God in Islam

In Islam, God (Arabic: ٱللَّٰه‎, romanizedAllāh, contraction of ٱلْإِلَٰه al-ʾilāh, lit. "the God")[1] is the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence.[1][2][3] Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd); unique (wāḥid); inherently One (aḥad);[1][2][4] and also all-merciful and omnipotent.[5] No human eyes can see God until the Day of Judgement.[6] God doesn't depend on anything.[7] God has no parents and no children.[8]According to Islam, God is neither a material nor a spiritual being.[9] According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne (al-ʾArsh)[10] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[11]

In Islam there is only one God and there are 99 names of that one God (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute of God.[2][12][13] All these names refer to God, the supreme and all-comprehensive.[14] Among the 99 names of God, the most familiar and frequent are "the Entirely Merciful" (Ar-Raḥmān) and "the Especially Merciful" (Ar-Raḥīm).[12][13] Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures praise God's attributes and bear witness to God's unity.

EtymologyEdit

Allāh is the Arabic word referring to God in Abrahamic religions.[15][16][17] In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The Arabic word Allāh is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ʾilāh, which means "the God",[1] (the only "1 true God") and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.[18][19] It is distinguished from ʾilāh (Arabic: إِلَٰه‎), the Arabic word meaning deity, which could refer to any of the gods worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia or to any other deity.[20]

Other namesEdit

God is described and referred to in the Quran and hadith by 99 names that reflect his attributes.[21] The Quran refers to the attributes of God as "most beautiful names".[22][23] According to Gerhard Böwering,

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurʾānic commentary is 17:110[24] “Call upon Allah, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Allah belong the most beautiful Names,” and also 59:22-24,[25] which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets."

— Gerhard Böwering, God and God's Attributes[26]

Some Muslims may use different names as much as Allah, for instance "God" in English. Whether or not Allah can be considered as the personal name of God became disputed in contemporary scholarship.[27]

AttributesEdit

OnenessEdit

Islam's most fundamental concept is a strict monotheism called tawhid, affirming that God is one and Tanzih (wāḥid). The basic creed of Islam, the Shahada[28] (recited under oath to enter the religion), involves لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ (lā ʾilāha ʾilla llāh), or "I testify there is no deity other than God."

Muslims reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism.[29] Jesus is instead believed to be a prophet.

Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession.[30] The deification or worship of anyone or anything other than God (shirk) is the greatest sin in Islam. The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid.[31]

According to Vincent J. Cornell,[32] the Quran also provides a monist image of God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things."[33]

UniquenessEdit

Islam emphasises the absolute uniqueness and singularity of God in His essence, attributes, qualities, and acts.[34] As stated in Surat al-Ikhlas: God is Ahad[35] (the Unique One of Absolute Oneness, who is indivisible in nature, and there can be no other like Him); God is al-Samad[36] (the Ultimate Source of all existence, the Uncaused Cause who created all things out of nothing, who is eternal, absolute, immutable, perfect, complete, essential, independent, and self-sufficient; Who needs nothing while all of creation is in absolute need of Him; the one eternally and constantly required and sought, depended upon by all existence and to whom all matters will ultimately return); He begets not, nor is He begotten (He is Unborn and Uncreated, has no parents, wife or offspring); and comparable/equal to Him, there is none.[37]

God's absolute transcendence over His creation, as well as His unlimited individuality were asserted and emphasized with support from appropriate quotations from the Qur'an as follows:

(He is) the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them; so worship Him alone, and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any whose name is worthy to be mentioned along with His (as Deity and Lord to worship)?

The Qur'anic verse (19:65), "Do you know of any that can be named with His Name?" emphasizes that as God is Unique, His name is shared by none other.[38]

To those who do not believe in the Hereafter applies the most evil of attributes, and to God applies the most sublime attribute, and He is the All-Glorious with irresistible might, the All-Wise.

So, do not invent similitudes for God (do not liken Him to others to associate partners with Him, for there is nothing similar to Him). Surely God knows and you do not know (the exact truth about Him and the exact nature of things).

The Originator of the heavens and the earth (each with particular features and on ordered principles): He has made for you, from your selves, mates, and from the cattle mates (of their own kind): by this means He multiplies you (and the cattle). There is nothing whatever like Him. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.

The Qur'anic verse (42:11) emphasizes that there is no similarity whatsoever between the Creator and His creation in essence, in attributes or in actions, and therefore, God is beyond all human concepts of Him. So He has no mates and nothing is like Him, nor does He beget, nor is He begotten. Nothing – neither matter, nor space, nor time – can restrict or contain Him. And this is why His Attributes – His Hearing, Seeing, Knowledge, Will, Power, Creating, and so on – are also beyond anything we can conceive.[39]

The same sentiment is expressed in the Qur'anic verse (6:103) which states:[37] "Vision perceives/comprehends Him not, and He perceives/comprehends (evaluates) all vision." In some interpretations, this verse also asserts that the senses and intellects cannot fully comprehend God.[40] Likewise, the Qur'an also says: "whereas they cannot comprehend Him with their knowledge."[Quran 20:110 (Translated by Ali Ünal)]

CreatorEdit

According to the teachings of Islam, God is the Creator of the worlds and all the creatures therein. He has created everything in the worlds in accordance with a definite plan and for a particular purpose. There is no shortcoming or defect of any sort in any of His creations.[41] The Qur'an confirms this in the following verses:

God is the Creator of all things, and He is the Guardian (with power of disposition) over all things.

Surely, We have created each and every thing by (precise) measure.

Do those who disbelieve ever consider that the heavens and the earth were at first one piece, and then We parted them as separate entities; and that We have made every living thing from water? Will they still not come to believe?

The Qur'an also says in verse (25:2): "and He has created everything and designed it in a perfect measure (and ordained its destiny in a precise manner)." And in another verse (25:59) it is emphasized: "It is He who created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them."

The Qur'an states that God is the Rabb al-'Alamin. When referring to God, the Arabic term "Rabb" is usually translated as "Lord", and can include all of the following meanings:[42][43] "owner, master, ruler, controller, creator, upbringer, trainer, sustainer, nourisher, cherisher, provider, protector, guardian and caretaker." The same term, Rabb, is used in a limited sense for humans as in the "head" of the family, "master" of the house, or "owner" of the land or cattle. The Arabic word "al-'Alamin" can be translated as the "Worlds" or "Universes".[44] There are many worlds, astronomical and physical worlds, worlds of thought, spiritual worlds, everything in existence including angels, jinn, humans, animals, plants, and so on.[45] The "Worlds" may also be taken to refer to different domains or kingdoms within this earthly world, or other worlds beyond this earth. Thus, the Qur'anic expression Rabb al-'Alamin really means the "Creator of the Worlds",[46] the "Ruler of the Universes",[47] the "Creator and Sustainer of all the peoples and Universes",[48] or the "Nourisher to perfection of multiple Universes".[49]

God's creation of human actsEdit

According to Sunni Muslims, God is the creator of human actions and man is the acquisitor. They affirms that God is the Creator of all actions. However, He has given man power and desire so that he himself may choose whether to do a certain action or not. God creates in man the power to act and also gives him an ability to make a free choice between the two alternatives — right and wrong. When he does choose to do it, God creates that act.[50] As it is revealed in the Qur'an:

"While it is God Who has created you and all that you do?"

This means that it is God Who creates us and enables us to do things. He has given us will and power so that we are able to will something and do it. However, it is He Who creates and gives external existence to what we do. Our performing an action does not mean that that action must come about. Were it not for His creation, we could do nothing. We are doers or agents, while God is the Creator. If we had no ability to do something and God did not create our actions, then our having free will would be meaningless and we would have no responsibility for our deeds.[51]

MercyEdit

The most commonly used names in the primary sources are Al-Rahman, meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful".[52] The former compasses the whole creation, therefore applying to God's mercy in that it gives every necessary condition to make life possible. The latter applies to God's mercy in that it gives favor for good deeds. Thus Al-Rahman includes both the believers and the unbelievers, but Al-Rahim only the believers.[53][54] God is said to love forgiving, with a hadith stating God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance.[55]

His mercy takes many forms as he says in the Quran "and My Mercy embraces all things." [7:156] This is shown in Sahih Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah, who said the Prophet said:

Allah has one hundred parts of mercy, of which He sent down one between the jinn, mankind, the animals and the insects, by means of which they are compassionate and merciful to one another, and by means of which wild animals are kind to their offspring. And Allah has kept back ninety-nine parts of mercy with which to be merciful to His slaves of the Day of Resurrection.[56][57]

God's mercy, according to Islamic theology, is what gets a person into paradise. According to a hadith in Sahih Al Bukhari "No one’s deeds will ever admit him to Paradise." They said, "Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "No, not even me unless Allah showers me with His Mercy. So try to be near to perfection. And no one should wish for death; he is either doing good so he will do more of that, or he is doing wrong so he may repent."[57][58]

OmniscienceEdit

God is fully aware of everything that can be known.[59] This includes private thoughts and feelings. The Quran asserts that one can not hide anything from God:[original research?]

And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom's weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register.

— Quran, Surah Yunus (10), Ayah 61[60]

And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.

— Quran, Surah Qaf (50), Ayah 16

Relationship with creationEdit

Muslims believe that God is the only true reality and sole source of all creation. Everything including its creatures are just a derivative reality created out of love and mercy by God's command,[61] "..."Be," and it is."[5][62] and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.[63][64][65] It is believed that God created everything for a divine purpose; the universe governed by fixed laws that ensure the harmonious working of all things. Everything within the universe, including inanimated objects, praises God, and is in this sense understood as a muslim.[66] An exception are humans, who are endowed with free-will and must live voluntarily in accordance with these laws to live to find peace and reproduce God's benevolence in their own society to live in accordance with the nature of all things, known as surrender to God in the Islamic sense.[66][67]

As in the other Abrahamic religions, God is believed to communicate with his creation via revelations given to prophets to remind people of God. The Quran in particular is believed by Muslims to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to Muhammad. Hadith are the records of Muhammad's sayings and example, and Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, which Muslims regard as the words of God repeated by Muhammad. According to Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani, the Hadith Qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God".[68] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states in the Quran, "It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."[69] People may enter a particular relationship with God any time and in different circumstances through the divine names or attributes. Thus God is also a personal God who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[5][70] Muhammad al-Bukhari, in his Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī, narrates a ḥadīth qudsī that God says, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am."[71][72] When Sufis claim union with God, it is not that they become one in essence, rather the will of the Sufi is fully congruent to God.[73]

The Quran rejects dualism of Persian Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, which regarded good and evil, light and darkness as two distinct and independent powers. The Quran affirms both powers to be equally God's creation (Q:6:1; 113:1–3). Satan is not an independent power, but subordinated to God (Q:7:11–18; 38:78–83).[74]

The Qur'an affirms that God does not stand in need of anything outside him, and nothing external to him can affect or influence him in any way. All His creatures are responsible to Him and dependent on Him. There is no other being to whom He can be responsible or on whom He can be dependent.[75] He has the right to do whatever He wants with His possessions/creatures – it is under God's own total sovereignty. Accordingly, He is not answerable for His actions, due to His wisdom and justice, greatness and uniqueness of Divinity, while all others (jinn, humans, or false deities)[76] are accountable for what they do (and don't do), as God says in the Qur'an:[77] "He shall not be questioned about what He does, but they shall be questioned."[Quran 21:23 (Translated by Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought)]

Concepts in Islamic theologyEdit

Ash'aris and MaturidisEdit

Ash'aris and Maturidis are in agreement that God's attributes are eternal and are to be held to be metaphorically.[78] References to anthropomorphic attributes can probably not be understood correctly by humans.[79] Although God's existence is considered to be possibly known by reason, human mind can not fully understand God's attributes. For example, when believers in paradise see God, they do not see God in the way humans are able to see on Earth.[79] Ash'aris and Maturidis asserts, since God is the creator of everything that exists and creation does not affect nor alter God, the Throne of God is not a dwelling place for God.[80] Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi (d. 429/1037) in his al-Farq bayn al-Firaq (The Difference between the Sects) reports that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph, said: "Allah created the Throne as an indication of His power, not for taking it as a place for Himself."[81] Accordingly, expressions such as God's istiwa' on the Throne means exercise of His Power upon the Universe, this denotes His assumption of authority of His created world, the throne being a symbol of authority and dominion.

They are in general agreement that God is free from all imperfections and flaws. He has Divine attributes. Divine attributes are characteristics or qualities that God alone possesses. The Divine attributes are classified into: negative and positive. By the “Negative Attribute” they mean the negation of the negative, i.e. negation of imperfection. Among the most important are the following:[82]

  • The negative Divine attributes are of two kinds; firstly those which are meant to deny all imperfections in God's Being, e.g., that He has no equal and no rival, no parents and no children; secondly those which indicate His beyondness, e.g., that He is not body or physical, is neither substance nor attribute, is not space or spatial, is not limited or finite, has neither dimensions nor relations, i.e., He is above the application of our categories of thought.
  • The positive Divine attributes are such as Life, Knowledge, Power, Will, Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking.[83]

The Ash'ari and Maturidi scholars emphasise that the Qur'an expresses that God does not need any of His creation as He is perfect.[84] He is immutable (does not change), self-subsisting and self-sufficient, without figure, form, colour or parts. His existence has neither beginning nor end. He is not a body composed of substances or elements. He is not an accident inherent in a body or dwelling in a place.[85] He is unique, unlike anything in His creation. He is not male or female. He has no parents, wife, or children. He does not need to eat or drink, sleep or rest. He is ineffable, beyond human understanding, comprehension and therefore human description,[86] as per His words: "There is nothing whatever like Him."[Quran 42:11 (Translated by Ali Ünal)] and "And comparable to Him there is none."[Quran 112:4 (Translated by Ali Ünal)]

God is omnitemporal in the way that He is omnipresent, as per His words: "And He is with you, wherever you may be."[Quran 57:4 (Translated by Ali Ünal)] He is everywhere by His knowledge and power, and nowhere, without being in a place, direction or location, because He existed eternally before all the creations (including time and space) and is clear from change. He is always in the present, yet transcends time. God is not within time; time is one of His creations and doesn't affect Him, so for Him there is no past, present and future.

He is beyond time and space, and is transcendent, infinite (not limited) and eternal, without beginning or end, as per His words: "He is the First, the Last, the All-Outward, and the All-Inward."[Quran 57:3 (Translated by Ali Ünal)] A hadith mentioned in Sahih Muslim explains this part of the verse as follows:[87][88]

O Allah, You are the First, there is none that precedes You. You are the Last, there is none that will outlive You. You are al-Zahir (the Manifest or the Most High), and there is nothing above You. You are al-Batin (the Hidden or the Most Near), and there is nothing below You (or nearer than You).

Among the most significant Ash'ari-Maturidi theological works are:

Mu'tazilisEdit

The Mu'tazilis reject the anthropomorphic attributes of God because an eternal being "must be unique" and attributes would make God comparable. The descriptions of God in the Quran are considered to be allegories.[89] Nevertheless, the Muʿtazilites thought God contains oneness (tawhid) and justice. Other characteristics like knowledge are not attributed to God; rather they describe his essence. Otherwise eternal attributes of God would give rise to a multiplicity entities existing eternal besides God.[90]

Among the most significant Mu'tazili theological works is: Sharh al-Usul al-Khamsa (Explaining the Five Principles) by al-Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar (d. 415/1025).

SufisEdit

The majority of Sufis adhere to the same beliefs and practices of orthodox theology of Sunni Islam,[91] both the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools, the essential difference in theology being that Sufis believe Ma'iyyat Allah (God's presence, togetherness, companionship) – derived from the Qur'anic verse 4 in Surat al-Hadid which states: "and He is with you wheresoever you may be."[Quran 57:4 (Translated by Nureddin Uzunoğlu)] – is not only by knowledge, comprehension and power, but also by nature and essence, which is God Himself, being everywhere by presence. According to Ahmad ibn 'Ajiba (d. 1224/1809) in his al-Bahr al-Madid:[92] Ahl al-Batin (people of the inner knowledge who follow the esoteric interpretation, i.e., the Sufis) have a consensus on that God is everywhere by presence and essence (in all places at once with His entire being despite his spacelessness), but without Hulul (God's indwelling, fusion/infusion, incarnation in creation) and Ittihad (God's identification, unification, union with creation),[93] unlike Ahl al-Zahir (people of the outward observance; the uninitiated), who are unanimously agreed that God is omnipresent only by knowledge and power.[92]

Among the verses that Sufis rely on to prove God's omnipresence are:[93] 2:115; 2:255 (Ayat al-Kursi); 6:3; 43:84; 57:4; and 58:7. Based on these Qur'anic verses, God's omnipresence is not limited to certain areas, but is present everywhere, all-pervasive, and all-knowing.[94][95]

Since God in Islam is transcendental and sovereign but also immanent and omnipresent, the Sufi view holds that in reality, only God exists. Thus everything in creation is reflecting an attribute of God's names. Yet these forms are not God themselves.[96] The Sufi Saint Ibn Arabi stated: There is nothing but God. This statement was mistakenly equalized to Pantheism by critics; however, Ibn Arabi always made a clear distinction between the creation and the creator.[97] Since God is the Absolute Reality,[98] the created worlds and their inhabitants are merely illusions. They just exist because of God's command Kun, but everything that would be, was already known by God.[99]

Both beliefs Hulul (incarnation) and Ittihad (unification) had been severely denounced by moderate Sunni Sufis, such as 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (d. 1143/1731), which he described as heresies.[100][101]

Among the most significant Sufi theological works are:

Shi'isEdit

The Shi'is agreed with the Mu'tazilis and deny that God will be seen with the physical eyes either in this world or in the next.[103][104][105]

Isma'ilisEdit

According to Isma'ilism, God is absolutely transcendent and unknowable;[106] beyond matter, energy, space, time, change, imaginings, intellect, positive as well as negative qualities. All attributes of God named in rituals, scriptures or prayers refers not to qualities God possesses, but to qualities emanated from God, thus these are the attributes God gave as the source of all qualities, but God does not consist on one of these qualities.[107] One philosophical definition of the world Allah is " The Being Who concentrates in Himself all the attributes of perfection " [108] or " the Person Who is the Essential Being, and Who encompasses all the attributes of perfection".[108] Since God is beyond all wordings, Isma'ilism also denies the concept of God as the first cause.[109]

In Ismailism, assigning attributes to God as well as negating any attributes from God (via negativa) both qualify as anthropomorphism and are rejected, as God cannot be understood by either assigning attributes to Him or taking attributes away from Him. Therefore, Abu Yaqub Al-Sijistani, a renowned Ismaili thinker, suggested the method of double negation; for example: “God is not existent” followed by “God is not non-existent”. This glorifies God from any understanding or human comprehension.[110]

TwelversEdit

Ibn Abbas says that a bedouin once came to the Messenger of Allah and said, "O Messenger of Allah! Teach me of the most unusual of knowledge!" He asked him, "What have you done with the peak of knowledge so that you now ask about its most unusual things?!" The man asked him, "O Messenger of Allah! What is this peak of knowledge?!" He said, "It is knowing Allah as He deserves to be known." The bedouin then said, "And how can He be known as He ought to be?" The Messenger of Allah answered, "It is that you know Him as having no model, no peer, no antithesis, and that He is Wahid (One, Single) and Ahad (Unique, Absolutely One): Apparent yet Hidden, the First and the Last, having no peer nor a similitude; this is the true knowledge about Him."[111]

Among the most significant Shi'i theological works are:

Salafis and WahhabisEdit

Salafism and Wahhabism refuse the method of ta'wil (allegorical interpretation) in all that is related to the attributes of God, but accept the literal meanings as they are to avoid altering of its message, thus taking the descriptions of God literally and oppose widespread theological concepts including the Ash'ari view.[113] Therefore, descriptions such as "God's hands" or "sitting on (above) a throne", should be taken at their linguistic meaning, without asking how, as it is regarded as the only possibility to understand God's attributes.[114]

Wahdat al-wujudEdit

The image of God during the time of Seljuk Empire and Ottoman Empire was mostly influenced by the concept later known as Wahdat al-wujud. The concept is usually traced back to the Andalusian shaikh and mystic ibn Arabi. But the idea probably originated 200 years earlier as a result of Turkic cosmology in Turkistan[citation needed]. In this place the first taqira, the Yesevi-tariqa derived from, which had great impact on Haji Bektash Veli. He had significant influence on the understanding of Islam among Turks in Anatolia. The expression itself was used only after the disciples of Ibn Arabi.

Central for the Muslim Turks was the search for God in the world, but could only be found with a "pure heart". Usually, this state could only be attained after death. This striving for God and finding God by a transformation through death is also found in Rumi's Masnavi. Accordingly, dying would transform a lifeform into a higher being, until it returns into an eon[clarification needed]. The prophets and angels have been integrated into the universalistic understanding of God. Ibn Arabi interpreted this from the metaphysics of the Quran. According to Heydar Amuli, who was strongly influenced by Ibn Arabis metaphysics, angels (malaika) are representations of God's beautiful names, while the devils (shayatin) are representing the majestic names of God. Another important aspect of belief is the ancestor cult, also in the form of saint veneration. Equality of gender from the Pre-Islamic period of Turks usually remained accepted and women were allowed to participate on religious gatherings without hijab.[115]

The concept of Wahdat al-Wujud permeated the entire Ottoman culture, religion and politics. Both the advisors as well as principals of universities have usually been disciples of Ibn Arabi's philosophy.[116]

Nation of IslamEdit

The Nation of Islam believes that its founder, Wallace Fard Muhammad, was an incarnation of God. The idea that God could incarnate is, however, rejected by Islam.

Comparative theologyEdit

Islamic theology identifies God as described in the Quran as the same God of Israel who covenanted with Abraham.[117] It rejects the belief once held by pre-Islamic Arabians that God has daughters. Islam and Judaism alike reject the Trinity of Christianity. But the Islamic concept of God is less personal than in the Judeo-Christian tradition,[64] and is known only from natural signs and can only be spoken about in parables.[118] Muslim Turks further assimilated Tengri, the personification of the eternal heaven, with the Islamic concept of God.[119]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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BibliographyEdit

  • Al-Bayhaqi (1999), Allah's Names and Attributes, ISCA, ISBN 1-930409-03-6
  • Hulusi, Ahmed (1999), "Allah" as introduced by Mohammed, Kitsan, 10th ed., ISBN 975-7557-41-2
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  • Netton, Ian Richard (1994), Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Cosmology, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-0287-3

External linksEdit