Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President promulgates ordinances and passes bills.
The President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, district, anti-terrorism, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court.
The full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government.
Federal law and ConstitutionEdit
The Federal Government is Subject to the Constitution. The executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the (Federal) Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation.
In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime Minister may act either directly or through the (Federal) Ministers.
The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation (a term inherited from the United Kingdom), such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, and the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga (or Panchayat) system has become an institution for local governance. The 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been greatly influenced by the United States Of America ' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has also influenced the country's judicial development.
Branches of governmentEdit
- The National Assembly is the lower house and has 342 members. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities.
- The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms.
The Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament (MPs), according to the constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.
By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.
Prime Minister and CabinetEdit
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزيراعظم; lit: 'Wazir-e- Azam), is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive (CE). Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations.
The Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions, including;
- The federal secretaries as head of cabinet- level ministries
- The chief Secretaries of the provinces
- Key administrative and military personnel in the Pakistan Armed Forces
- The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, TCP, PIA, PNSC etc
- The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions
- Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries
The Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent (50 members including the Prime Minister) of the total strength of the Parliament. Each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament (MP). The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assisted by the Cabinet Secretary of Pakistan, whose appointment comes from the Civil Services of Pakistan. Other Ministers are Ministers of State, junior members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government.
Once appointed by the Prime Minister, all Cabinet Ministers are officially confirmed to their appointment offices by the President in a special oath of ceremony.
Elected for a five-year term by an indirect election, the electoral college consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for reelection. However no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament.
The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47.
The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments.
- Governors of the Four Provinces
- The Chief Justice (after concluding the consultation with the Prime Minister)
- The Chief Election Commissioner (Consultation required from the Prime Minister)
- The Attorney General and Comptroller and Auditor General
The President, as Head of State also receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence, reprieve and respite, and remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases involving a death sentence. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Pakistan's independent judicial system began under the British Raj, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. Institutional and judicial procedures were later changed, in 1950s, under the influence of American legal system to remove the fundamental rights problems. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Anti-terrorism courts, Sharia courts, and Environmental courts all over the country; Supreme Court being the superior court. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consists of a Chief Justice, and Senior Justices appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The Constitution does not fix the number of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an act signed by the President.
The Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to make judicature transfers. Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts, the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.
Supreme Judicial CouncilEdit
Misconduct of judges is highly intolerable as is mentioned in the constitution. Under the mainframe of the Supreme Judicial Council Article 209 an inquiry into the capacity or conduct of a Judge, who is a member of the Council, may be conducted.
The civil service of Pakistan is the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of Pakistan. It is headed by the Establishment Secretary of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government, occupying a respected image in the civil society. Civil servants come from different cadres (e.g. Pakistan Administrative Service, Police Service of Pakistan etc.) after passing the CSS examinations. Not all the employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned corporations and commissioned military science circles.
In the parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The cabinet and its ministers are expected to lay down the policy guidelines, and the civil servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing it.
The federal secretaries are the most senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country. Each ministry/division has its Secretary to oversee and enforce the public policy matters.
The secretaries, who are basic pay scale (BPS)-22 grade officers, are largely considered to be the most powerful officials in the country; especially the Cabinet Secretary, Principal Secretary to Prime Minister and Establishment Secretary who work in close coordination with the Prime Minister. The Finance Secretary of Pakistan and Interior Secretary of Pakistan are also largely dubbed as being one of the most influential officers in the country.
Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordination of activities of the various Ministries in such situations are the functions of the Cabinet Division. Appointment for the chairman of the FPSC, the prestigious body responsible for the recruitment of elite bureaucrats, is made by the President after consulting the Prime Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.
Elections and voting systemEdit
Since 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the national (federal), provincial, tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament (and prelude of movements are proved at the Judicial branch), the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government initiated by the president (consultation of Prime Minister also required to make such move), in regards to Article 58 of the constitution.
There has been four times that the martial law has been in effect, and controversially approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected. Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Administration and governmentsEdit
Provincial, Tribal, and Local governmentsEdit
There are four provincial governments that rule the four provinces of the state; the Chief Minister heads the state government. All provincial assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years. The Governors appointed by President after consulting the Prime minister, act only as representatives of federal government in the province and do not have any part in running the government.
The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Pakistanis' daily lives. The tribal and Local government functions at the basic level. It is the third level of government, consisting Jirga in rural tribal areas.
Taxation and budgetEdit
Pakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the Government of Pakistan. Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in public and political science circle of the country, and according to the International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of 190 million pay income tax.
The Finance Minister of Pakistan presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year, and it has to be passed by the both houses of the Parliament. The budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial fiscal year.
NFC program overviewEdit
Constituted under the Article 160 of the Constitution of Pakistan by the Constitution, the National Finance Commission Award (NFC) program is a series of planned economic programs to take control of financial imbalances and equally manage the financial resources for the four provinces to meet their expenditure liabilities while alleviating the horizontal fiscal imbalances.
According to stipulations and directions of the Constitution, the provisional governments and Federal government compete to get higher share of the program's revenues in order to stabilize their own financial status.
The corruption is on-going issue in the government, claiming to take initiatives against it, particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces. In 2011, the country has had a consistently poor ranking at the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index with scores of 2.5, 2.3 in 2010, and 2.5 in 2009 out of 10. In 2011, Pakistan ranked 134 on the index with 42 countries ranking worse. In 2012, Pakistan's ranking dropped even further from 134 to 139, making Pakistan the 34th most corrupt country in the world, tied with Azerbaijan, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria. However, during Sharif regime (2013–17), Pakistan got improved ranking of 117/180 in 2017 (with an improvement in score 28, 29, 30, 32, 32 [2013-17]), equal to Egypt (better than 59 countries).
Circular debt and spending prioritiesEdit
Since before the collapse of the USSR in 1991, progressive economic liberalization has been carried out by the government both at the provincial and the national level. Pakistan has achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial fiscal year of 2006–07, surpassing the government target of $4 billion. Despite this milestone achievement, the Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping by ~54.6% due to Pakistan's military operations, financial crises, law and order situation in Karachi, according to the Bank of Pakistan. From the 2006 estimate, the Government expenditures were ~$25 billion.
Funding in science and education has been a primary policy of the Government of Pakistan, since 1947. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 3rd Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 2nd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world and the second largest out of school population (5.1 million children) after Nigeria.
Debts and deficitEdit
As per the CIA World Factbook, in 2010, Pakistan ranks 63rd in the world, with respect to the public external debt to various international monetary authorities (owning ~$55.98 billion in 2010), with a total of 60.1% of GDP.
Ministries and divisionsEdit
|Cabinet Secretariat||Cabinet Division
Capital Administration and Development Division
|Climate Change||Climate Change Division|
|Commerce and Textile Industry||Commerce Division
Textile Industry Division
|Defence Production||Defence Production Division||1972|
|Federal Education and Professional Training||Federal Education and Professional Training Division|
|Finance, Revenue, Economic Affairs||Finance Division
Economic Affairs Division
|Foreign Affairs||Foreign Affairs Division
|Housing and Works||Housing and Works Division|
|Human Rights||Human Rights Division|
|Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage||Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage Division|
|Industries and Production||Industries and Production Division|
|Information Technology and Telecommunication||Information Technology and Telecommunication Division|
|Inter-Provincial Coordination||Inter Provincial Coordination Division|
|Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit Baltistan||Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan Division|
|Law and Justice||Law and Justice Division|
|Narcotics Control||Narcotics Control Division|
|Parliamentary Affairs||Parliamentary Affairs Division|
|Planning and Development||Planning and Development Division|
|National Food Security and Research||National Food Security and Research Division|
|National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination||National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination Division|
|Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony||Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony Division|
|States and Frontier Regions||States and Frontier Regions Division|
|Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development||Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Division|
|Ports and Shipping||Ports and Shipping Division|
|Postal Services||Postal Services Division|
|Science and Technology||Science and Technology Division|
|Water Resources||Water Resources Division|
- Abdus Salam Centre for Physics
- Accountant General Pakistan Revenues
- Airports Security Force
- Alternative Energy Development Board
- Akthar Hameed Khan National Centre for Rural Development
- Animal Quarantine Department
- Anti-Narcotics Force
- Armament Research and Development Establishment
- Associated Press of Pakistan
- Attorney-General for Pakistan
- Auditor General of Pakistan
- Board of Investment
- Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment
- Cabinet Committee on National Security
- Capital Development Authority
- Islamabad Police
- Central Board of Film Censors
- Chief Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees
- Civil Aviation Authority
- College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
- Controller General of Accounts
- Competition Commission of Pakistan
- Council for Work and Housing Research
- Council of Common Interests
- Council of Islamic Ideology
- Defence Export Promotion Organization
- Defence Science and Technology Organisation
- Department of Archeology and Museums
- Department of Plant Protection
- Directorate General of Civil Defence
- Civil Defence Academy
- National Institute of Fire Technology
- Directorate General of Defence Purchase
- Directorate General of Immigration and Passports
- Directorate General of Munitions Production
- Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare
- Directorate General of Trade Organisations
- Directorate of Workers Education
- Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan
- Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority
- Economic Coordination Committee
- Election Commission of Pakistan
- Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution
- Engineering Development Board
- Estate Office
- Export Development Fund
- Export–Import Bank of Pakistan
- Export Processing Zone Authority
- Evacuee Trust Property Board
- Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education
- Federal Board of Revenue
- Federal Directorate of Education
- Federal Employees Benevolent and Group Insurance Fund
- Federal Flood Commission
- Federal Government Employees Housing Foundation
- Federal Investigation Agency
- National Response Centre for Cyber Crime
- Federal Land Commission
- Federal Ombudsman of Pakistan
- Federal Public Service Commission
- Federal Judicial Academy
- Financial Monitoring Unit
- Fisheries Development Board
- Foreign Service of Pakistan
- Frontier Constabulary
- Frontier Corps
- Gazette of Pakistan
- Geological Survey of Pakistan
- Global Change Impact Studies Centre
- Government Shipping Office
- Gwadar Port Authority
- Heavy Industries Taxila
- Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
- Human Organ Transplant Authority
- Ignite (formerly National ICT R&D Fund)
- Institute of Bankers Pakistan
- Indus River System Authority
- Institute of Regional Studies
- Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan
- Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan
- Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan
- Institute of Optronics
- Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad
- Intelligence Bureau
- Inter-Services Intelligence
- Iqbal Academy
- Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works
- Karachi Port Trust
- Khan Research Laboratories
- Law and Justice Commission of Pakistan
- Livestock and Dairy Development Board
- Management Services Wing
- Marine Fisheries Department
- Maritime Security Agency
- Mercantile Marine Department
- Military Lands and Cantonments Department
- Military Vehicles Research and Development Establishment
- National Academy for Prisons Administration
- National Academy of Performing Arts
- National Accountability Bureau
- National Archives of Pakistan
- National Bioethics Committee
- National Command Authority
- Centre of Excellence for Nuclear Security
- Strategic Plans Division Force
- National Commission for Child Welfare and Development
- National Commission for Government Reforms
- National Commission for Human Development
- National Commission for Human Rights
- National Commission on the Status of Women
- National Counter Terrorism Authority
- National Crises Management Cell
- National Database and Registration Authority
- National Disaster Management Authority
- National Institute of Disaster Management
- National Education Foundation
- National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
- National Energy Conservation Centre
- National Engineering and Scientific Commission
- National Engineering Services Pakistan
- National Forensic Science Agency
- National Highway Authority
- National Highways and Motorway Police
- National Industrial Relations Commission
- National Information Technology Board
- National Institute of Electronics
- National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage
- National Institute of Health
- National Institute of Oceanography
- National Institute of Population Studies
- National Institute of Science and Technical Education
- National Intelligence Directorate
- National Language Promotion Department
- National Library of Pakistan
- National Logistics Cell
- National Museum of Pakistan
- National Police Academy
- National Police Bureau
- National Productivity Organization
- National Savings Organization
- National School of Public Policy
- National Security Council
- National Telecommunication Corporation
- National Textile University
- National Tariff Commission
- National Training Bureau
- National Transmission and Despatch Company
- National Transport Research Centre
- National University of Sciences and Technology
- National Veterinary Lab
- National Vocational and Technical Training Commission
- Oil and Gas Development Company
- Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority
- Overseas Employment Corporation
- Overseas Pakistanis Foundation
- Pakistan Academy of Letters
- Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
- Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
- Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation
- Pak-Arab Refinery Company
- Pakistan Armed Forces
- Inter-Services Public Relations
- Inter Services Selection Board
- National Defence University
- Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis
- Pakistan Air Force
- Pakistan Army
- Pakistan Navy
- Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
- Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal
- Pakistan Bar Council
- Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation
- Pakistan Bureau of Statistics
- Pakistan Coast Guards
- Pakistan Commissioner for Indus Waters
- Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners
- Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies
- Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources
- Pakistan Council for Science and Technology
- National Commission for Science and Technology
- Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
- Pakistan Cricket Board
- Pakistan Customs
- Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority
- Pakistan Engineering Council
- Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
- Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company
- Pakistan Horticulture Development and Export Company
- Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation
- Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistance Centre
- Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services
- Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design
- Pakistan Institute of Management
- Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
- Pakistan Institute of Public Finance Accountants
- Pakistan Institute of Trade and Development
- Pakistan International Airlines Corporation
- Pakistan Manpower Institute
- Pakistan Marine Academy
- Pakistan Medical and Dental Council
- Pakistan Health Research Council
- Pakistan Meteorological Department
- National Agromet Centre
- Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation
- Pakistan National Accreditation Council
- Pakistan National Council of the Arts
- Pakistan National Shipping Corporation
- Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
- Pakistan Nursing Council
- Pakistan Oilseed Development Board
- Pakistan Ordnance Factories
- Pakistan Petroleum
- Pakistan Post
- Pakistan Public Works Department
- Pakistan Railways
- Pakistan Rangers
- Pakistan Science Foundation
- Pakistan Museum of Natural History
- Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Center
- Pakistan Software Export Board
- Pakistan Sports Board
- Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority
- Pakistan State Oil
- Pakistan Steel Mills
- Pakistan Telecommunication Authority
- Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited
- Pakistan Television Corporation
- Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation
- Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council
- PHA Foundation
- Pharmacy Council of Pakistan
- Planning Commission of Pakistan
- Port Qasim Authority
- Power Information Technology Company
- Press Council of Pakistan
- Printing Corporation of Pakistan
- Private Educational Institution Regulatory Authority
- Private Power and Infrastructure Board
- Public Procurement Regulatory Authority
- Quaid-e-Azam Academy
- Ruet-e-Hilal Committee
- Secretariat Training Institute
- Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan
- Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority
- Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan
- Special Communications Organization
- Staff Welfare Organization
- State Bank of Pakistan
- State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan
- Strategic Export Control Division
- Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited
- Sui Southern Gas Company
- Survey of Pakistan
- Trade Development Authority of Pakistan
- Trade Dispute Resolution Organisation
- Trading Corporation of Pakistan
- Utility Stores Corporation
- Virtual University of Pakistan
- Wah Metallurgical Laboratory
- Water and Power Development Authority
- Workers Welfare Fund
- Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited
- Zoological Survey Department
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