Islamic holidays

There are two official holidays in Islam, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Both holidays occur on dates in the lunar Islamic calendar, which is different from the solar based Gregorian calendar, so they are observed on different Gregorian dates every year. There are a number of other days of note and festivals, some common to all Muslims, other specific to Shia Islam as a whole or branches thereof.

Eid al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting during daylight hours), and Muslims may perform acts of zakat (charity) on the occasion, which begins after the new moon is sighted for the beginning of the month of Shawal. Celebration begins with prayers on the morning of 1 Shawal, followed by breakfast, and often celebratory meals throughout the day.

Eid al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, when the Hajj pilgrimage takes place, and lasts for four days. Muslims may perform an act of zakat and friendship by slaughtering a sheep and distributing the meat to family, to friends, and to the poor. Muslims are also encouraged to be especially friendly and reach out to one another during this period.

HolidaysEdit

Religious practicesEdit

FastingEdit

Muslims celebrate when the Quran was revealed to Muhammad by fasting from dawn to sunset during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.[1] Fasting is a purifying experience so that Muslims can gain compassion and deepen their faith in Allah.[2]

The act of fasting represents the condition experienced by the needy, who although already hungry must also fast for Ramadan. Muslims fast by denying themselves food, water and all related sexual activity with their spouses, but people with chronic diseases or unhealthy conditions such as diabetes, and children are exempt from fasting. Travelers, and women who are menstruating or nursing a baby, are exempt from fasting but are required to fast later. A person's observance of fasting can be for naught if religiously forbidden acts are made, such as Ghibah (backbiting others) and deceiving others.[citation needed]

PilgrimageEdit

HajjEdit

UmrahEdit

Dates of holidays and other days of noteEdit

The Islamic calendar is based on the synodic period of the Moon's revolution around the Earth, approximately 29​12 days. The Islamic calendar alternates months of 29 and 30 days (which begin with the new moon). Twelve of these months make up an Islamic year, which is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian year.

Hijri date 1441 AH 1442 AH 1443 AH 1444 AH 1445 AH
Islamic New Year 1 Muḥarram 31 Aug. 2019 20 Aug. 2020 9 Aug. 2021 30 July 2022 19 July 2023
Ashura 10 Muḥarram 9 Sep. 2019 29 Aug. 2020 18 Aug. 2021 8 Aug. 2022 28 July 2023
Arbaʽeen[a] 20 or 21 Ṣafar[b] 19 Oct. 2019 8 Oct. 2020 27 Sep. 2021 17 Sep. 2022 6 Sep. 2023
Eid-e-Shuja' (Eid-e-Zahra)[c] 9 Rabī‘ al-Awwal 6 Nov. 2019 26 Oct. 2020 15 Oct. 2021 5 Oct. 2022 24 Sep. 2023
Mawlid an-Nabī
('Birthday of the Prophet' [Muhammad])[d]
12 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Sunni) 9 Nov. 2019 29 Oct. 2020 18 Oct. 2021 8 Oct. 2022 27 Sep. 2023
17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Shia) 14 Nov. 2019 3 Nov. 2020 23 Oct. 2021 13 Oct. 2022 2 Oct. 2023
Birthday of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib[a] 13 Rajab 8 Mar. 2020 25 Feb. 2021 14 Feb. 2022 4 Feb. 2023 25 Jan. 2024
Laylat al-Mi'raj 27 Rajab[e] 22 Mar. 2020 11 Mar. 2021 28 Feb. 2022 18 Feb. 2023 8 Feb. 2024
Laylat al-Bara'at 15 Sha‘bān 8 Apr. 2020 28 Mar. 2021 18 Mar. 2022 7 Mar. 2023 25 Feb. 2024
Birthday of Hujjat-Allah al-Mahdī[c] 15 Sha‘bān 8 Apr. 2020 28 Mar. 2021 18 Mar. 2022 7 Mar. 2023 25 Feb. 2024
First day of Ramaḍān 1 Ramaḍān 24 Apr. 2020 13 Apr. 2021 2 Apr. 2022 23 Mar. 2023 11 Mar. 2024
Laylat al-Qadr 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, or 29 Ramaḍān[f] between
12 & 22 May 2020
between
1 & 11 May 2021
between
20 & 30 Apr. 2022
between
10 & 20 Apr. 2023
between
29 Mar. & 8 Apr. 2024
Chaand Raat[g] 29 or 30 Ramaḍān[h] 23 May 2020 12 May 2021 1 May 2022 20 Apr. 2023 9 Apr. 2024
Eid al-Fitr 1 Shawwāl 24 May 2020 13 May 2021 2 May 2022 21 Apr. 2023 10 Apr. 2024
Hajj 8–13 Dhū al-Ḥijja 29 July – 3 Aug. 2020 18–23 July 2021 7–12 July 2022 26 June – 1 July 2023 14–19 June 2024
Day of Arafah 9 Dhū al-Ḥijja 30 July 2020 19 July 2021 8 July 2022 27 June 2023 15 June 2024
Eid al-Adha 10 Dhū al-Ḥijja 31 July 2020 20 July 2021 9 July 2022 28 June 2023 16 June 2024
Eid al-Ghadeer[a] 18 Dhū al-Ḥijja 8 Aug. 2020 28 July 2021 17 July 2022 6 July 2023 24 June 2024
Eid al-Mubahalah[a] 24 Dhū al-Ḥijja 14 Aug. 2020 3 Aug. 2021 23 July 2022 12 July 2023 30 June 2024

[3][4]

  1. ^ a b c d Primarily observed by Shias.
  2. ^ Observed 40 days after Ashura.
  3. ^ a b Primarily observed by Twelver Shias.
  4. ^ Not observed by some Sunnis.
  5. ^ There is some disagreement about this date; see Isra and Mi'raj.
  6. ^ Most often observed on 23 Ramaḍān by Shias and 27 Ramaḍān by Sunnis; see Laylat al-Qadr.
  7. ^ Primarily observed in South Asia.
  8. ^ Observed on the last evening of Ramaḍān; see Chaand Raat.

Some Gregorian dates may vary slightly from those given, and may also vary by country. See Islamic calendar.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reza, Aslan (2011). No god but God : the origins and evolution of Islam (1st ed.). New York: Delacorte Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9780385739757. OCLC 614990718.
  2. ^ Molly., Aloian (2009). Ramadan. New York: Crabtree. ISBN 978-0778742852. OCLC 227911610.
  3. ^ "Islamic Calendar". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Special Islamic Days". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 12 September 2020.

Further readingEdit

  • Leaman, Oliver, "Festivals of Love", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 197–199.

External linksEdit