Afghan peace process
The Afghan peace process comprises the proposals and negotiations in a bid to end the ongoing war in Afghanistan. Although sporadic efforts have taken place since the war began in 2001, negotiations and the peace movement intensified in 2018 amid talks between the Taliban, which is the main insurgent group fighting against the Afghan government and American troops; and the United States, of which 20,000 soldiers maintain a presence within the country to support the Afghan government. The Taliban also attack civilian targets. Most of the talks have taken place in Doha, the capital of Qatar, where a Taliban office is based. It is expected that a mutual agreement between the Taliban and the United States would be followed by a phased American withdrawal and the start of intra-Afghan peace talks. Besides the United States, regional powers such as Pakistan, China and Russia, as well as NATO play a part in facilitating the peace process.
On February 29, 2020, the U.S. signed a conditional peace agreement with the Taliban, which calls for the withdrawal of foreign troops in 14 months if the Taliban uphold the terms of the agreement. On March 1, 2020, however, the Afghan government, which was not a party to the deal, rejected the U.S. and Taliban's call for a prisoner swap by March 10, 2020, with President Ghani stating that such an agreement will require further negotiation and will also not be implemented as a precondition for future peace negotiations. On March 10, 2020, Ghani signed a decree agreeing to swap 1,500 Taliban prisoners starting March 14, 2020, but on the condition that they sign pledges agreeing to not return to combat. The same day, it was also revealed that there were no plans for a full U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan. On March 10, the United Nations Security Council unanimously backed the U.S.-Taliban peace deal.
On March 11, 2020, however, the Taliban rejected Ghani's prisoner swap proposal. On March 14, 2020 the U.S.-Taliban peace deal became endangered when Ghani delayed the release of Taliban prisoners. On April 7, 2020 The Taliban officially withdrew from prisoner swap talks, which had been taking place in Kabul starting 30 March 2020 and only resulted in the release of 100 Taliban prisoners on 8 April 2020. On May 13, 2020, following a spike in violence, President Ghani ordered the Afghan military to resume offensive against the Taliban.
The Taliban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a Sunni Islamic organization that operates in Afghanistan, a country in Central/South Asia. The Taliban emerged in 1994, taking advantage of the power vacuum that was left following the aftermath of the Afghan Civil War. The group was mainly composed of religious students in Pakistani madrassas (who had fought in the Soviet–Afghan War) under the leadership of Mohammed Omar.
Al-Qaeda, an international terrorist network, were granted sanctuary in Afghanistan on the condition that it did not antagonize the United States, but Osama bin Laden reneged on the agreement in 1998 when he orchestrated bombings of US embassies in East Africa. The episode was indicative of tensions that emerged between the two groups. The Taliban was fundamentally parochial while Al-Qaeda had its sights set on global jihad.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. under President George W. Bush made a request to the Taliban leadership to hand over Osama bin Laden, who was the prime suspect in the attacks. The Taliban refused to hand bin Laden over, demanding evidence of his participation in the attacks. Consequently, the U.S., together with its NATO allies, launched the United States invasion of Afghanistan, code-named Operation Enduring Freedom, on October 7, 2001. By December 17 that year, the U.S. and its allies had driven the Taliban from power and begun building military bases near major cities across the country. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was later created by the United Nations Security Council to train Afghan National Security Forces to oversee military operations in the country so as to prevent any resurgence of the Taliban group. The Taliban has launched numerous attacks on the Afghan forces, government facilities, and any organization that they believe are in alliance with the US.
The US has been on the ground and directly involved in the war for 18 years, with analysts describing the situation as a stalemate. Although al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan are now considered to be "diminished", the war with the Taliban insurgents continues. Ending the 18-year conflict has eluded former US presidents, and Donald Trump has said that he considers the war too costly. Similarities with the process to end the Vietnam War—America's longest war prior to 2010—have been noted, which resulted in the Paris Peace Accords in 1973.
Negotiations had long been advocated by the former Afghan President, Hamid Karzai, as well as the British and Pakistani governments, but resisted by the American government. Karzai offered peace talks with the Taliban in September 2007, but this was swiftly rejected by the insurgent group citing the presence of foreign troops. By 2009 there was broad agreement in Afghanistan that the war should end, but how it should happen was a major issue for the candidates of the 2009 Afghan presidential election that re-elected Karzai. In a televised speech after being elected, Karzai called on "our Taliban brothers to come home and embrace their land" and laid plans to launch a loya jirga. Efforts were undermined by the Obama administration's increase of American troops in the country. Karzai reiterated at a London conference in January 2010 that he wanted to reach out to the Taliban to lay down arms. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton cautiously supported the proposal. At the United States Institute of Peace in May 2010, Karzai stated that a "peace process" would be with the Taliban and other militants "who are not part of al-Qaeda or other terrorist networks or ideologically against us". Of the Taliban specifically, he stated, "They're countryside boys who don't hate the United States, perhaps a lot of them would like to visit the United States given the opportunity".
The Taliban's co-founder and then-second-in-command, Abdul Ghani Baradar, was one of the leading Taliban members who favored talks with the US and Afghan governments. Karzai's administration reportedly held talks with Baradar in February 2010; however, later that month, Baradar was captured in a joint US-Pakistani raid in the city of Karachi in Pakistan. The arrest infuriated Karzai and invoked suspicions that he was seized because the Pakistani intelligence community was opposed to Afghan peace talks. The Afghan Peace Jirga 2010 took place in June 2010, however the Taliban did not attend the conference.
A mindset change and strategy occurred within the Obama administration in 2010 to allow possible political negotiations to solve the war. The Taliban themselves had refused to speak to the Afghan government, portraying them as an American "puppet". Sporadic efforts for peace talks between the US and the Taliban occurred afterward, and it was reported in October 2010 that Taliban leadership commanders (the "Quetta Shura") had left their haven in Pakistan and been safely escorted to Kabul by NATO aircraft for talks, with the assurance that NATO staff would not apprehend them. After the talks concluded, it emerged that the leader of this delegation, who claimed to be Akhtar Mansour, the second-in-command of the Taliban, was actually an imposter who had duped NATO officials.
Karzai confirmed in June 2011 that secret talks were taking place between the US and the Taliban, but these collapsed by August 2011. Further attempts to resume talks were canceled in March 2012, and June 2013 following a dispute between the Afghan government and the Taliban regarding the latter's opening of a political office in Qatar. President Karzai accused the Taliban of portraying themselves as a government in exile. In January 2016, Pakistan hosted a round of four-way talks with Afghan, Chinese and American officials, but the Taliban did not attend. The Taliban did hold informal talks with the Afghan government in 2016.
On February 27, 2018, following an increase in violence, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani proposed unconditional peace talks with the Taliban, offering them recognition as a legal political party and the release of the Taliban prisoners. The offer was the most favorable to the Taliban since the war started. It was preceded by months of national consensus building, which found that Afghans overwhelmingly supported a negotiated end to the war. Two days earlier, the Taliban had called for talks with the US, saying "It must now be established by America and her allies that the Afghan issue cannot be solved militarily. America must henceforth focus on a peaceful strategy for Afghanistan instead of war." On March 27, 2018, a conference of 20 countries in Tashkent, Uzbekistan backed the Afghan government's peace offer to the Taliban. However, the Taliban did not publicly respond to Ghani's offer.
A growing peace movement arose in Afghanistan during 2018, particularly following a peace march which the Afghan media dubbed the "Helmand Peace Convoy". The peace march was a response to a car bomb on March 23 in Lashkar Gah that killed 14 people. The marchers walked several hundred miles from Lashkar Gah in Helmand Province, through Taliban-held territory, to Kabul. There they met Ghani and held sit-in protests outside the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan and nearby embassies. Their efforts inspired further movements in other parts of Afghanistan.
Following the march, Ghani and the Taliban agreed a mutual ceasefire during the Eid al-Fitr celebrations in June 2018. During the Eid ceasefire, Taliban members flocked into Kabul where they met and communicated with locals and state security forces. Although civilians called for the ceasefire to be made permanent, the Taliban rejected an extension and resumed fighting after the ceasefire ended on June 18, while the Afghan government's ceasefire ended a week later.
American officials secretly met Taliban members in July 2018, at the latter's political office in Qatar. In September 2018, Trump appointed Zalmay Khalilzad as special adviser on Afghanistan in the US State Department, with the stated goal of facilitating an intra-Afghan political peace process. Khalilzad led further talks between the US and the Taliban in Qatar in October 2018. Russia hosted a separate peace talk in November 2018 between the Taliban and officials from Afghanistan's High Peace Council. The talks in Qatar resumed in December 2018, though the Taliban refused to allow the Afghan government to be invited, considering them a puppet government of the US. The Taliban spoke with Afghans including former President Hamid Karzai, held at a hotel in Moscow in February 2019, but again these talks did not include the Afghan government.
A further round of talks in Qatar were held in February 2019, this time including Baradar in the Taliban delegation - he had been released by Pakistan in October 2018 at the US' request. Khalilzad reported that this round of negotiations was "more productive than they have been in the past" and that a draft version of a peace agreement had been agreed. The deal involved the withdrawal of US and international troops from Afghanistan and the Taliban not allowing other jihadist groups to operate within the country. The Taliban also announced that progress was being made in the negotiations.
A delegation of Taliban officials and senior Afghan politicians met in Moscow for peace talks in February and May 2019. Reuters reported that "Russian officials as well as religious leaders and elders had asked for a ceasefire."
Between April 29 and May 3, 2019, the Afghan government hosted a four-day loya jirga to discuss peace talks. The Taliban were invited but did not attend. Later in May, a third meeting was held in Moscow between a Taliban delegation and a group of Afghan politicians. An eighth round of US-Taliban talks in Qatar was held in August 2019. The Washington Post reported that the US was close to reaching a peace deal with the Taliban and was preparing to withdraw 5,000 troops from Afghanistan. In September, Khalilzad stated that an agreement had been reached by the US and the Taliban, pending approval by Trump. However, less than a week later, Trump canceled the peace talks in response to an attack in Kabul that killed an American soldier and 11 other people. Following the collapse of the talks with the US, the Taliban sent a delegation to Russia to discuss prospects for a withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan. On September 18, 2019, the Taliban stated that their "doors are open" should Trump decide to resume peace talks in the future.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
On February 29, 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed a peace agreement in Doha, Qatar. The provisions of the deal include the withdrawal of all American and NATO troops from Afghanistan, a Taliban pledge to prevent al-Qaeda from operating in areas under Taliban control, and talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government. The United States agreed to an initial reduction of its force level from 13,000 to 8,600 by July 2020, followed by a full withdrawal within 14 months if the Taliban keeps its commitments. The United States also committed to closing five military bases within 135 days, and expressed its intent to end economic sanctions on the Taliban by August 27, 2020.
The resulting intra-Afghan negotiations were scheduled to begin on March 10, 2020 in Oslo, Norway. The composition of the Afghan government negotiating team has not yet been determined, because the results of the 2019 Afghan presidential election are disputed. The deal requires the Afghan government to release 5,000 Taliban prisoners by the start of the talks, in a prisoner exchange for 1,000 government soldiers held by the Taliban. The Afghan government was not a party to the deal, and on March 1 Ghani stated that he would reject the prisoner exchange: "The government of Afghanistan has made no commitment to free 5,000 Taliban prisoners. [...] The release of prisoners is not the United States authority, but it is the authority of the government of Afghanistan." Ghani also stated that any prisoner exchange "cannot be a prerequisite for talks," but must be a part of the negotiations. On March 2, a Taliban spokesperson stated that they were "fully ready" for the intra-Afghan talks, but that there would be no talks if about 5,000 of their prisoners are not released. He also said that the agreed-upon period of reduction in violence was over and that operations against Afghan government forces could resume.
The Taliban resumed offensive operations against the Afghan army and police on March 3, 2020, conducting attacks in Kunduz and Helmand provinces. On March 4, the US conducted airstrikes on Taliban fighters in Afghanistan's southern Helmand province.
The intra-Afghan negotiations did not begin as planned on March 10, 2020. However, on that day Ghani signed a decree ordering the Afghan government to start releasing 1,500 Taliban prisoners on March 14 if they agreed to sign pledges guaranteeing they will not return to battle If they do not sign the pledges, the decree will not go into effect. The same day, the U.S. started withdrawing some troops. Despite the fact that the terms of the peace agreement also received unanimous backing from the UN Security Council, sources close to the Taliban, including Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen, afterward announced that the group had rejected Ghani's prisoner swap decree and still insisted on the release of 5,000 Taliban prisoners. On March 14, 2020, Javid Faisal, a spokesman for the National Security Council, announced that President Ghani had delayed the release of Taliban prisoners, citing a need to review the list of the prisoners, thus endangering the peace agreement between the U.S. government and Taliban.
On 27 March 2020, the Afghan government announced the formation of a 21-member negotiation team for the peace talks. However, on 29 March the Taliban rejected the team, stating that "we shall only sit for talks with a negotiation team that conforms with our agreements and is constituted in accordance with the laid out principles." On 31 March 2020, a three-person Taliban delegation arrived in Kabul to discuss the release of prisoners. They are the first Taliban representatives to visit Kabul since 2001. The Afghan government had also previously agreed to hold the talks in Bagram Prison. The same day, however, the Afghan government announced that the Taliban's refusal to agree to another ceasefire and the Taliban delegation's refusal to show up at the prison at the scheduled time both resulted in the postponement of the prisoner swap. Following the arrival of the Taliban delegation, a senior Afghan government official told Reuters "the prisoner release might go ahead in a few days if everything goes as planned.”
On 31 March 2020, the UN Security Council urged for all warring parties to declare a ceasefire in order for the peace process to progress further. On 1 April 2020, it was revealed that the both the Taliban and Afghan government did in fact hold face-to-face talks in Kabul the previous day, unlike the previous video conference talks, and that they were overseen by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). However, Afghanistan's Office of the National Security Council stated that the only progress made so far was "on technical matters" and Taliban spokesperson Zabihullah Mujahid afterward stated, "There will be no political talks there." Outside the talks, tensions between the Afghan government and Taliban also showed when Afghan authorities blamed the Taliban for a 1 April 2020 explosion which killed several children in Helmand. On the second day of negotiations, it was agreed that on 2 April 2020, up to 100 Taliban prisoners would be released in exchange for 20 Afghan military personnel
On 7 April 2020, the Taliban departed from the prisoner swap talks, which Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen described as "fruitless." Shaheen also stated in a tweet that hours after walking out of the talks, the Taliban's negotiating team was recalled from Kabul. The Taliban also failed to secure the release of any of the 15 commanders they sought to be released. Arguments over which prisoners to swap also resulted in a delay of the planned prisoner swap. The next day, Faisal maintained that only 100 Taliban prisoners would be released. Faisal later stated that the 100 prisoners, who were incarcerated at Bagram, were released. The Taliban refused to verify these releases, in part due to the fact that the Taliban's withdrawal from Kabul prevented its "technical team" from making verifications of the prisoner identities. As the Afghan government solely determined which prisoners were released, it also could not be confirmed if any of the prisoners released were on the Taliban's list of preferred names.
On 17 May 2020, Ghani signed a power-sharing deal with his rival Abdullah Abdullah. This deal ended the long-running dispute about the results of the 2019 Afghan presidential elections, and assigned responsibility for peace negotiations to Abdullah.
By August 2020, the Afghan government had released 5,100 prisoners, and the Taliban had released 1,000. However, the Afghan government refused to release 400 prisoners from the list of those the Taliban wanted to be released, because those 400 were accused of serious crimes. President Ghani stated that he did not have the constitutional authority to release these prisoners, so he convened a loya jirga from 7 to 9 August to discuss the issue. The jirga agreed to free the 400 remaining prisoners.
Surge in insurgent attacksEdit
Despite the peace agreement between the U.S. and the Taliban, insurgent attacks against Afghan security forces were reported to have surged in the country. In the 45 days after the agreement (between 1 March and 15 April 2020), the Taliban conducted more than 4,500 attacks in Afghanistan, which showed an increase of more than 70% as compared to the same period in the previous year. More than 900 Afghan security forces were killed in the period, up from about 520 in the same period a year earlier. Meanwhile, because of a significant reduction in the number of offensives and airstrikes by Afghan and U.S. forces against the Taliban due to the agreement, Taliban casualties dropped to 610 in the period down from about 1,660 in the same period a year earlier. The Pentagon spokesman, Jonathan Hoffman, said that although the Taliban stopped conducting attacks against the U.S.-led coalition forces in Afghanistan, the violence was still "unacceptably high" and "not conducive to a diplomatic solution." He added: "We have continued to do defensive attacks to help defend our partners in the area and we will continue to do that."
On 22 June 2020, Afghanistan reported its "bloodiest week in 19 years," during which 291 members of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) were killed and 550 others wounded in 422 attacks carried out by the Taliban. At least 42 civilians, including women and children, were also killed and 105 others wounded by the Taliban across 18 provinces. During the week, the Taliban kidnapped 60 civilians in the central province of Daykundi.
On July 1, 2020, the U.S. House Armed Services Committee overwhelmingly voted in favor of a National Defense Authorization Act amendment to restrict President Trump's ability to withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan.
Issues which are expected to arise during the negotiations include women's rights; the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan protects women's freedom of speech and education, which had been suppressed under Taliban rule of Afghanistan. Khalilzad, Ghani, Abdullah, and several other senior Afghan officials have all stated that these rights should be protected, and should not be sacrificed in a peace agreement. The First Lady of Afghanistan, Rula Ghani, has been active in protecting women's rights.
Continued violence on both sides remains an obstacle to a final peace agreement. While preliminary talks were going on, the Taliban continued to fight on the battlefield and launch terror attacks in the capital city, and also threatened the 2019 Afghan presidential election on September 28. According to US Air Force statistics released in February 2020, the US dropped more bombs on Afghanistan in 2019 than in any other year since 2013.
The US ambassador to Afghanistan warned that a peace agreement could risk the Taliban coming back into power, similar to the aftermath of the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, during which the US-supported South Vietnamese government was defeated in the Fall of Saigon. Pakistan warned that rising tensions in the Gulf region after the killing of Iranian general Qasem Soleimani could affect the already-delayed US-Afghanistan peace process.
- "HPC welcomes Khalilzad's efforts for intra-Afghan talks". pajhwok.com.
- "US, Russia, China, Pakistan urge Taliban to agree for ceasefire, begin talks with Afghan govt". @businessline.
- "not excluded from peace process in Afghanistan: China". India Today.
- Rai, Manish. "U.S.-Taliban Deal: India should Chalk-out a New Strategy". OpedColumn.News.Blog.
- George, Susannah (February 29, 2020). "U.S. signs peace deal with Taliban agreeing to full withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan". WashingtonPost.com.
- Mashal, Mujib (February 29, 2020). "U.S. Strikes Deal With Taliban to Withdraw Troops From Afghanistan". MSN.com. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020.
- Schuknecht, Cat (March 1, 2020). "Afghan President Rejects Timeline For Prisoner Swap Proposed In US-Taliban Peace Deal". NPR. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- https://www.politico.com/news/2020/03/01/afghan-peace-deal-prisoner-release-118473%7Ctitle=Afghan peace deal hits first snag over prisoner releases|author=Associated Press|publisher=Politico|accessdate=March 1, 2020}}
- "Afghan conflict: President Ashraf Ghani rejects Taliban prisoner release". BBC News. March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Ghani: No Commitment to Release Taliban Prisoners". TOLOnews. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "President Ghani rejects peace deal's prisoner swap with Taliban". Al Jazeera. March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Shalizi, Hamid (March 10, 2020). "Exclusive: Afghan government to release 1,500 Taliban prisoners from jails - decree". Reuters. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Snow, Shawn (March 10, 2020). "CENTCOM boss says military plans for withdrawal from Afghanistan not developed yet". Military Times. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- "The U.N. Has Unanimously Backed the U.S.-Taliban Peace Deal for Afghanistan". Time. March 10, 2020.
- "Taliban rejects Afghan government's phased release of prisoners". Al Jazeera. March 11, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Gul, Ayaz (March 11, 2020). "Taliban Reject Afghan Government's Prisoner Release Plan". Voice of America. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- "Taliban Rejects Ghani's Decree on Prisoners: Sources". Tolo News. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- "Afghan gov't delays Taliban prisoner release endangering the deal". Al Jazeera. March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "Afghanistan and Taliban begin direct talks with aim of prisoner swap". BBC News. April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- Associated Press (April 8, 2020). "Afghanistan frees 100 Taliban, but the group hasn't verified". The News-Times. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Afghan government says will release 100 Taliban prisoners". Al Jazeera. April 8, 2020. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Taliban delegation arrives in Kabul for the first time since 2001". Khaama Press. March 31, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Ashraf Ghani orders troops to resume offensive against Taliban". Al Jazeera. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Ibrahimi, S. Yaqub (October 30, 2017). "The Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001): 'War-Making and State-Making' as an Insurgency Strategy". Small Wars & Insurgencies. 28 (6): 947–972. doi:10.1080/09592318.2017.1374598.
- "FSI | CISAC | MAPPINGMILITANTS CISAC - MMP: Afghan Taliban". cisac.fsi.stanford.edu.
- Laub, Zachary (July 4, 2014). "The Taliban in Afghanistan". Archived from the original on February 15, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Jeffery, Simon (September 15, 2001). "Bush confirms Bin Laden is prime suspect". the Guardian. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Staff and agencies (October 14, 2001). "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over". the Guardian. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Harooni, Mirwais. "Eleven Afghan soldiers killed in latest attack in Kabul". U.S. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Vitkovskaya, Julie (August 24, 2017). "4 things to know about America's war in Afghanistan". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- "Overcoming Inertia: Why It's Time to End the War in Afghanistan". Cato Institute. August 13, 2019.
- Johny, Stanly (August 5, 2019). "Pulling a Vietnam in Afghanistan". The Hindu.
- "How the U.S. Departure From Afghanistan Could Echo Kissinger's Moves in Vietnam". Time.
- "Taliban reject Afghan president's peace talk offer". Reuters. September 30, 2007.
- Gall, Carlotta (August 17, 2009). "Peace Talks With Taliban Top Issue in Afghan Vote". The New York Times.
- Farmer, Ben (November 3, 2009). "Hamid Karzai reaches out to 'Taliban brothers' in Afghanistan". Daily Telegraph. London.
- "The Karzai questions". Los Angeles Times. November 10, 2009.
- Landler, Mark; Rubin, Alissa J. (January 28, 2010). "War Plan for Karzai: Reach Out to Taliban". The New York Times.
- "Clinton Backs $500M Effort to Court Taliban". ABC News.
- "Karzai's diplomatic language in the US". BBC News. May 14, 2010.
- Nelson, Dean (March 16, 2010). "Hamid Karzai held secret talks with Mullah Baradar in Afghanistan". Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Profile: Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar". BBC News. September 21, 2013.
- Wadhams, Caroline. "Afghanistan's fluffy peace jirga".
- Tisdall, Ewen MacAskill Simon (July 19, 2010). "White House shifts Afghanistan strategy towards talks with Taliban". The Guardian. London.
- Filkins, Dexter (October 19, 2010). "Taliban Elite, Aided by NATO, Join Talks for Afghan Peace". The New York Times.
- Boone, Jon (November 23, 2010). "Fake Taliban leader 'dupes Nato negotiators'". The Guardian. London.
- Farmer, Ben (June 18, 2011). "America has opened peace talks with Taliban, says Afghan President Hamid Karzai". Daily Telegraph. London.
- Nelson, Dean (August 10, 2011). "Secret peace talks between US and Taliban collapse over leaks". Daily Telegraph. London.
- Nordland, Rod; Bumiller, Elisabeth; Rosenberg, Matthew (March 15, 2012). "Karzai Wants U.S. Troops Confined to Bases; Taliban Suspend Peace Talks". The New York Times.
- "US-Taliban Afghanistan peace talks in Qatar cancelled". The Guardian. London. June 20, 2013.
- "Pakistan hosts Afghanistan peace talks". BBC News. January 11, 2016.
- Rothwell, James; Khan, Mohammad Zubair; Sarwary, Bilal (October 18, 2016). "Taliban holds 'informal' peace talks with Afghanistan". Daily Telegraph. London.
- "U.S. puts more pressure on Pakistan to help with Afghan war". Reuters. August 23, 2017.
- Michaels, Jim. "Trump's pressure on Pakistan is major test of new strategy to end war in Afghanistan". USA TODAY.
- Karzai, Hekmat Khalil (March 11, 2018). "Opinion | An Unprecedented Peace Offer to the Taliban". The New York Times.
- "Afghanistan offers amnesty to the Taliban in a bid to end 16-year war". Los Angeles Times. February 28, 2018.
- "Afghan President Urges Taliban To Talk Peace, Offering Political Recognition". NPR.
- "Tashkent Conference Backs Afghan Government's Peace Offer". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- News, Ariana. "Helmand Peace Convoy Rejected Taliban's Allegations". Ariana News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "Helmand peace convoy makes appeals to Russian, American people for peace". July 7, 2018.
- "Going Nationwide: The Helmand peace march initiative". Afghanistan Analysts Network - English. April 23, 2018.
- Mashal, Mujib (June 15, 2018). "A Grass-Roots Afghan Peace Movement Grows, Step by Step". The New York Times.
- Kapur, Roshni. "How Afghanistan's Peace Movement Is Winning Hearts and Minds". Truthout. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "Taliban's surprise Eid ceasefire is unprecedented". Reuters.
- "Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani ends ceasefire with Taliban". Deutsche Welle.
- "Afghanistan: Taliban resume fighting as Eid ceasefire ends". Al Jazeera.
- Shah, Taimoor; Nordland, Rod (July 28, 2018). "U.S. Diplomats Held Face-to-Face Talks With Taliban, Insurgents Say". The New York Times.
- "Zalmay Khalilzad Will Try to Pave Way for Taliban Talks with Afghanistan". Cato Institute. September 28, 2018.
- Islamabad, Craig Nelson in Kabul and Saeed Shah in. "U.S. Envoy Meets Taliban In Push for Afghan Peace Talks". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Afghan Taliban attend landmark talks". BBC News. November 9, 2018.
- "New contacts announced between the Taliban and Americans – Intellectual Observer". Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Paigham, Nawid. "Marginalised government". D + C, Development and cooperation.
- "US peace envoy meets Taliban co-founder". February 25, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
- Higgins, Andrew; Mashal, Mujib (February 4, 2019). "In Moscow, Afghan Peace Talks Without the Afghan Government". The New York Times.
- "Pakistan frees Taliban co-founder at US request; will play constructive role in Afghan peace initiative". National Herald.
- Reuters (February 9, 2019). "Pakistan in behind-the-scenes push to aid US-Taliban talks". DAWN.COM. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Taliban Peace Talks in Moscow End With Hope the U.S. Exits, if Not Too Quickly". The New York Times. February 6, 2019.
- "Taliban says progress made at Afghan talks in Moscow". Al Jazeera. May 30, 2019.
- "Taliban say progress made at Afghan talks in Moscow but no breakthrough". Reuters. May 30, 2019.
- "Afghanistan Opens Loya Jirga To Discuss Peace Talks". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- "Taliban says progress made at Afghan talks in Moscow". Al Jazeera.
- "Trump gets update from aides on Afghan peace plan with troop pullout possible". Reuters. August 16, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- Lamothe, Dan; Hudson, John; Constable, Pamela (August 1, 2019). "US preparing to withdraw thousands of troops from Afghanistan in initial deal with Taliban". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Nicole Gaouette. "US and Taliban reach agreement 'in principle' on Afghanistan, envoy says". CNN. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- "Trump says he canceled peace talks with Taliban over attack". Reuters. September 8, 2019. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- "Afghan Taliban send team to Russia after U.S. talks collapse". Reuters. September 14, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- "Afghanistan war: Taliban tell Trump their 'doors are open'". BBC. September 18, 2019.
- "US-Taliban Afghan peace talks at 'important stage': Khalilzad". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- "US-Taliban truce begins, raising hopes for a peace deal". Al Jazeera. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Qazi, Shereena (February 29, 2020). "Afghanistan's Taliban, US sign agreement aimed at ending war". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "US and Taliban sign deal to end 18-year Afghan war". BBC News. February 29, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma; Sabbagh, Dan; Makoii, Akhtar Mohammad; Borger, Julian (February 29, 2020). "US and Taliban sign deal to withdraw American troops from Afghanistan". The Guardian. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Seligman, Lara. "All U.S. troops to withdraw from Afghanistan under peace deal". POLITICO. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- Gannon, Kathy; Lee, Matthew (February 29, 2020). "US and Taliban sign deal aimed at ending war in Afghanistan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- Kermani, Secunder (March 1, 2020). "What will Taliban do after signing US deal?". BBC News. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Sediqi, Abdul Qadir (March 2, 2020). "Taliban rule out taking part in Afghan talks until prisoners freed". Reuters. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "A peace deal signed. Then America and the Taliban resume fighting". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613.
- Reuters (March 4, 2020). "U.S. carries out first airstrike on Taliban since Doha deal". NBC News. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Taliban rejects Afghan negotiation team in long-awaited talks". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- Qadir Sediqi, Abdul (March 31, 2020). "Taliban team arrives in Kabul to begin prisoner exchange process". Reuters. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Hui, Lu (March 31, 2020). "Afghan prisoners swap postponed". Xinhua. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Afghanistan Releases Hundreds of Prisoners to Limit Coronavirus Outbreaks". Democracy Now. March 31, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Associated Press (March 31, 2020). "UN Security Council Urges Cease-Fire in Afghanistan". New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "UN Security Council urges cease-fire in Afghanistan". Al Khaleej. April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Taliban, Afghanistan prepare for prisoner swap". UPI. April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Afghanistan peace deal: Taliban walk out of 'fruitless' talks". BBC News. April 7, 2020. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Rival Afghan leaders sign power-sharing deal". BBC News. May 17, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- "Loya Jirga Approves Release of 400 Taliban Prisoners". TOLO News. August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- "Afghan council to decide fate of 400 Taliban prisoners". Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Traditional council frees Taliban setting up peace talks". Associated Press. August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Ehsan Qaane (August 7, 2020). "To Release, Or Not To Release? Legal questions around Ghani's consultative loya jirga on Taleban prisoners". Afghanistan Analysts. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Taliban step up attacks on Afghan forces since signing U.S. deal: data". May 1, 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Afghan Security Forces Suffer Bloodiest Week in 19 Years". June 22, 2020 – via www.voanews.com.
- "Taliban kidnap 60 civilians in Afghanistan in a week". June 21, 2020 – via www.dailysabah.com.
- "House panel votes to constrain Afghan drawdown, ask for assessment on 'incentives' to attack US troops". The Hill. July 1, 2020.
- "House Democrats, Working With Liz Cheney, Restrict Trump's Planned Withdrawal of Troops From Afghanistan and Germany". The Intercept. July 2, 2020.
- "Women's Rights Must Be Protected By Action, Not Rhetoric". www.amnesty.org.
- "Abdullah stresses on women's role in peace process". August 5, 2019. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- "Freedoms Should Not Be Sacrificed For Peace: Afghan Women". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- "Her husband's government has been excluded from peace talks. But Afghanistan's first lady is rallying the women". Washington Post.
- "Taliban threatens to disrupt Afghan elections, dismisses September vote as 'ploy'". Washington Post.
- "Airstrikes on the rise as US pursues Afghan peace talks". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- "Opinion | How to get to yes with the Taliban in talks to allow for a U.S. withdrawal". NBC News.
- Hirsh, Michael. "Ryan Crocker: The Taliban Will 'Retake the Country'".
- "Afghanistan- US-Iran conflict would mean end of Afghan peace process: Olson". MENAFN. Archived from the original on March 3, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2020.