Pashto literature and poetry

Pashto literature (Pashto: پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language. The history of Pashto literature spreads over five thousands years having its roots in the oral tradition of tapa. However, the first recorded period begins in 7th century with Amir Kror Suri (a warrior poet). Later, Pir Roshan (1526–1574), who founded his own Sufi school of thoughts and began to preach his beliefs. He gave Pashto prose and poetry a new and powerful tone with a rich literary legacy. Khair-ul-Bayan, oft-quoted and bitterly criticized thesis, is most probably the first book on Sufism in Pashto literature. Among his disciples are some of the most distinguished poets, writers, scholars and sufis, like Arzani, Mukhlis, Mirza Khan Ansari, Daulat and Wasil, whose poetic works are well preserved. Akhund Darweza (1533–1615), a popular religious leader and scholar gave a powerful counterblast to Bayazid’s movement in the shape of Makhzanul Islam. He and his disciples have enriched the Pashto language and literature by writing several books of prose.


Here is a list of Pashto Proverbs (Pashto: د پښتو متلونه):[1][2]

Proverb In Roman Pashto Meaning in English Notes


په رومي پښتو کښې

pə romí pәx̌to ke

انګرېزۍ کښې مانا

angrezә́i ke mānā́

مور په يولاس زانګو او په بل لاس نړۍ زانګوي mor pə yaw lās zāngó aw pə bəl lās naṛә́i zāngawí A mother rocks the cradle with one hand and the world with the other
هر څه چې ډېر شي نو ګنډېر شي har tsә če ḍér ši no ganḍér ši When anything becomes allot it becomes poisonous ګنډېر


= a bitter poisonous plant[3]

غوا که توره ده, شيدې يې سپينې دي ğwā kә tóra da šidé ye spíne di Although a cow be black, her milk is white
واده اسان وي خو ټک ټوک يې ګران وي wādә́ asā́n wi xo ṭak-ṭúk ye grān wi A wedding is easy but its workings are hard ټک ټوک


= the sound when two small things bang against each other; to denote working on small tasks[4]

د وچو سره لامده هم سوځي də wә́čo sәrá lāmdә́ ham swadzí The wet too burn with the dry
ژرنده که د پلار ده هم په وار ده žránda kә dә plār da ham pә wār da Even if the mill is of father, it is by turn
تورې ته ګېنډې نيسه خبرو ته تندی نيسه túre tə genḍé nisá, xabә́ro tə tandáy nisá Hold the shield to the sword, the forehead to words ګېنډه [genḍá]

= rhino; as its skin is hard so shields would be made from it[5]

کار په کولو کېږي kār pə kawә́lo kéǵi Work gets done by doing it
پاړو د مار له لاسه مري pāṛú dә mār lə lā́sa mrí The snake charmer dies because of the snake
په ګوهار کښې به يې سخی نه وي

وايي به زموږ د کلي ګوهار هغه دی

pə gohā́r ke bə ye sxay nə wi. wā́yi bә zamuǵ də kalí gohā́r háğa day In the herd he will not have calf. But will keep on saying: that is the herd of our village ګوهار


=herd of cattle[6]

پيشو زبرګه شوه منږک نه نيسي pišó zbә́rga šwa manǵák nә nisí The cat has become holy/saintly, she does not catch mice. زبرګ


= saint[7]

چېرته خوله چېرته څنګل čérta xwla čérta tsangә́l Where (be) the mouth (and) where (be) the elbow ? To point out contrast: as most people cannot touch the elbow with the mouth
چې اوګره سړېږي مېلمه ډېرېږي če ográ saṛéǵi melmә́ ḍeréǵi When the rice porridge cools the guests increase اوګره


= a Pashtun dish made by boiling rice[8][9]

Notable figuresEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Zellem, Edward (2014). د افغانستان پښتو متلونه: دگروال ادوارد زالم. Cultures Direct Press. ISBN 978-0-692-21518-0.
  2. ^ Enevoldsen, Jens (2004). Sound the Bells, O Moon, Arise and Shine!. InterLit Foundation. ISBN 978-969-8343-15-6.
  3. ^ "ګنډېر - Daryab Pashto Glossary [Qalandar Momand]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  4. ^ "ټک ټوک - Daryab Pashto Glossary [Qalandar Momand]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  5. ^ "ګېنډه - Daryab Pashto Glossary [Qalandar Momand]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  6. ^ Raverty, H. G. (Henry George) (1860). "A dictionary of the Pukhto, Pushto, or language of the Afghans; with remarks on the originality of the language, and its affinity to the Semitic and other Oriental tongues, etc". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  7. ^ "زبرګ - Pashto English [Academy of Sciences Kabul]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  8. ^ "اوګره - Daryab Pashto Glossary [Qalandar Momand]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  9. ^ "اوګره - Pashto French [Dr. M. Akbar Wardag]". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  10. ^ Afghan Monarchs: Sher Shah Suri, Amanullah Khan, Habibullah Khan, Amir Kror Suri. London: General Books. 2010. p. 26. ISBN 9781156384251. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
  11. ^ Afghanistan. Vol. 20–22. Historical Society of Afghanistan. 1967. p. 47. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
  12. ^ "Rahman Baba: Poet of the Pashtuns". BBC News. February 21, 2005. Retrieved 2011-07-10.

External linksEdit