Pashtuns

Pashtuns (/ˈpʌʃˌtʊn/, /ˈpɑːʃˌtʊn/ or /ˈpæʃˌtn/; Pashto: پښتانه‎, Pax̌tānə) - also known as Pukhtuns or Pathans - are an Iranian ethnic group[25] native to Central and South Asia.[26][27]

Pashtuns
پښتانه
Pax̌tānə
Tribal and religious leaders in southern Afghanistan.jpg
Pashtun men from Southern Afghanistan
Total population
c. 60-70 million
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan42,590,516 (2020)[1][2]
 Afghanistan15,390,402 (2020)[3]
 India3,200,000[4][a][b][c]
 UAE338,315 (2009)[5]
 United States138,554 (2010)[6]
 Iran110,000 (1993)[7]
 United Kingdom100,000 (2009)[8]
 Germany37,800 (2012)[9]
 Canada26,000 (2006)[10]
 Russia9,800 (2002)[11]
 Australia8,154 (2006)[12]
 Malaysia6000 (2008)[13]
 Tajikistan4,000 (1970)[7]
 Finland1,181[14]
Languages
Pashto
Additional: Dari (in Afghanistan) and Urdu (in Pakistan and India)
Religion
Islam (Sunni)
with smaller Twelver Shia, Christian,[15] Hindu and Sikh minorities[16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

The native language of the Pashtuns is Pashto - an Iranian language on the Indo-Iranian branch, itself a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. The majority of Pashtuns speak Dari (a variant of Persian)[28] or Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu) as a second language (in Afghanistan and the Indian Subcontinent respectively); however, a significant minority speak these languages as their first, primary or main language.

The total number of Pashtuns is estimated to be around 63 million; however, this figure is disputed due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979.[29]

Pashtuns are native to the land of southern Afghanistan and north-western Pakistan (which is occasionally referred to as the Pashtunistan region) where the majority of them reside. Significant and historical communities of the diaspora exist in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan (particularly in the cities of Karachi and Lahore) and in the Rohilkhand region of the Uttar Pradesh state in India (and also in major cities such as Delhi and Bombay). A recent diaspora has formed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf (primarily in the United Arab Emirates) as part of the larger South-Asian diaspora.[30]

Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and constitute around 42% of the population. They have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group in Afghanistan since the nations founding. Pashtuns are the second largest ethnic group in Pakistan, forming 15% of the population, and are considered one of the five major ethno-linguistic groups of the nation.[31]

Pashtuns are the 26th largest ethnic group in the world, and are the worlds largest segmentary lineage group. There are an estimated 350-400 Pashtun tribes and clans.[32][33]

Historical Pashtun figures include Ahmad Shah Durrani (considered the founder of Afghanistan) and Abdul Ghaffar Khan (an Indian-Independence activist during the British Raj). Other notable figures of Pashtun (or partial Pashtun) descent include Imran Khan, Malala Yousafzai, Sher Shah Suri, Shah Rukh Khan, Shahid Afridi, Pir Roshan, Amanullah Khan, Daoud Khan, Ayub Khan, Zakir Husain and Madhubala.[34]

Geographic distribution

Traditional homeland

The majority of Pashtuns are found in the native Pashtun homeland, located south of the Amu Darya river in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan. This includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern Balochistan. Metropolitan centres within this area include Jalalabad, Quetta, Kandahar, Mardan, Mingora and Peshawar.[35]

Indian subcontinent

Pashtuns of the Indian subcontinent, outside the traditional homeland, are referred to as Pathans (the Hindustani word for Pashtun) both by themselves and other ethnic groups of the subcontinent.[36]

Historically, Pashtuns have settled in various cities east of the Indus River before and during the British Raj. These include Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Rohilkhand, Jaipur and Bangalore. The settlers are descended from both Pashtuns of present day Afghanistan and Pakistan (British India before 1947). In some regions in India, they are sometimes referred to as Kabuliwala.

In India significant Pashtun diaspora communities exist.[37][38][4] The Rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh is named after the Rohilla community of Pashtun ancestry. They also live in the states of Maharashtra in central India and West Bengal in eastern India that each have a population of over a million with Pashtun ancestry;[39] both Bombay and Calcutta were primary locations of Pashtun migrants from Afghanistan during the colonial era.[40] There are also populations over 100,000 each in the cities of Jaipur in Rajasthan and Bangalore in Karnataka.[39] Bombay and Calcutta both have a Pashtun population of over 1 million, whilst Jaipur and Bangalore have an estimate of around 100,000.

Karachi is home to the largest community of Pashtuns outside of the native homeland (with estimates of around 7 million).[41][42]

In other regions

Indian and Pakistani Pashtuns have utilised the British/Commonwealth links of their respective countries, and modern communities have been established starting around the 1960s mainly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia but also in other commonwealth countries (and the United States). Some Pashtuns have also settled in the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, and in the Arabian Peninsula.

Due to the multiple wars in Afghanistan since the late 1970s, various waves of refugees (Afghan Pashtuns, but also a sizeable number of Tajiks, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen and Afghan Sikhs) have left the country as asylum seekers.[43]

There are 1.3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan and 1 million in Iran. Others have claimed asylum in the United Kingdom, United States and European Union countries through Pakistan. [44]

Tribes

A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes. The Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar, Quetta and Kabul have grown rapidly due to the influx of rural Pashtuns. Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans.

The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups (pllarina or plarganey), each consisting of several extended families called kahols.[45] Pashtun tribes are divided into four 'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, and the Karlani.

History and origins

 
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).[46]

Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago.[47] Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes, Persians, and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Kushans, Hephthalites, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well.[47][48][49]

The early precursors to modern-day Pashtuns may have been old Iranian tribes that spread throughout the eastern Iranian plateau.[50] According to Yu. V. Gankovsky, the Pashtun's probably began as a "union of largely East-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis, dates from the middle of the first millennium CE and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalites (White Huns) confederacy." He proposes Ephthalite origin for Pashtuns[51][52][53] but others draw a different conclusion. According to Abdul Hai Habibi, some oriental scholars hold that the second largest Pasthun tribe, the Ghiljis, are the descendants of a mixed race of Hephthalite and Pakhtas who have been living in Afghanistan since the Vedic Aryan period.[46]

The Pashtuns began as a union of largely East-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis, dates from the middle of the first millennium CE and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalite (White Huns) confederacy. ... Of the contribution of the Epthalites (White Huns) to the ethnogenesis of the Pashtuns we find evidence in the ethnonym of the largest of the Pashtun tribe unions, the Abdali (Durrani after 1747) associated with the ethnic name of the Epthalites — Abdal. The Siah-posh, the Kafirs (Nuristanis) of the Hindu Kush, called all Pashtuns by a general name of Abdal still at the beginning of the 19th century.

The ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC,[54][55] who may be their early ancestors. However, such a claim lacks substantial evidence. There are many conflicting theories, some modern and others archaic, both among historians and the Pashtuns themselves.[27]

"... the origin of the Afghans is so obscure, that no one, even among the oldest and most clever of the tribe, can give satisfactory information on this point."[56]

"Looking for the origin of Pashtuns and the Afghans is something like exploring the source of the Amazon. Is there one specific beginning? And are the Pashtuns originally identical with the Afghans? Although the Pashtuns nowadays constitute a clear ethnic group with their own language and culture, there is no evidence whatsoever that all modern Pashtuns share the same ethnic origin. In fact it is highly unlikely."[57]

Pashtuns are intimately tied to the history of modern Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and northern India. Following Muslim conquests from the 7th to 11th centuries, many Pashtun ghazis (warriors) invaded and conquered much of the northern parts of South Asia during the periods of the Suris and Durranis.

Ancient references

 
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE

Some modern-day Pashtun tribes have also been identified living in ancient Ariana (e.g., Alexander's historians mentioned "Aspasii" in 330 BC and that may refer to today's Afridis or to the Yusufzai).[58] In the Middle Ages until the advent of modern Afghanistan in the 18th century and the division of Pashtun territory by the 1893 Durand Line, Pashtuns were often referred to as ethnic "Afghans". The earliest mention of the name Afghan (Abgân) is by Shapur I of the Sassanid Empire during the 3rd century CE,[59][60][61] which is later recorded in the 6th century CE in the form of "Avagānā" by the Indian astronomer Varāha Mihira in his Brihat-samhita.[62] It was used to refer to a common legendary ancestor known as "Afghana", propagated to be grandson of King Saul of Israel.[27]

Xuanzang, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, visiting the Afghanistan region several times between 630 and 644 CE also speaks about them.[59][63] In Shahnameh 1–110 and 1–116, it is written as Awgaan.[59] Ancestors of many of today's Turkic-speaking Afghans settled in the Hindu Kush area and began to assimilate much of the culture and language of the Pashtun tribes already present there.[64] Among these were the Khalaj people who are known today as Ghilji.[65] According to several scholars such as V. Minorsky, the name "Afghan" is documented several times in the 982 CE Hudud-al-Alam.[61]

"Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans".[57]

— Hudud ul-'alam, 982 CE

The village of Saul was probably located near Gardez in Afghanistan. Hudud ul-'alam also speaks of a king in Ninhar (Nangarhar), who had Muslim, Afghan and Hindu wives.[66][unreliable source?] Al-Biruni wrote about Afghans in the 11th century as various tribes living in the western mountains of India and extending to the region of Sind. It was reported that between 1039 and 1040 CE Mas'ud I of the Ghaznavid Empire sent his son to subdue a group of rebel Afghans near Ghazni. An army of Arabs, Afghans, Khiljis and others was assembled by Arslan Shah Ghaznavid in 1119 CE. Another army of Afghans and Khiljis was assembled by Bahram Shah Ghaznavid in 1153 CE. Muhammad of Ghor, ruler of the Ghorids, also had Afghans in his army along with others.[67] A famous Moroccan travelling scholar, Ibn Battuta, visiting Afghanistan following the era of the Khalji dynasty in early 1300s gives his description of the Afghans.

"We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principle mountain is called Kuh Sulayman. It is told that the prophet Sulayman (Solomon), Sulemani ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, which was then covered with darkness, returned without entering it."[68]

— Ibn Battuta, 1333

Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (Ferishta), writes about Afghans and their country called Afghanistan in the 16th century.

"The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns. The people of India call them Patán; but the reason for this is not known. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!"[69]

— Ferishta, 1560–1620

One historical account connects the native Pakhtuns of Pakistan to a possible Ancient Egyptian past but this lacks supporting evidence.[70]

"I have read in the Mutla-ul-Anwar, a work written by a respectable author, and which I procured at Burhanpur, a town of Khandesh in the Deccan, that the Afghans are Copts of the race of the Pharaohs; and that when the prophet Moses got the better of that infidel who was overwhelmed in the Red Sea, many of the Copts became converts to the Jewish faith; but others, stubborn and self-willed, refusing to embrace the true faith, leaving their country, came to India, and eventually settled in the Sulimany mountains, where they bore the name of Afghans."[71]

— Ferishta, 1560–1620

Additionally, although this too is unsubstantiated, some Afghan historians have maintained that Pashtuns are linked to the ancient Israelites. Mohan Lal quoted Mountstuart Elphinstone who wrote:

"The Afghan historians proceed to relate that the children of Israel, both in Ghore and in Arabia, preserved their knowledge of the unity of God and the purity of their religious belief, and that on the appearance of the last and greatest of the prophets (Muhammad) the Afghans of Ghore listened to the invitation of their Arabian brethren, the chief of whom was Khauled...if we consider the easy way with which all rude nations receive accounts favourable to their own antiquity, I fear we much class the descents of the Afghans from the Jews with that of the Romans and the British from the Trojans, and that of the Irish from the Milesians or Brahmins."[72]

— Mountstuart Elphinstone, 1841

Henry Walter Bellew (1864) was of the view that the Pashtuns likely have mixed Greek and Rajput roots.[73][74][75] Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire expanded influence on the Pashtuns until 305 BCE when they gave up dominating power to the Indian Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty.[76]

Anthropology and oral traditions

 
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869

Some Pashtun tribes claim descent from Arabs, including some claiming to be Sayyids (descendants of Muhammad).[77] Some groups from Peshawar and Kandahar believe to be descended from Greeks who arrived with Alexander the Great.[78] Pashto is classified under the Eastern Iranian sub-branch of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Those who speak a dialect of Pashto in the Kandahar region refer to themselves as Pashtuns, while those who speak a Peshawari dialect call themselves Pukhtuns. These native people compose the core of ethnic Pashtuns who are found in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. The Pashtuns have oral and written accounts of their family tree. The elders transfer the knowledge to the younger generation. Lineage is considered very important and is a vital consideration in marital business.

Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites

Some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the Pashtun tribes themselves. For example, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Nimat Allah al-Harawi, who compiled a history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century.[79] The 13th century Tabaqat-i Nasiri discusses the settlement of immigrant Bani Israel at the end of the 8th century CE in the Ghor region of Afghanistan, settlement attested by Jewish inscriptions in Ghor. Historian André Wink suggests that the story "may contain a clue to the remarkable theory of the Jewish origin of some of the Afghan tribes which is persistently advocated in the Persian-Afghan chronicles."[80] These references to Bani Israel agree with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed, the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the Afghanistan region.[81] This oral tradition is widespread among the Pashtun tribes. There have been many legends over the centuries of descent from the Ten Lost Tribes after groups converted to Christianity and Islam. Hence the tribal name Yusufzai in Pashto translates to the "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th century Ferishta.[71]

One conflicting issue in the belief that the Pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the Ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyria, while Maghzan-e-Afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east to Afghanistan. This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the Medes and Chaldean Babylonia, which had conquered Assyria decades earlier. But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-Biblical texts refer to the Ten Lost Tribes at all.[citation needed]

Modern era

 
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi

Their modern past stretches back to the Delhi Sultanate, particularly the Hotak dynasty and the Durrani Empire. The Hotaks were Ghilji tribesmen who rebelled against the Safavids and seized control over much of Persia from 1722 to 1729.[82] This was followed by the conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani who was a former high-ranking military commander under Nader Shah. He created the last Afghan empire that covered most of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Indian Punjab, as well as the Kohistan and Khorasan provinces of Iran.[83] After the decline of the Durrani dynasty in the first half of the 19th century under Shuja Shah Durrani, the Barakzai dynasty took control of the empire. Specifically, the Mohamedzai subclan held Afghanistan's monarchy from around 1826 to the end of Zahir Shah's reign in 1973. Former President Hamid Karzai is from the Popalzai tribe of Kandahar.

 
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and the current Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.

The Pashtuns in Afghanistan resisted British designs upon their territory and kept the Russians at bay during the so-called Great Game. By playing the two super powers against each other, Afghanistan remained an independent sovereign state and maintained some autonomy (see the Siege of Malakand). But during the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan (1880–1901), Pashtun regions were politically divided by the Durand Line, and what is today western Pakistan was claimed by British in 1893. In the 20th century, many politically active Pashtun leaders living under British rule of undivided India supported Indian independence, including Ashfaqulla Khan,[84][85] Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, Ajmal Khattak, Bacha Khan and his son Wali Khan (both members of the Khudai Khidmatgar), and were inspired by Mohandas Gandhi's non-violent method of resistance.[86][87] Some Pashtuns also worked in the Muslim League to fight for an independent Pakistan, including Yusuf Khattak and Abdur Rab Nishtar who was a close associate of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.[88]

The Pashtuns of Afghanistan attained complete independence from British political intervention during the reign of Amanullah Khan, following the Third Anglo-Afghan War. By the 1950s a popular call for Pashtunistan began to be heard in Afghanistan and the new state of Pakistan. This led to bad relations between the two nations. The Afghan monarchy ended when President Daoud Khan seized control of Afghanistan from his cousin Zahir Shah in 1973, which opened doors for a proxy war by neighbors and the rise of Marxism. In April 1978, Daoud Khan was assassinated along with his family and relatives. Mujahideen commanders began being recruited in neighboring Pakistan for a guerrilla warfare against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded its southern neighbor Afghanistan in order to defeat a rising insurgency. The mujahideen were funded by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Iran and others, and included some Pashtun commanders such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Jalaluddin Haqqani, who are currently waging an insurgency against the Islamic republic of Afghanistan and the US-led Resolute Support Mission. In the meantime, millions of Pashtuns fled their native land to live among other Afghan diaspora in Pakistan and Iran, and from there tens of thousands proceeded to North America, the European Union, the Middle East, Australia and other parts of the world.

In the late 1990s, Pashtuns became known for being the primary ethnic group comprised by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban regime).[89] The Northern Alliance that was fighting against the Taliban also included a number of Pashtuns. Among them were Abdullah Abdullah, Abdul Qadir and his brother Abdul Haq, Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, Asadullah Khalid, Hamid Karzai and Gul Agha Sherzai. The Taliban regime was ousted in late 2001 during the US-led War in Afghanistan and replaced with the Karzai administration.[90] This was followed by the Ghani administration.

Many high-ranking government officials in Afghanistan are Pashtuns, including: Zalmay Rasoul, Abdul Rahim Wardak, Omar Zakhilwal, Ghulam Farooq Wardak, Anwar ul-Haq Ahady, Yousef Pashtun and Amirzai Sangin. The list of current governors of Afghanistan, as well as the parliamentarians in the House of the People and House of Elders, include large percentage of Pashtuns. The Chief of staff of the Afghan National Army, Sher Mohammad Karimi, and Commander of the Afghan Air Force, Mohammad Dawran, as well as Chief Justice of Afghanistan Abdul Salam Azimi and Attorney General Mohammad Ishaq Aloko also belong to the Pashtun ethnic group.

Pashtuns not only played an important role in South Asia but also in Central Asia and the Middle East. Many of the non-Pashtun groups in Afghanistan have adopted the Pashtun culture and use Pashto as a second language. For example, many leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic groups in Afghanistan practice Pashtunwali to some degree and are fluent in Pashto language. These include Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ismail Khan, Mohammed Fahim, Bismillah Khan Mohammadi, and many others. The Afghan royal family, which was represented by King Zahir Shah, belongs to the Mohammadzai tribe of Pashtuns. Other prominent Pashtuns include the 17th-century poets Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba, and in contemporary era Afghan Astronaut Abdul Ahad Mohmand, former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Zalmay Khalilzad, and Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai among many others.

Many Pashtuns of Pakistan and India have adopted non-Pashtun cultures, and learned other languages such as Urdu, Punjabi, and Hindko.[91] These include Ayub Khan, who was the second President of Pakistan, and Zakir Husain, who was the third President of India. Many more held high government posts, such as Fazal-ur-Rehman, Asfandyar Wali Khan, Mahmood Khan Achakzai, Sirajul Haq, and Aftab Ahmad Sherpao, who are presidents of their respective political parties in Pakistan. Others became famous in sports (e.g., Imran Khan, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, Younis Khan, Shahid Afridi, Irfan Pathan, Jahangir Khan, Jansher Khan, Rashid Khan, and Mujeeb Ur Rahman) and literature (e.g., Ghani Khan, Hamza Shinwari, and Kabir Stori). Malala Yousafzai, who became the youngest Nobel Peace Prize recipient in 2014, is a Pakistani Pashtun.

Many of the Bollywood film stars in India have Pashtun ancestry; some of the most notable ones are Aamir Khan, Shahrukh Khan, Salman Khan, Feroz Khan, Madhubala, Kader Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Soha Ali Khan, Sara Ali Khan, and Zarine Khan. In addition, one of India's former presidents, Zakir Hussain, belonged to the Afridi tribe.[92][93][94] Mohammad Yunus, India's former ambassador to Algeria and advisor to Indira Gandhi, is of Pashtun origin and related to the legendary Bacha Khan.[95][96][97][98]

Genetics

The haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) is found at a frequency of 51.02% among the Pashtun people. Paragroup Q-M242 (xMEH2, xM378) (of Haplogroup Q-M242 (Y-DNA)) was found at 16.3% in Pashtuns.[99] Haplogroup Q-M242 is also found at a frequency of 18% in Pashtuns in the Afghan capital of Kabul.[100]

According to a 2012 study:

"MDS and Barrier analysis have identified a significant affinity between Pashtun, Tajik, North Indian, and Western Indian populations, creating an Afghan-Indian population structure that excludes the Hazaras, Uzbeks, and the South Indian Dravidian speakers. In addition, gene flow to Afghanistan from India marked by Indian lineages, L-M20, H-M69, and R2a-M124, also seems to mostly involve Pashtuns and Tajiks. This genetic affinity and gene flow suggests interactions that could have existed since at least the establishment of the region's first civilizations at the Indus Valley and the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex."

The abstract states: "our results that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region.".[101]

Definitions

Among historians, anthropologists, and the Pashtuns themselves, there is some debate as to who exactly qualifies as a Pashtun. The most prominent views are:

  1. Pashtuns are predominantly an Eastern Iranian people, who use Pashto as their first language, and live in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is the generally accepted academic view.[27]
  2. They are those who follow Pashtunwali.[102]
  3. In accordance with the legend of Qais Abdur Rashid, the figure traditionally regarded as their progenitor, Pashtuns are those whose related patrilineal descent may be traced back to legendary times.

These three definitions may be described as the ethno-linguistic definition, the religious-cultural definition and the patrilineal definition, respectively.

Ethnic

The ethno-linguistic definition is the most prominent and accepted view as to who is and is not a Pashtun.[103] Generally, this most common view holds that Pashtuns are defined within the parameters of having mainly eastern Iranian ethnic origins, sharing a common language, culture and history, living in relatively close geographic proximity to each other, and acknowledging each other as kinsmen. Thus, tribes that speak disparate yet mutually intelligible dialects of Pashto acknowledge each other as ethnic Pashtuns and even subscribe to certain dialects as "proper", such as the Pukhto spoken by the Yusufzai, Gigyani tribe, Ghilji and other tribes in Eastern Afghanistan and the Pashto spoken by the Kakar, Wazir, Khilji and Durranis in Southern Afghanistan. These criteria tend to be used by most Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Cultural

The religious and cultural definition requires Pashtuns to be Muslim and adhere to Pashtunwali codes.[104] This is the most prevalent view among orthodox and conservative tribesmen, who refuse to recognise any non-Muslim as a Pashtun. Pashtun intellectuals and academics, however, tend to be more flexible and sometimes define who is Pashtun based on other criteria. Pashtun society is not homogenous by religion: the overwhelming majority of them are Sunni, with a tiny Shia community (the Turi and partially the Bangash tribe) in the Kurram and Orakzai agencies of FATA, Pakistan. Pakistani Jews and Afghan Jews, have largely relocated to Israel and the United States.[105]

Ancestral

The patrilineal definition is based on an important orthodox law of Pashtunwali which mainly requires that only those who have a Pashtun father are Pashtun. This law has maintained the tradition of exclusively patriarchal tribal lineage. This definition places less emphasis on what language one speaks, such as Pashto, Dari, Hindko, Urdu, Hindi or English.[106] There are various communities who claim Pashtun origin but are largely found among other ethnic groups in the region who generally do not speak the Pashto language. These communities are often considered overlapping groups or are simply assigned to the ethno-linguistic group that corresponds to their geographic location and mother tongue. The Niazi is one of these groups.

Claimants of Pashtun heritage in South Asia have mixed with local Muslim populations and are referred to as Pathan, the Hindustani form of Pashtun.[107][108] These communities are usually partial Pashtun, to varying degrees, and often trace their Pashtun ancestry through a paternal lineage. The Pathans in India have lost both the language and presumably many of the ways of their ancestors, but trace their fathers' ethnic heritage to the Pashtun tribes. Smaller number of Pashtuns living in Pakistan are also fluent in Hindko, Seraiki and Balochi. These languages are often found in areas such as Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur, Attock, Khanewal, Multan, Dera Ismail Khan and Balochistan. Some Indians claim descent from Pashtun soldiers who settled in India by marrying local women during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.[38] No specific population figures exist, as claimants of Pashtun descent are spread throughout the country. Notably, the Rohillas, after their defeat by the British, are known to have settled in parts of North India and intermarried with local ethnic groups. They are believed to have been bilingual in Pashto and Urdu until the mid-19th century. Some Urdu-speaking Muhajir people of India claiming descent from Pashtuns began moving to Pakistan in 1947. Many Pathans chose to live in the Republic of India after the partition of India and Khan Mohammad Atif, a professor at the University of Lucknow, estimates that "The population of Pathans in India is twice their population in Afghanistan".[109]

During the 19th century, when the British were accepting peasants from British India as indentured servants to work in the Caribbean, South Africa and other far away places, Rohillas who had lost their empire were unemployed and restless were sent to places as far as Trinidad, Surinam, Guyana, and Fiji, to work with other Indians on the sugarcane fields and perform manual labour.[110] Many of these immigrants stayed there and formed unique communities of their own. Some of them assimilated with the other South Asian Muslim nationalities to form a common Indian Muslim community in tandem with the larger Indian community, losing their distinctive heritage. Their descendants mostly speak English and other local languages. Some Pashtuns travelled to as far away as Australia during the same era.

Culture

 
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.

Pashtun culture is mostly based on Pashtunwali and the usage of the Pashto language. Pre-Islamic traditions, dating back to Alexander's defeat of the Persian Empire in 330 BC, possibly survived in the form of traditional dances, while literary styles and music reflect influence from the Persian tradition and regional musical instruments fused with localised variants and interpretation. Pashtun culture is a unique blend of native customs with some influences from South and Western Asia. Like other Muslims, Pashtuns celebrate Ramadan and Eid al-Fitr. Some also celebrate Nouruz, which is the Persian new year dating to pre-Islamic period.[111]

Pashtunwali

Pashtunwali (or Pakhtunwali) refers to an ancient self-governing tribal system that regulates nearly all aspects of Pashtun life ranging from community to personal level. One of the better known tenets is Melmastia, hospitality and asylum to all guests seeking help. Perceived injustice calls for Badal, swift revenge. Many aspects promote peaceful co-existence, such as Nanawati, the humble admission of guilt for a wrong committed, which should result in automatic forgiveness from the wronged party. These and other basic precepts of Pashtunwali continue to be followed by many Pashtuns, especially in rural areas.

Another prominent Pashtun institution is the loya jirga or 'grand council' of elected elders.[112] Most decisions in tribal life are made by members of the jirga, which has been the main institution of authority that the largely egalitarian Pashtuns willingly acknowledge as a viable governing body.[113]

Pashto literature and poetry

 
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.[114]

The majority of Pashtuns use Pashto as their native tongue, believed to belong to the Indo-Iranian language family,[115] and is spoken by up to 60 million people.[116][117] It is written in the Pashto-Arabic script and is divided into two main dialects, the southern "Pashto" and the northern "Pukhto". The language has ancient origins and bears similarities to extinct languages such as Avestan and Bactrian.[118] Its closest modern relatives may include Pamir languages, such as Shughni and Wakhi, and Ossetic.[119] Pashto may have ancient legacy of borrowing vocabulary from neighbouring languages including such as Persian and Vedic Sanskrit. Modern borrowings come primarily from the English language.[120]

Fluency in Pashto is often the main determinant of group acceptance as to who is considered a Pashtun. Pashtun nationalism emerged following the rise of Pashto poetry that linked language and ethnic identity. Pashto has national status in Afghanistan and regional status in neighboring Pakistan. In addition to their native tongue, many Pashtuns are fluent in Urdu, Dari, and English. Throughout their history, poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been among the most revered members of Pashtun society. Early written records of Pashto began to appear around the 16th century.

The earliest describes Sheikh Mali's conquest of Swat.[121] Pir Roshan is believed to have written a number of Pashto books while fighting with the Mughals. Pashtun scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana as proof. Amir Kror Suri, son of Amir Polad Suri, was an 8th-century folk hero and king from the Ghor region in Afghanistan.[122][123] However, this is disputed by several European experts due to lack of strong evidence.

The advent of poetry helped transition Pashto to the modern period. Pashto literature gained significant prominence in the 20th century, with poetry by Ameer Hamza Shinwari who developed Pashto Ghazals.[124] In 1919, during the expanding of mass media, Mahmud Tarzi published Seraj-al-Akhbar, which became the first Pashto newspaper in Afghanistan. In 1977, Khan Roshan Khan wrote Tawarikh-e-Hafiz Rehmatkhani which contains the family trees and Pashtun tribal names. Some notable poets include Khushal Khan Khattak, Afzal Khan Khattak, Ajmal Khattak, Pareshan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Anaa, Hamza Shinwari, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Timur Shah Durrani, Shuja Shah Durrani, Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, and Ghani Khan.[125][126]

Recently, Pashto literature has received increased patronage, but many Pashtuns continue to rely on oral tradition due to relatively low literacy rates and education. Pashtun society is also marked by some matriarchal tendencies.[127] Folktales involving reverence for Pashtun mothers and matriarchs are common and are passed down from parent to child, as is most Pashtun heritage, through a rich oral tradition that has survived the ravages of time.

Media and arts

Pashto media has expanded in the last decade, with a number of Pashto TV channels becoming available. Two of the popular ones are the Pakistan-based AVT Khyber and Pashto One. Pashtuns around the world, particularly those in Arab countries, watch these for entertainment purposes and to get latest news about their native areas.[128] Others are Afghanistan-based Shamshad TV, Radio Television Afghanistan, and Lemar TV, which has a special children's show called Baghch-e-Simsim. International news sources that provide Pashto programs include BBC Pashto and Voice of America.

Producers based in Peshawar have created Pashto-language films since the 1970s.

Pashtun performers remain avid participants in various physical forms of expression including dance, sword fighting, and other physical feats. Perhaps the most common form of artistic expression can be seen in the various forms of Pashtun dances. One of the most prominent dances is Attan, which has ancient roots. A rigorous exercise, Attan is performed as musicians play various native instruments including the dhol (drums), tablas (percussions), rubab (a bowed string instrument), and toola (wooden flute). With a rapid circular motion, dancers perform until no one is left dancing, similar to Sufi whirling dervishes. Numerous other dances are affiliated with various tribes notably from Pakistan including the Khattak Wal Atanrh (eponymously named after the Khattak tribe), Mahsood Wal Atanrh (which, in modern times, involves the juggling of loaded rifles), and Waziro Atanrh among others. A sub-type of the Khattak Wal Atanrh known as the Braghoni involves the use of up to three swords and requires great skill. Young women and girls often entertain at weddings with the Tumbal (Dayereh) which is an instrument.[129]

Sports

The Afghanistan national cricket team, which is dominated by Pashtun players, was formed in the early 2000s.[130]

 
Buzkashi in Afghanistan

One of the most popular sports among Pashtuns is cricket, which was introduced to South Asia during the early 18th century with the arrival of the British. Many Pashtuns have become prominent international cricketers in the Pakistan national cricket team, including Imran Khan, Shahid Afridi, Majid Khan, Misbah-ul-Haq, Younis Khan,[131] Umar Gul,[citation needed] Junaid Khan,[citation needed] Fakhar Zaman,[citation needed] Mohammad Rizwan,[citation needed] Sahibzada Farhan,[citation needed] Usman Shinwari and Yasir Shah.[citation needed] Australian cricketer Fawad Ahmed is of Pakistani Pashtun origin who has played for the Australian national team.[132]

Football (soccer) is also one of the most popular sports among Pashtuns. The Former captain and now the current assistant coach of Pakistan national football team, Muhammad Essa, is an ethnic Pashtun. Other sports popular among Pashtuns may include polo, field hockey, volleyball, handball, basketball, golf, track and field, bodybuilding, weightlifting, wrestling (pehlwani), kayaking, horse racing, martial arts, boxing, skateboarding, bowling and chess.

In Afghanistan, the Pashtuns still practice the sport of Buzkashi. The horse-mounted players attempt to place a Goat or Calf carcass in a goal circle.[133]

Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan became greatest professional squash players. Although now retired, they are engaged in promoting the sport through the Pakistan Squash Federation. Maria Toorpakai Wazir is the first female Pashtun squash player. Pakistan also produced other world champions of Pashtun origin: Hashim Khan, Roshan Khan, Azam Khan, Mo Khan and Qamar Zaman.In recent decades Hayatullah Khan Durrani, Pride of Performance legendary caver from Quetta, has been promoting mountaineering, rock climbing and Caving in Balochistan, Pakistan. Mohammad Abubakar Durrani International Canoeing shining star of Pakistan.

Snooker and billiards are played by young Pashtun men, mainly in urban areas where snooker clubs are found. Several prominent international recognized snooker players are from the Pashtun area, including Saleh Mohammed. Although traditionally very less involved in sports than boys, Pashtun girls sometimes play volleyball, basketball, football, and cricket, especially in urban areas.

Makha is a traditional archery sport in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, played with a long arrow (gheshai) having a saucer shaped metallic plate at its distal end, and a long bow.[134]

Religion

 
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.[135]

The overwhelming majority of Pashtuns follow Sunni Islam, belonging to the Hanafi school of thought. There are some Shia Pashtun communities in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan and in neighbouring northeastern section of Paktia Province of Afghanistan. The Shias belong to the Turi tribe while the Bangash tribe is approximately 50% Shia and the rest Sunni, who are mainly found in and around the Parachinar, Kurram, Hangu, Kohat and Orakzai areas in Pakistan.[136]

Studies conducted among the Ghilji reveal strong links between tribal affiliation and membership in the larger ummah (Islamic community). Afghan historians believe that most Pashtuns are descendants of Qais Abdur Rashid, who is purported to have been an early convert to Islam and thus bequeathed the faith to the early Pashtun population.[71][72][137] The legend says that after Qais heard of the new religion of Islam, he travelled to meet Muhammad in Medina and returned to Afghanistan as a Muslim. He purportedly had four children: Sarban, Batan, Ghourghusht and Karlan. Before the Islamization of their territory, the Pashtuns likely followed various religions. Some may have been Buddhists and Hindus, while others Zoroastians, worshippers of the sun, or worshippers of Nana, with some adhering to Judaism and "local natural religions".[138][139] However, there is no conclusive evidence to these theories other than the fact that these were the religions practiced by the people in this region before the arrival of Islam in the 7th century.[140]

 
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan

A legacy of Sufi activity may be found in some Pashtun regions, especially in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa area, as evident in songs and dances. Many Pashtuns are prominent Ulema, Islamic scholars, such as Maulana Aazam an author of more than five hundred books including Tafasee of the Quran as Naqeeb Ut Tafaseer, Tafseer Ul Aazamain, Tafseer e Naqeebi and Noor Ut Tafaseer etc, as well as Muhammad Muhsin Khan who has helped translate the Noble Quran, Sahih Al-Bukhari and many other books to the English language.[141] Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani was a 19th-century Islamic ideologist and one of the founders of Islamic modernism. Although his ethnicity is disputed by some, he is widely accepted in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region as well as in the Arab world, as a Pashtun from the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. Like other non Arabic-speaking Muslims, many Pashtuns are able to read the Quran but not understand the Arabic language implicit in the holy text itself. Translations, especially in English, are scarcely far and in between understood or distributed. This paradox has contributed to the spread of different versions of religious practices and Wahabism, as well as political Islamism (including movements such as the Taliban) having a key presence in Pashtun society. In order to counter radicalisation and fundamentalism, the United States began spreading its influence in Pashtun areas.[142]‹See TfM›[failed verification][143]‹See TfM›[failed verification] Many Pashtuns want to reclaim their identity from being lumped in with the Taliban and international terrorism, which is not directly linked with Pashtun culture and history.[144]

Lastly, little information is available on non-Muslim as there is limited data regarding irreligious groups and minorities, especially since many of the Hindu and Sikh Pashtuns migrated from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa after the partition of India and later, after the rise of the Taliban.[18][145]

A small Pashtun Hindu community, known as the Sheen Khalai meaning 'blue skinned' (referring to the color of Pashtun women's facial tattoos), migrated to Unniara, Rajasthan, India after partition.[19] Prior to 1947, the community resided in the Quetta, Loralai and Maikhter regions of the British Indian province of Baluchistan.[146][19][16] They are mainly members of the Pashtun Kakar tribe. Today, they continue to speak Pashto and celebrate Pashtun culture through the Attan dance.[146][19]

There is a small minority of Pashtun Christians in Pakistan.[15] There is also a minority of Pashtun Sikhs in some tribal areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including in Tirah, Orakzai, Kurram, Malakand, and Swat. Due to the ongoing insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, like many other tribal Pashtuns, some Pashtun Sikhs were internally displaced from their ancestral villages to settle in cities like Peshawar and Nankana Sahib.[17][147][148]

Women

 
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan

In Pashtun society there are three levels of women's leadership and legislative authority: the national level, the village level, and the family level. The national level includes women such as Nazo Tokhi (Nazo Anaa), Zarghona Anaa, and Malalai of Maiwand. Nazo Anaa was a prominent 17th century Pashto poet and an educated Pashtun woman who eventually became the "Mother of Afghan Nationalism" after gaining authority through her poetry and upholding of the Pashtunwali code. She used the Pashtunwali law to unite the Pashtun tribes against their Persian enemies. Her cause was picked up in the early 18th century by Zarghona Anaa, the mother of Ahmad Shah Durrani.[149]

The lives of Pashtun women vary from those who reside in conservative rural areas, such as the tribal belt, to those found in relatively freer urban centres.[150] At the village level, the female village leader is called "qaryadar". Her duties may include witnessing women's ceremonies, mobilising women to practice religious festivals, preparing the female dead for burial, and performing services for deceased women. She also arranges marriages for her own family and arbitrates conflicts for men and women.[149] Though many Pashtun women remain tribal and illiterate, others have become educated and gainfully employed.[150]

 
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films

In Afghanistan, the decades of war and the rise of the Taliban caused considerable hardship among Pashtun women, as many of their rights were curtailed by a rigid interpretation of Islamic law. The difficult lives of Afghan female refugees gained considerable notoriety with the iconic image of the so-called "Afghan Girl" (Sharbat Gula) depicted on the June 1985 cover of National Geographic magazine.[151]

Modern social reform for Pashtun women began in the early 20th century, when Queen Soraya Tarzi of Afghanistan made rapid reforms to improve women's lives and their position in the family. She was the only woman to appear on the list of rulers in Afghanistan. Credited with having been one of the first and most powerful Afghan and Muslim female activists. Her advocacy of social reforms for women led to a protest and contributed to the ultimate demise of King Amanullah's reign in 1929.[152] In 1942, Madhubala (Mumtaz Jehan), the Marilyn Monroe of India, entered the Bollywood film industry. Bollywood blockbusters of 1970s and 1980s starred Parveen Babi, who hailed from the lineage of Gujarat's historical Pathan community: the royal Babi Dynasty. Other Indian actresses and models, such as Zarine Khan, continue to work in the industry.[153] Civil rights remained an important issue during the 1970s, as feminist leader Meena Keshwar Kamal campaigned for women's rights and founded the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) in the 1977.[154]

 
Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani schoolgirl with U.S. President Barack Obama and family. She won the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize.[155]

Pashtun women these days vary from the traditional housewives who live in seclusion to urban workers, some of whom seek or have attained parity with men.[150] But due to numerous social hurdles, the literacy rate remains considerably lower for Pashtun females than for males.[156] Abuse against women is present and increasingly being challenged by women's rights organisations which find themselves struggling with conservative religious groups as well as government officials in both Pakistan and Afghanistan. According to a 1992 book, "a powerful ethic of forbearance severely limits the ability of traditional Pashtun women to mitigate the suffering they acknowledge in their lives."[157]

Despite obstacles, many Pashtun women have begun a process of slow change. A rich oral tradition and resurgence of poetry has inspired many Pashtun women seeking to learn to read and write.[127] Further challenging the status quo, Vida Samadzai was selected as Miss Afghanistan in 2003, a feat that was received with a mixture of support from those who back the individual rights of women and those who view such displays as anti-traditionalist and un-Islamic. Some Pashtun women have attained political office in Pakistan. In Afghanistan, following recent elections, the proportion of female political representatives is one of the highest in the world.[158] A number of Pashtun women are found as TV hosts, journalists and actors.[128] Khatol Mohammadzai serves as Brigadier general in the military of Afghanistan, another Pashtun female became a fighter pilot in the Pakistan Air Force.[159] Some other notable Pashtun women include Suhaila Seddiqi, Zeenat Karzai, Shukria Barakzai, Fauzia Gailani, Naghma, Najiba Faiz, Tabassum Adnan, Sana Safi, Malalai Kakar, Malala Yousafzai, and the late Ghazala Javed.

Pashtun women often have their legal rights curtailed in favour of their husbands or male relatives. For example, though women are officially allowed to vote in Afghanistan and Pakistan, some have been kept away from ballot boxes by males.[160] Another tradition that persists is swara (a form of child marriage), which was declared illegal in Pakistan in 2000 but continues in some parts.[161] Substantial work remains for Pashtun women to gain equal rights with men, who remain disproportionately dominant in most aspects of Pashtun society. Human rights organisations continue to struggle for greater women's rights, such as the Afghan Women's Network and the Aurat Foundation in Pakistan which aims to protect women from domestic violence.

Notable people

See also

Notes

  • Note: population statistics for Pashtuns (including those without a notation) in foreign countries were derived from various census counts, the UN, the CIA World Factbook and Ethnologue.

References

  1. ^ "South Asia :: Pakistan — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  2. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (28 May 2018). "CCI defers approval of census results until elections". Dawn. Retrieved 26 May 2020. On the national level, Pushto stood second with 18.24pc population reporting it as mother tongue...
  3. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Afghanistan". umsl.edu.
  4. ^ a b Ali, Arshad (15 February 2018). "Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan's great granddaughter seeks citizenship for 'Phastoons' in India". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Interacting with mediapersons on Wednesday, Yasmin, the president of All India Pakhtoon Jirga-e-Hind, said that there were 32 lakh Phastoons in the country who were living and working in India but were yet to get citizenship.
  5. ^ "United Arab Emirates: Demography" (PDF). Encyclopædia Britannica World Data. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  6. ^ 42% of 200,000 Afghan Americans = 84,000 and 15% of 363,699 Pakistani Americans = 54,554. Total Afghan and Pakistani Pashtuns in USA = 138,554.
  7. ^ a b "Ethnologue report for Southern Pashto: Iran (1993)". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  8. ^ Maclean, William (10 June 2009). "Support for Taliban dives among British Pashtuns". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  9. ^ Relations between Afghanistan and Germany: Germany is now home to almost 90,000 people of Afghan origin. 42% of 90,000 = 37,800
  10. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada". 2.statcan.ca. 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  11. ^ "Perepis.ru". perepis2002.ru (in Russian).
  12. ^ "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 June 2008. Total responses: 25,451,383 for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
  13. ^ "Pashtuns in malaysia". Northern Pashtuns in Malaysia.
  14. ^ "Väestö 31.12. muuttujina Maakunta, Kieli, Ikä, Sukupuoli, Vuosi ja Tiedot". Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ a b B. Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598846607. The Pashtuns .. There is small Christian minority, mostly in Pakistan .
  16. ^ a b Khan, Naimat (30 June 2020). "70 years on, one Pashtun town still safeguards its old Hindu-Muslim brotherhood". Arab News. The meat-eating Hindu Pashtuns are a little known tribe in India even today, with a distinct culture carried forward from Afghanistan and Balochistan which includes blue tattoos on the faces of the women, traditional Pashtun dancing and clothes heavily adorned with coins and embroidery.
  17. ^ a b Eusufzye, Khan Shehram (2018). "Two identities, twice the pride: The Pashtun Sikhs of Nankana Saheb". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 31 May 2020. One can sense a diminutive yet charming cultural amalgamation in certain localities within the town with the settling of around 250 Pashtun Sikh families in the city.
  18. ^ a b Ali, Tariq (2003). The clash of fundamentalisms: crusades, jihads and modernity. Verso. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-85984-457-1. Retrieved 20 April 2008. The friends from Peshawar would speak of Hindu and Sikh Pashtuns who had migrated to India. In the tribal areas – the no man's land between Afghanistan and Pakistan – quite a few Hindus stayed on and were protected by the tribal codes. The same was true in Afghanistan itself (till the mujahidin and the Taliban arrived).
  19. ^ a b c d Haider, Suhasini (3 February 2018). "Tattooed 'blue-skinned' Hindu Pushtuns look back at their roots". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  20. ^ Williams, Victoria; Taylor, Ken (2017). Etiquette and Taboos around the World: A Geographic Encyclopedia of Social and cultural customs. ABC CLIO. p. 231. ISBN 978-1440838200.
  21. ^ Nyrop, Richard F; Seekins, Donald M (1986). Afghanistan: A Country Study by United States Department of the Army. United States Department of the Army, American University. p. 105.
  22. ^ "Afghanistan". CIA: The World Factbook. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  23. ^ Ali, Arshad (15 February 2018). "Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan's great granddaughter seeks citizenship for 'Phastoons' in India". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Interacting with mediapersons on Wednesday, Yasmin, the president of All India Pakhtoon Jirga-e-Hind, said that there were 32 lakh Phastoons in the country who were living and working in India but were yet to get citizenship.
  24. ^ Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. "LANGUAGE INDIA, STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES (Table C-16)" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 31 December 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Minahan, James B. (30 August 2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598846607 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Minahan, James B. (10 February 2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610690188 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ a b c d "Pashtun". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 September 2010. Pashtun, Pashto-speaking people residing primarily in the region that lies between the Hindu Kush in northeastern Afghanistan and the northern stretch of the Indus River in Pakistan.... The origins of the Pashtun are unclear. According to Pashtun tradition, they are descended from Afghana, grandson of King Saul of Israel, though most scholars believe it more likely that they arose from an intermingling of ancient Aryans from the north or west with subsequent invaders.
  28. ^ Bodetti, Austin. "What will happen to Afghanistan's national languages?". alaraby.
  29. ^ "Hybrid Census to Generate Spatially-disaggregated Population Estimat". United nations world data form.
  30. ^ "Northern Pashtun in United Arab Emirates". Joshua project.
  31. ^ "What Languages Are Spoken In Pakistan?". World atlas.
  32. ^ Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
  33. ^ Syed Saleem Shahzad (20 October 2006). "Profiles of Pakistan's Seven Tribal Agencies". Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Madhubala: From Peshawar with love". Dawn.
  35. ^ "Peshawar, pakols and namkeen karahi". Aurora Dawn. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  36. ^ Cyril Glassé; Huston Smith (2003). The New Encyclopædia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759101906. The Pashto-speaking tribesman who live in Afghanistan, where they are one of the main ethnic groups, and in Pakistan, where they are generally called by the variant term Pathan (Hindi and Urdu).
  37. ^ "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001". Census of India. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  38. ^ a b "Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India". Khyber.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008. Cite error: The named reference "Indian Pathans" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  39. ^ a b "Pashtun, Pathan in India". Joshua Project.
  40. ^ Christopher Finnigan. ""The Kabuliwala represents a dilemma between the state and migratory history of the world" – Shah Mahmoud Hanifi". London School of Economics.
  41. ^ Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (17 July 2009). "Pakistan: Karachi's Invisible Enemy City potent refuge for Taliban fighters". Frontline on PBS. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  42. ^ Syed Saleem Shahzad (10 January 2007). "How the Taliban keep their coffers full". Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  43. ^ "Afghanistan's refugees: forty years of dispossession". Amnesty.
  44. ^ "Young Afghan refugees and asylum seekers in the UK". UN university.
  45. ^ Wardak, Ali (2003). "Jirga – A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan" (PDF). United Nations. p. 7. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  46. ^ a b "Khaljies are Afghan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  47. ^ a b John Ford Shroder. "Afghanistan – VII. History". Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  48. ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress. Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  49. ^ "Kingdoms of South Asia – Afghanistan (Southern Khorasan / Arachosia)". The History Files. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  50. ^ "Old Iranian Online". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  51. ^ Gankovsky, Yu. V. (1982). A History of Afghanistan. Progress Publishers. p. 382.
  52. ^ Quddus, Syed Abdul (1987). The Pathans. Moscow: Ferozsons. p. 29.
  53. ^ Kurbanov pp238-243
  54. ^ Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons. p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  55. ^ "7". The History of Herodotus. Translated by George Rawlinson. The History Files. 4 February 1998 [original written 440 BC].CS1 maint: others (link)
  56. ^ Lal, Mohan (1846). Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan; of Kabul. Volume 1. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 3. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  57. ^ a b Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 18. ISBN 0-631-19841-5.
  58. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2007). History of Pakistan: Pakistan through ages. Sang-e Meel Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-969-35-2020-0.
  59. ^ a b c "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  60. ^ "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  61. ^ a b Noelle-Karimi, Christine; Schetter, Conrad J.; Schlagintweit, Reinhard (2002). Afghanistan -a country without a state?. IKO. p. 18. ISBN 3-88939-628-3. The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India in the form of 'Avagana' ...
  62. ^ "Afghan". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica Online Edition. 15 December 1983. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  63. ^ "The cradle of Pathan culture". Dawn. Pakistan: Dawn News.
  64. ^ "Islamic conquest". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  65. ^ V. Minorsky. The Turkish dialect of the Khalaj. 10 (2 ed.). University of London. pp. 417–437. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  66. ^ Barmazid. "Afghans in Hudud-i-Alam".
  67. ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 151. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  68. ^ Ibn Battuta (2004). Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 0-415-34473-5. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  69. ^ Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (1560–1620). "The History of India, Volume 6, chpt. 200, Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History (p.8)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  70. ^ Barmazid. "Theory of Coptic origin of Pashtuns".
  71. ^ a b c Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (Firishta). "History of the Mohamedan Power in India". Persian Literature in Translation. Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  72. ^ a b Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan; of Kabul, Volume 1. By Mohan Lal (1846), pg.5
  73. ^ Ahmad, Khaled (31 August 2009). "Pathans and Hindu Rajputs". Khyber. Retrieved 24 March 2018. In a nutshell, Bellew's thesis is that all Afghan tribal names can be traced to Greek and Rajput names, which posits the further possibility of a great Greek mixing with the ancient border tribes of India.
  74. ^ Bellew, Henry Walter (1864). A general report on the Yusufzais. Sang-e-Meel Publications.
  75. ^ Ahmed, Khaled. "Daily Times – Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  76. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Name". Strabo (64 BC – 24 AD). American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Alexander took these away from the Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.
  77. ^ Caroe, Olaf. 1984. The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957 (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints)." Oxford University Press.
  78. ^ Mansoor A, Mazhar K, Khaliq S, et al. (April 2004). "Investigation of the Greek ancestry of populations from northern Pakistan". Hum Genet. 114 (5): 484–90. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1094-x. PMID 14986106. S2CID 5715518.
  79. ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 150. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  80. ^ Wink, Andre (2002). Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th–11th Centuries Vol 1. Brill. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0391041738. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  81. ^ Alden Oreck. "The Virtual Jewish History Tour, Afghanistan". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  82. ^ Edward G. Browne, M.A., M.B. "A Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500–1924), Chapter IV. An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)". London: Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2010.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  83. ^ Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree; et al. "Last Afghan empire". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  84. ^ Thakurta, R.N. Guha (1978). The Contemporary, Volume 22. National Galvanizing Pvt. Limited.
  85. ^ Rajesh, K. Guru. Sarfarosh: A Naadi Exposition of the Lives of Indian Revolutionaries. Notion Press. p. 524. ISBN 9789352061730. Ashfaqullah's father, Shafeequlla Khan, was a member of a Pathan military family.
  86. ^ "Abdul Ghaffar Khan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 24 September 2008.
  87. ^ "Abdul Ghaffar Khan". I Love India. Retrieved 24 September 2008.
  88. ^ "Mohammad Yousaf Khan Khattak".
  89. ^ "Afghanistan: At the Crossroads of Ancient Civilisations". bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  90. ^ "Afghan Government 2009" (PDF). scis.org. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011.
  91. ^ Hakala, Walter N. (2012). "Languages as a Key to Understanding Afghanistan's Cultures" (PDF). National Geographic. Retrieved 13 March 2018. In the 1980s and '90s, at least three million Afghans--mostly Pashtun--fled to Pakistan, where a substantial number spent several years being exposed to Hindustani-language media, especially Bollywood films and songs, and being educated in Urdu-language schools, both of which contributed to the decline of Dari, even among urban Pashtuns.
  92. ^ Sharma, Vishwamitra (2007). Famous Indians of the 21st century. Pustak Mahal. p. 60. ISBN 978-81-223-0829-7. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  93. ^ Fārūqī, Z̤iāʼulḥasan (1999). Dr. Zakir Hussain, quest for truth (by Ziāʼulḥasan Fārūqī). APH Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 81-7648-056-8.
  94. ^ Johri, P.K (1999). Educational thought. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. p. 267. ISBN 81-261-2175-0.
  95. ^ "To Islamabad and the Frontier". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 26 May 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2007. Ruled now by parties of the religious right, the Frontier province emerges soon after one proceeds westwards from Islamabad. I was lucky to find Ajmal Khan Khattak in his humble home in Akora Khattak, beyond the Indus. Once Badshah Khan's young lieutenant, Mr. Khattak spent years with him in Afghanistan and offered a host of memories. And I was able to meet Badshah Khan's surviving children, Wali Khan, the famous political figure of the NWFP, and his half-sister, Mehr Taj, whose husband Yahya Jan, a schoolmaster who became a Minister in the Frontier, was the brother of the late Mohammed Yunus, who had made India his home.
  96. ^ Darbari, Raj (1983). Commonwealth and Nehru. Vision Books. p. 28. ISBN 81-261-2175-0.
  97. ^ The Pathan unarmed: opposition & memory in the North West Frontier (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). James Currey. He was visiting his cousin Mohammed Yunus, a Pathan who had chosen to move to Delhi at Partition and become a well-known figure in the Congress regime.
  98. ^ Encyclopædia of Muslim Biography. A.P.H. Pub. Corp. Mohammad Yunus is belong to a rich and distinguished Pathan family and son of Haji Ghulam Samdani (1827–1926).
  99. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  100. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  101. ^ Haber, Marc; et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  102. ^ "Understanding Pashto". University of Pennsylvania. 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  103. ^ "Pakistan: Pakhtuns". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  104. ^ "The Pashtun Code". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 17 November 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  105. ^ Krastev, Nikola (19 June 2007). "U.S.: Afghan Jews Keep Traditions Alive Far From Home". RFE/RL. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  106. ^ Shackle, C. (1980). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 43 (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 482–510. JSTOR 615737.
  107. ^ "Memons, Khojas, Cheliyas, Moplahs ... How Well Do You Know Them?". Islamic Voice. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  108. ^ "Pathan". Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  109. ^ Alavi, Shams Ur Rehman (11 December 2008). "Indian Pathans to broker peace in Afghanistan". Hindustan Times.
  110. ^ "Afghans of Guyana". Wahid Momand. Afghanland.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  111. ^ "What is Nowruz? The Persian New Year explained". Middle east eye.
  112. ^ "Q&A: What is a loya jirga?". BBC News. 1 July 2002. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  113. ^ "Q & A on Afghanistan's Loya Jirga Process". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  114. ^ Chronology: the reigns of Abdur Rahman Khan and Habibullah, 1881–1919 Archived 2007-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  115. ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
  116. ^ Penzl, Herbert; Sloan, Ismail (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-923891-72-5. Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million ...
  117. ^ "Pashto language, alphabet and pronunciation". Omniglot. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  118. ^ "Avestan language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  119. ^ Minahan, James (10 February 2014). "Pamiri". Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia : An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California. ISBN 978-1-61069-018-8. OCLC 879947835.
  120. ^ Awde, Nicholas and Asmatullah Sarwan. 2002. Pashto: Dictionary & Phrasebook, New York: Hippocrene Books Inc. ISBN 0-7818-0972-X. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  121. ^ "History of Pushto language". UCLA Language Materials Project. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  122. ^ Afghan Monarchs: Sher Shah Suri, Amanullah Khan, Habibullah Khan, Amir Kror Suri. London: General Books. 2010. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-156-38425-1.
  123. ^ Afghanistan. 20–22. Historical Society of Afghanistan. 1967. p. 47.
  124. ^ "Amir Hamza Shinwari Baba". Khyber.org. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  125. ^ "Classical Dari and Pashto Poets". Afghanistan Online.
  126. ^ "Rahman Baba: Poet of the Pashtuns". Pashto.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  127. ^ a b Jacinto, Leela (22 May 2005). "The tale of the Pashtun poetess". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  128. ^ a b "Link". avtkhyber.tv. AVT Khyber.
  129. ^ McCollum, Jonathan (2014). "Ghaval." New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743391.
  130. ^ Morgan, Roy (2007). The Encyclopedia of World Cricket. Cheltenham: SportsBooks. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-89980-751-2.
  131. ^ "Younis Khan Profile". espn cricinfo.
  132. ^ "Hottie of the week: Fawad Ahmed". The Express Tribune. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  133. ^ "Sports and Games of Pashtoons". Khyber.org.
  134. ^ "'Mukha' lovers throng Topi contest". Dawn.
  135. ^ "List of Father of Nation of Different Countries". Word Pandit.
  136. ^ "Sunni Militants Claim Deadly Attack at Market in Pakistan". The New York Times. 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  137. ^ "Meaning and Practice". gl.iit.edu "Afghanistan Country Study: Religion". Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  138. ^ Arnold, Alison; Nettl, Bruno (2000). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 785. ISBN 9780824049461. Before the emergence of Islam, the Pakhtuns were followers of Hinduism and Buddhism and considered music sacred, employing it in many religious rituals.
  139. ^ Kumar, Ruchi (1 January 2017). "The decline of Afghanistan's Hindu and Sikh communities". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 March 2018. Historically, Hinduism thrived in Afghanistan, particularly in Pashtun areas.
  140. ^ Ende, Werner; Steinbach, Udo (15 April 2010). Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society. Cornell University Press. p. 257. ISBN 9780801464898. At the time of the first Muslim advances, numerous local natural religions were competing with Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, and Hinduism in the territory of modern Afghanistan.
  141. ^ Muhammad Muhsin Khan (ed.). "The Noble Quran (in 9 VOLUMES), Arabic-English". firstedition.com.my. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  142. ^ "U.S. Embassy in Kabul". flickr.com.
  143. ^ "110605-F-BH761-037". flickr.com. Isafmedia.
  144. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2006). "Pashtuns want an image change". BBC News.
  145. ^ Trimbur, John (10 August 2004). The call to write. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-0-321-20305-2. Retrieved 20 April 2008. Sikh Pashtuns.
  146. ^ a b "India's Forgotten Links to Afghanistan". thebetterindia. 8 August 2018.
  147. ^ "Tirah Sikhs glad at getting status of tribal elders". Dawn. Pakistan. 12 July 2015.
  148. ^ "The Frontier Singhs". Newsline Publications (Pvt.) Ltd. October 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009. There is a small Sikh community in the largely ungoverned Orakzai tribal region, while a few live in Kurram's regional headquarters of Parachinar. They consider themselves "sons of the soil" – Pashtuns to be more specific – and are identified as such. "We are proud to be Pashtuns," says Sahib Singh. "Pashto is our tongue, our mother tongue – and we are proud of it."
  149. ^ a b "Tribal Law of Pashtunwali and Women's Legislative Authority" (PDF). law.harvard.edu. Harvard University.
  150. ^ a b c "I have a right to". bbc.co.uk. BBC World Service. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  151. ^ "Along Afghanistan's War-torn Frontier". National Geographic. June 1985. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  152. ^ "A History of Women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future" (PDF). Dr. Huma Ahmed-Ghosh. Aletta, Institute for Women's History. May 2003. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  153. ^ Mangal Dalal (8 January 2010). "When men were men". The Indian Express. Retrieved 23 August 2013. She's a Pathan girl who speaks Hindi and Urdu well and was spectacular in the screen test. It was pure luck.
  154. ^ "Making Waves: Interview with RAWA". RAWA.org. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  155. ^ "Malala wins nobel piece prize". The Guardian.
  156. ^ "Laura Bush Meets Afghan Women". CBS News. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  157. ^ Grima, Benedicte (1992). Performance of Emotion Among Paxtun Women. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72756-9.
  158. ^ North, Andrew (14 November 2005). "Warlords and women in uneasy mix". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  159. ^ Abbas, Zaffar (11 May 2005). "Pakistan's first women fighter pilots". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  160. ^ "I have a right to – Muhammad Dawood Azami: Pashto". bbc.co.uk. BBC World Service. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  161. ^ "Pakistani women hope for change after Malala Nobel win". National Geographic. Agence France-Presse. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.

Further reading

External links