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Rohilkhand is a region in the northwestern part of the Uttar Pradesh state of India, centered around Bareilly and Moradabad divisions. Part of the upper Ganges Plain, the region is named after the Rohilla Pashtun (also known as Afghan or Pathan) tribes. The region was called Madhyadesh in the Sanskrit epics Mahabharata and Ramayana.[1]

Historical region of North India
Rohilkhand
An old Painting of the dargah of ruler of Rohilkhand, Sardar Hafiz Rahmat Khan
Location Uttar Pradesh
State established: 1690 CE
Language Hindi, Urdu, English
Dynasties Panchalas (Mahabharata era)
Mughals (1526–1736)
Rohillas (1736–1858)
Historical capitals Bareilly, Budaun, Rampur
Separated sube Amroha, Bahjoi, Bareilly, Bijnore, Budaun, Kakrala, Khutar, Moradabad, Pilibhit, Rampur, Shahjahanpur
Regions of Uttar Pradesh

GeographyEdit

Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles (in and around the Bareilly and Moradabad divisions).

It is bounded by the Ganges Doab to the south and west, Uttarakhand to the north, Nepal to the east, and the Awadh region to the southeast.

Rohilkhand includes the cities of Amroha, Bahjoi, Bareilly, Bijnore, Budaun, Kakrala, Khutar, Moradabad, Pilibhit, Rampur, and Shahjahanpur.

HistoryEdit

The Rohilla leader Daud Khan was awarded the Katehar (later called Rohilkhand) region in the then northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (ruled 1658–1707) to suppress the Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region. Originally, some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun tribes (Yusafzai, Ghori, Osmani, Ghilzai, Barech, Marwat, Durrani, Tareen, Kakar, Naghar, Afridi and Khattak) were hired by Mughals to provide soldiers to the Mughal armies. Their performance was appreciated by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, and an additional force of 25,000 Pashtuns were recruited from modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan and were given respected positions in Mughal Army. Nearly all of Pashtuns settled in the Katehar region and also brought their families from modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan. During Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739, the new wave of Pashtuns settled increasing their population to over 100,0000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, the Katehar region gained fame as Rohilkhand. Bareilly was made the capital of the Rohilkhand state and it became Pashtun majority city with Gali Nawaban as the main royal street. Other important cities were Moradabad, Rampur, Shahjahanpur, Badaun, and others.[2][3] After the Third Battle of Panipat fought in 1761 between the Ahmad Shah Durrani and Maratha Empire thousands of Pashtun and Baloch soldiers settled in the northern India. These diverse ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups merged over the centuries to the form the Urdu speaking Muslims of South Asia.

The first invasion by the Marathas was the result of the charming personae of three queens of Rohillkhand, namely Begum-eh-khaas Pragya, Paulmi -eh-Shiba and Sadhna-eh-Hayat, the wives of Chirag. The Marathas were requested by Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752, to help him defeat Pashtun Rohilla. The Maratha forces and Awadh forces besieged the Rohillas, who had sought refuge in Kumaon but had to retreat when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India.[4][4][5]

In 1772, Marathas, led by Mahadji Sindhia, defeated Rohilla chieftain Zabita Khan, whose possessions lay west of Rohilkhand. They subsequently destroyed Rohilla tribal chief Najib-ul-Daula's grave, scattering his bones.[6] During 1772-73, Mahadji destroyed Pashtun Rohillas in and captured Najibabad. After plundering Rohillakhand Maratha proceeded towards Oudh. Foreseeing the same fate as Rohilla, Nawab made frantic calls to British troops in Bengal.

The British company knew that Nawab of Oudh posed no danger for the British company, whereas the Maratha will try to invade Bengal and Bihar after overrunning Oudh. The British dispatched 20,000 British troops on the order of the Viceroy of British India. They wanted to free Rohillakhand from Maratha and give it to Nawab. The Maratha and British armies came face to face in Ram Ghat, but the sudden demise of then Peshwa and the civil war in Poona to choose the next Peshwa forced the Maratha to retreat. Rohilla decided not to pay, absent a war between the two states. The British made Oudh a buffer state in order to protect it from the Maratha, and from there on, British troops protected Oudh. The subsidy of one British brigade to provide protection to Nawab and Oudh from Maratha was decided to be Rs 2,10,000.[7]

Rohilkhand was under the rule of Rohillas with their capital in City of Bareilly until the Rohilla War of 1774–75. The Rohillas were defeated and driven from Bareilly by the Nawab of Oudh with the assistance of BEIC troops. The state of Rampur was then established under the Nawab of Oudh. In 1803, British annexed Rohilkhand in Upper Doab.

RulersEdit

Name Reign Began Reign Ended
Ali Mohammed Khan 1719 15 September 1748
Faizullah Khan 15 September 1748 24 July 1793
Hafiz Rahmat Khan – Regent 15 September 1748 23 April 1774
Muhammad Ali Khan Bahadur 24 July 1793 11 August 1793
Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bahadur 11 August 1793 24 October 1794
Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur 24 October 1794 5 July 1840
Nasrullah Khan – Regent 24 October 1794 1811
Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur 5 July 1840 1 April 1855
Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur 1 April 1855 21 April 1865
Kalb Ali Khan Bahadur 21 April 1865 23 March 1887
Muhammad Mushtaq Ali Khan Bahadur 23 March 1887 25 February 1889
Hamid Ali Khan Bahadur 25 February 1889 20 June 1930
Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur 5 July 1840 1 April 1855
Regent 25 February 1889 4 April 1894
Raza Ali Khan Bahadur 20 June 1930 6 March 1966
Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur – Nawabat abolished in 1971 6 March 1966 8 February 1982

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Rohilkhand | historical region, India". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  2. ^ An Eighteenth Century History of North India: An Account Of The Rise And Fall Of The Rohilla Chiefs In Janbhasha by Rustam Ali Bijnori by Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui Manohar Publications
  3. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India by W M Hunter
  4. ^ a b Agrawal, Ashvini. Studies In Mughal History.
  5. ^ Playne, Somerset; Solomon, R. V.; Bond, J. W.; Wright, Arnold. Indian States: A Biographical, Historical, and Administrative Survey.
  6. ^ Rathod, N. G. The Great Maratha: Mahadaji Scindia.
  7. ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (1947). History of Modern India: 1707 A.D. to Upto 2000 A.D.