyond financial aspects." Archived 20 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, Kabul, February 2014, 2014, p.30–37
- "'Unacceptably high' number of Afghans flee military training in US: report". Reuters. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "For US, Vast Challenge To Expand Afghan Forces". NPR. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Nordland, Rod (2 February 2010). "With Raw Recruits, Afghan Police Buildup Falters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Ben Arnoldy (31 July 2009). "In Afghanistan, Taliban kills more civilians than US". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- 'Civilian casualties keep on rising, says UN report' Archived 14 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. UNAMA, 31 July 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- "The UN Goldstone Commission: A Lesson in Farcical Hypocrisy, Defense Update. By David Eshel". Defense-update.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Israel and the New Way of War Archived 26 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Journal of International Security Affairs, Spring 2010 – Number 18
- Burns, Robert, (Associated Press), "AP IMPACT: An insider attack: Trust cost 2 lives Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine", Yahoo! News, 5 December 2012
- "American army officer killed, many wounded in Afghan insider attack". Afghanistan Sun. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Kabul residents relish new freedoms". CNN. 14 November 2001. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
Barbers too were doing brisk business as young men with trimmed beards and bare faces walked the streets listening to music from roadside stalls, no longer fearing imprisonment. Yet relief at the fall of the Taliban in Kabul does not mean residents are now completely relaxed. Scenes of joy mask concerns that the alliance's capture of the city will again result in the ethnic infighting that ravaged Kabul before the Taliban capture in 1996.
- Clark, Kate. "BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Kabul women keep the veil". news.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
Equally large percentages endorse the US military presence in Afghanistan. Eighty-three percent said they have a favorable view of "the US military forces in our country" (39% very favorable). Just 17% have an unfavorable view.
- "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
Perhaps most telling, 82% said that overthrowing the Taliban government was a good thing for Afghanistan, with just 11% saying it was a bad thing. In the war zone, 71% endorsed the Taliban's overthrow while 16% saw it as a bad thing; in the north, 18% saw it as a bad thing. These views were held by large majorities of all ethnic groups, including the large Pashtun and Tajik groups and the smaller Uzbek and Hazara groups.
- "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
This general support for US military presence and for the overthrow of the Taliban government is also reflected in some of the most positive ratings of the United States found in the world. Eighty-one percent said that they have a favorable view of the US (40% very favorable), with just 16% giving an unfavorable rating. In the war zone, one in four (26%) had an unfavorable view of the US, but 73% were favorable.
- "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
Afghans do not, however, feel positively about Pakistan in general and specifically believe that, contrary to its claims, it is not pursuing the Taliban. Asked, "Do you think the Pakistan government is allowing the Taliban to operate in Pakistan, or is seriously trying to stop the Taliban from operating in Pakistan?" only 21% said they thought that Pakistan is seriously trying to stop the Taliban from operating in Pakistan, while two out of three (66%) said they believe the government is allowing the Taliban to operate in Pakistan...Asked their general opinion of Pakistan, 63% of Afghans said they have an unfavorable view (70% in the war zone). Just 13% said they have a favorable view.
- "Permanent US bases? Afghans see an election issue". International Herald Tribune. 27 April 2005. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Afghan Poll 2009" (PDF). BBC News. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Gallup poll". Gallup.com. 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Gopal, Anand (1 December 2009). "Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge Is Wrong Strategy". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Trofimov, Yaroslav (11 September 2010). "Karzai Divides Afghanistan in Reaching Out to Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- epaper.orlandosentinel.com[dead link]
- "Afghan Futures: A National Public Opinion Survey" (PDF). 29 January 2015. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
Seventy-seven percent support the presence of US forces; 67 percent say the same of NATO/ISAF forces more generally. Despite the country's travails, eight in 10 say it was a good thing for the United States to oust the Taliban in 2001. And many more blame either the Taliban or al Qaeda for the country's violence, 53 percent, than blame the United States, 12 percent. The latter is about half what it was in 2012, coinciding with a sharp reduction in the US deployment.
- "47-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey p.24, p.116" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Global Unease With Major World Powers". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 27 June 2007. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Afghanistan war not worth it, say most Americans". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Global Economic Gloom – China and India Notable Exceptions". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 12 June 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "BBC NEWS – UK – Britons call for troop withdrawal". BBC News. 13 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Australians lose faith in Afghan war effort". Archived from the original on 3 October 2008.
- Burke, Jason (11 July 2009). "This page has been removed – News – The Guardian". the Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "Poll finds 51% oppose role in Afghanistan". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "25-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey, 2009, p.39 (PDF p.43)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- AEI 2008.
- "World Opinion Opposes the Attack on Afghanistan". Globalpolicy.org. Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war". Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- AEI 2008, p. 157.
- Survey Reports (27 June 2007). "Global Unease With Major World Powers". Pewglobal.org. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Survey Reports (12 June 2008). "June 2008 Pew Global Attitudes Project Survey". Pewglobal.org. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Survey Reports (12 June 2008). "24-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Project Survey p.8, p.29". Pewglobal.org. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Government losing support for Afghanistan campaign". Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Flitton, Daniel (30 September 2008). "Opposition mounts against Afghan war". The Age. Australia. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "Most Britons wanted troops out of Afghanistan: poll". 12 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Britons Would Leave Afghanistan in 2009". Angus-reid.com. 22 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Views on Iraq and Afghanistan Archived 9 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Public Divided Over Afghan Troop Requests, But Still Sees Rationale for War". Pew Research Center Publications. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011.
- "In US, More Support for Increasing Troops in Afghanistan". Gallup.com. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "US Seen as Less Important, China as More Powerful: Overview – Pew Research Center for the People & the Press". People-press.org. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Goal of Libyan Operation Less Clear to Public". Pew Research Center. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Adams, Harold J. Protesters oppose sending more troops to Afghanistan. Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Louisville Courier-Journal. 6 December 2009.
- "Anti-war protesters arrested outside West Point". Wcax.com. Retrieved 9 February 2010.[dead link]
- "Anti-war protesters arrested outside West Point". Poughkeepsie Journal. 2 December 2009. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Stelter, Brian (23 March 2009). "Released on Web, a Film Stays Fresh". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "20 March – Anti-War March on Washington". Pephost.org. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Janie Lorber (20 March 2010). "Saturday Word: Health Care (and Finance)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Enduring Freedom:Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "Taliban attack civilians to spread fear: Amnesty". Reuters. 24 April 2007. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2007.
- Carter, Sara A.; Gertz, Bill (12 May 2009). "Afghan commander's aide blames deaths on Taliban". The Washington Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Straziuso, Jason (11 May 2009). "US: Afghan Militants Use White Phosphorus". The Guardian. London. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- "EXCLUSIVE – Afghan girl's burns show horror of chemical strike". Reuters India. 8 May 2009. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Chivers, C. J. (19 April 2009). "Pinned Down, a Sprint to Escape Taliban Zone". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Jonathan S. Landay. "'We're pinned down:' 4 US Marines die in Afghan ambush". McClatchy. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Unwelcome Guests Iran's Violation of Afghan Refugee and Migrant Rights". Human Rights Watch (20 November 2013). 20 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Bezhan, Frud (2 September 2017). "Class Act: Iranians Campaign To Allow Afghan Refugee Kids Into School". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "The price of an education for Afghan refugees in Iran". The Guardian. The Guardian. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Homsi, Nada (1 October 2017). "Afghan Teenagers Recruited in Iran to Fight in Syria, Group Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Rosenblatt, Kalhan (4 September 2017). "Combat Translators Saved Their Lives. Now These Veterans Are Fighting to Bring Them to the US". NBC News. NBC News. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Chokshi, Niraj (13 July 2017). "After Visa Denials, Afghan Girls Can Attend Robotics Contest in US". The New York Times. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Carolan, Mary (26 January 2018). "Visa delays of more than a year may breach European directive" (Fri, 26 January 2018, 22:01). The Irish Times. The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "The refugees who gave up on Britain" (Fri 1 June 2018 06.00 BST). The Guardian. The Guardian. 1 June 2018. Archived from the original on 7 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- RIM MGHIR; WENDY FREED; ALLEN RASKIN; WAYNE KATON, RIM MGHIR; WENDY FREED; ALLEN RASKIN; WAYNE KATON (1 January 1995). "Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among a community sample of adolescent and young adult Afghan refugees". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 183 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1097/00005053-199501000-00005. PMID 7807065.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Nejad, RM; Klöhn-Saghatolislam, F; Hasan, A; Pogarell, O (May 2017). "[Mental disorders and problems in afghan refugees: The clinical perspective]". MMW Fortschritte der Medizin. 159 (9): 64–66. doi:10.1007/s15006-017-9653-y. PMID 28509013.
- Mghir, Rim, Raskin, Allen, Mghir, Rim, Raskin, Allen (1999). "The Psychological Effects of the War in Afghanistan On Young Afghan Refugees From Different Ethnic Backgrounds". International Journal of Social Sciences. 45 (1): 29–40. doi:10.1177/002076409904500104. PMID 10443247.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Yaser, Anisa; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Mannan, Haider; Smith, Caroline A.; Mond, Jonathan M. (24 August 2017). "The mental health and help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia". International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 11 (1): 49. doi:10.1186/s13033-017-0157-z. PMC 5571658. PMID 28855961.
- Yaser, Anisa; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Smith, Caroline A.; Olson, Rebecca E.; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Mond, Jonathan (12 April 2016). "Beliefs and knowledge about post-traumatic stress disorder amongst resettled Afghan refugees in Australia". International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 10 (1): 31. doi:10.1186/s13033-016-0065-7. ISSN 1752-4458. PMC 4828823. PMID 27073412.
- Stempel, Carl; Sami, Nilofar; Koga, Patrick Marius; Alemi, Qais; Smith, Valerie; Shirazi, Aida (28 December 2016). "Gendered Sources of Distress and Resilience among Afghan Refugees in Northern California: A Cross-Sectional Study". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (1): 25. doi:10.3390/ijerph14010025. PMC 5295276. PMID 28036054.
- Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59420-007-6.
- Girardet, Edward (2011). Killing the Cranes: A Reporter's Journey Through Three Decades of War in Afghanistan (3 August 2011 ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing. p. 416.
- 911 Commission (20 September 2004). "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States". Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- Risen, James (4 September 2008). State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 978-1-84737-511-7.
- Auerswald, David P. & Stephen M. Saideman, eds. NATO in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone (Princeton U.P. 2014) This book breaks down the history of the US effort in Afghanistan down by deployed commander. Also useful in this fashion are Kaplan, "The Insurgents", and "A Different Kind of War."
- Stewart, Richard W. (2004). Operation Enduring Freedom. BG John S. Brown. United States Army. p. 46. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007.
- AEI (24 July 2008). "America and the War on Terror". AEI Public Opinion Study. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015.
- Call, Steve (15 January 2010). Danger Close. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-60344-304-3.
- Woodward, Bob (27 September 2010). Obama's Wars. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-7251-3.
- "US War in Afghanistan". Council on Foreign Relations. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2015.
- Robert Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2014.
- Thomas Powers, "The War without End" (review of Steve Coll, Directorate S: The CIA and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Penguin, 2018, 757 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 7 (19 April 2018), pp. 42–43. "Forty-plus years after our failure in Vietnam, the United States is again fighting an endless war in a faraway place against a culture and a people we don't understand for political reasons that make sense in Washington, but nowhere else." (p. 43.)