God in Abrahamic religions

Monotheism—the belief that there is only one deity—is the focus of the Abrahamic religions, which like-mindedly conceive God as the all-powerful and all-knowing deity[1] from whom Abraham received a divine revelation, according to their respective narratives.[2] The most prominent Abrahamic religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.[3] They, alongside Samaritanism, Druzism, the Baháʼí Faith,[3] and Rastafari,[3] all share a common core foundation in the form of worshipping Abraham's God, who is identified as Yahweh in Hebrew and called Allah in Arabic.[7] Likewise, the Abrahamic religions share similar features distinguishing them from other categories of religions:[8]

In the Abrahamic tradition, God is one, eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, and the creator of the universe.[1] God is typically referred to with masculine grammatical articles and pronouns only,[1][12] and is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence, and omnipresence. Adherents of the Abrahamic religions believe that God is also transcendent, meaning that he is outside of both space and time and therefore not subject to anything within his creation, but at the same time a personal God: intimately involved, listening to individual prayer, and reacting to the actions of his creatures.

With regard to Christianity, religion scholars have differed on whether Mormonism belongs with mainstream Christian tradition as a whole (i.e., Nicene Christianity), with some asserting that it amounts to a distinct Abrahamic religion in itself due to noteworthy theological differences.[13][14] Rastafari, the heterogenous movement that originated in Jamaica in the 1930s, is variously classified by religion scholars as either an international socio-religious movement, a distinct Abrahamic religion, or simply a new religious movement.[15]

Judaism edit

The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.[16]

Judaism, the oldest Abrahamic religion, is based on a strict, exclusive monotheism,[4][17] finding its origins in the sole veneration of Yahweh,[4][18][19][20] the predecessor to the Abrahamic conception of God.[Note 1] The names of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible are the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה, romanizedYHWH) and Elohim.[4][5] Jews traditionally do not pronounce it, and instead refer to God as HaShem, literally "the Name". In prayer, the Tetragrammaton is substituted with the pronunciation Adonai, meaning "My Lord".[27] This is referred to primarily in the Torah: "Hear O Israel: the LORD is our God, the LORD is One" (Deuteronomy 6:4).[27]

God is conceived as unique and perfect, free from all faults, deficiencies, and defects, and further held to be omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, and completely infinite in all of his attributes, who has no partner or equal, being the sole creator of everything in existence.[4][27][28][29] In Judaism, God is never portrayed in any image.[17][29] The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical in Judaism—it's considered akin to polytheism.[4][17][29][30] The Torah specifically forbade ascribing partners to share his singular sovereignty,[4][17][27] as he is considered to be the absolute one without a second, indivisible, and incomparable being, who is similar to nothing and nothing is comparable to him.[4][28] Thus, God is unlike anything in or of the world as to be beyond all forms of human thought and expression.[4][28]

God in Judaism is conceived as anthropomorphic,[4][26][30] unique, benevolent, eternal, the creator of the universe, and the ultimate source of morality.[4][31] Thus, the term God corresponds to an actual ontological reality, and is not merely a projection of the human psyche.[32] Traditional interpretations of Judaism generally emphasize that God is personal yet also transcendent and able to intervene in the world,[5] while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is an impersonal force or ideal rather than a supernatural being concerned with the universe.[4][32]

Christianity edit

Christianity originated in 1st-century Judea from a sect of apocalyptic Jewish Christians within the realm of Second Temple Judaism,[33][34][35][36][37] and thus shares most of its beliefs about God, including his omnipotence, omniscience, his role as creator of all things, his personality, immanence, transcendence and ultimate unity, with the innovation that Jesus of Nazareth is considered to be, in one way or another, the fulfillment of the ancient biblical prophecies about the Jewish Messiah, the completion of the Law of the prophets of Israel, the Son of God, and/or the incarnation of God himself as a human being.[17][30][33][34][38]

Most Christian denominations believe Jesus to be the incarnated Son of God, which is the main theological divergence with respect to the exclusive monotheism of the other Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Samaritanism, the Baháʼí Faith, and Islam.[17][30][38][39] Although personal salvation is implicitly stated in Judaism, personal salvation by grace and a recurring emphasis in orthodox theological beliefs is particularly emphasized in Christianity,[39] often contrasting this with a perceived over-emphasis in law observance as stated in Jewish law, where it is contended that a belief in an intermediary between man and God or in the multiplicity of persons in the Godhead is against the Noahide laws, and thus not monotheistic.[40][better source needed]

In mainstream Christianity, theology and beliefs about God are enshrined in the doctrine of monotheistic Trinitarianism, which holds that the three persons of the trinity are distinct but all of the same indivisible essence, meaning that the Father is God, the Holy Spirit is God, and the Son is God, yet there is one God as there is one indivisible essence.[39][41][42] These mainstream Christian doctrines were largely formulated at the Council of Nicaea and are enshrined in the Nicene Creed.[39][41][42] The Trinitarian view emphasizes that God has a will, and that God the Son has two natures, divine and human, though these are never in conflict but joined in the hypostatic union.[39][41][42]

Mormonism edit

In his 1838 personal history, Joseph Smith wrote that he had seen two personages in the spring of 1820. In 1843, Smith stated that these personages, God the Father and Jesus Christ, had separate, tangible bodies.[43]

In the belief system held by the Christian churches that adhere to the Latter Day Saint movement and most Mormon denominations, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the term God refers to Elohim (God the Father),[43][44] whereas Godhead means a council of three distinct gods: Elohim (the Eternal Father), Jehovah (God the Son, Jesus Christ), and the Holy Ghost, in a Non-trinitarian conception of the Godhead.[43][44] The Father and Son have perfected, material bodies, while the Holy Ghost is a spirit and does not have a body.[43][44] This differs significantly from mainstream Christian Trinitarianism; in Mormonism, the three persons are considered to be physically separate beings, or personages, but united in will and purpose.[43][44][45] As such, the term Godhead differs from how it is used in mainstream Christianity.[44][43] This description of God represents the orthodoxy of the LDS Church, established early in the 19th century.[44]

Unitarianism edit

A small minority of Christians, largely coming under the heading of Unitarianism, hold Non-trinitarian conceptions of God.

Islam edit

In Islam, God (Allah) (Arabic: ٱلل‍َّٰه, romanizedAllāh, IPA: [ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)] , lit. "the God")[6] is the supreme being, all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.[6][46][47] Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid).[6][48] He is considered to be unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent.[6][49] According to the Quran, there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna, lit. meaning: "The best names") each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of God.[50][51] All these names refer to Allah, considered to be the supreme and all-comprehensive divine Arabic name.[6][52] Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Entirely Merciful" (al-Rahman) and "the Especially Merciful" (al-Rahim).[50][51]

Islam rejects the doctrine of the Incarnation and the notion of a personal God as anthropomorphic, because it is seen as demeaning to the transcendence of God. The Quran prescribes the fundamental transcendental criterion in the following verses: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, so serve Him and be patient in His service. Do you know any one equal to Him?" (19:65); "(He is) the Creator of the heavens and the earth: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things)" (42:11); "And there is none comparable unto Him" (112:4). Therefore, Islam strictly rejects all forms of anthropomorphism and anthropopathism of the concept of God, and thus categorically rejects the Christian concept of the Trinity or division of persons in the Godhead.[53][54]

Muslims believe that Allah is the same God worshipped by the members of the Abrahamic religions that preceded Islam, i.e. Judaism and Christianity (29:46).[55] Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures sing his glories and bear witness to his unity and lordship. According to the Quran: "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things" (6:103).[47] Similarly to Jews, Muslims explicitly reject the divinity of Jesus and don't believe in him as the incarnated God or Son of God, but instead consider him a human prophet and the promised Messiah sent by God, although the Islamic tradition itself is not unanimous on the question of Jesus' death and afterlife.[56][57][58]

Baháʼí Faith edit

The writings of the Baháʼí Faith describe a monotheistic, personal, inaccessible, omniscient, omnipresent, imperishable, and almighty God who is the creator of all things in the universe.[59][60]: 106  The existence of God and the universe is thought to be eternal, without a beginning or end.[61]

Though transcendent and inaccessible directly,[62]: 438–446  God is nevertheless seen as conscious of the creation,[62]: 438–446  with a will and purpose that is expressed through messengers recognized in the Baháʼí Faith as the Manifestations of God[60]: 106  (all the Jewish prophets, Zoroaster, Krishna, Gautama Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb, and ultimately Baháʼu'lláh).[62]: 438–446  The purpose of the creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator,[60]: 111  through such methods as prayer, reflection, and being of service to humankind.[63] God communicates his will and purpose to humanity through his intermediaries, the prophets and messengers who have founded various world religions from the beginning of humankind up to the present day,[60]: 107–108 [62]: 438–446  and will continue to do so in the future.[62]: 438–446 

The Manifestations of God reflect divine attributes, which are creations of God made for the purpose of spiritual enlightenment, onto the physical plane of existence.[64] In the Baháʼí view, all physical beings reflect at least one of these attributes, and the human soul can potentially reflect all of them.[65] The Baháʼí conception of God rejects all pantheistic, anthropomorphic, and incarnationist beliefs about God.[60]: 106 

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Although the Semitic god El is indeed the most ancient predecessor to the Abrahamic god,[21][22][23][24] this specifically refers to the ancient ideas Yahweh once encompassed in the Ancient Hebrew religion, such as being a storm- and war-god, living on mountains, or controlling the weather.[21][22][23][25][26] Thus, in this page's context, "Yahweh" is used to refer to God as conceived in the Ancient Hebrew religion, and should not be referenced when describing his later worship in today's Abrahamic religions.

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Christiano, Kevin J.; Kivisto, Peter; Swatos, William H. Jr., eds. (2015) [2002]. "Excursus on the History of Religions". Sociology of Religion: Contemporary Developments (3rd ed.). Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press. pp. 254–255. doi:10.2307/3512222. ISBN 978-1-4422-1691-4. JSTOR 3512222. LCCN 2001035412. S2CID 154932078.
  2. ^ a b c d Noort, Ed (2010). "Abraham and the Nations". In Goodman, Martin; van Kooten, George H.; van Ruiten, Jacques T.A.G.M. (eds.). Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites: Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham. Themes in Biblical Narrative: Jewish and Christian Traditions. Vol. 13. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 3–33. doi:10.1163/9789004216495_003. ISBN 978-90-04-21649-5. ISSN 1388-3909.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Abulafia, Anna Sapir (23 September 2019). "The Abrahamic religions". www.bl.uk. London: British Library. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Grossman, Maxine; Sommer, Benjamin D. (2011). "GOD". In Berlin, Adele (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2nd ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 294–297. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199730049.001.0001. ISBN 9780199759279. LCCN 2010035774.
  5. ^ a b c Ben-Sasson, Hillel (2019). "Conditional Presence: The Meaning of the Name YHWH in the Bible". Understanding YHWH: The Name of God in Biblical, Rabbinic, and Medieval Jewish Thought. Jewish Thought and Philosophy (1st ed.). Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 25–63. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-32312-7_2. ISBN 978-3-030-32312-7. S2CID 213883058.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Gardet, Louis (1960). "Allāh". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. J.; Heinrichs, W. P.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Vol. 1. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0047. ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4.
  7. ^ [2][3][4][5][6]
  8. ^ a b c Bremer, Thomas S. (2015). "Abrahamic religions". Formed From This Soil: An Introduction to the Diverse History of Religion in America. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-4051-8927-9. LCCN 2014030507. S2CID 127980793.
  9. ^ a b Hughes, Aaron W. (2012). "What Are "Abrahamic Religions"?". Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–33. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199934645.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-993464-5. S2CID 157815976.
  10. ^ [1][2][3][8][9]
  11. ^ [1][2][3][8][9]
  12. ^ Upenieks, Laura; Bonhag, Rebecca (March 2024). "Masculine God Imagery and Sense of Life Purpose: Examining Contingencies with America's "Four Gods"". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 63 (1). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion: 76–102. doi:10.1111/jssr.12881. ISSN 1468-5906. S2CID 265057828.
  13. ^ Shipps, Jan (2001). "Is Mormonism Christian? Reflections on a Complicated Question". In Eliason, Eric A. (ed.). Mormons and Mormonism: An Introduction to an American World Religion. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 76–98. ISBN 978-0-252-02609-6. S2CID 142892455.
  14. ^ Mason, Patrick Q. (3 September 2015). "Mormonism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.75. ISBN 978-0-19-934037-8. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  15. ^ Chryssides, George D. (2001) [1999]. "Independent New Religions: Rastafarianism". Exploring New Religions. Issues in Contemporary Religion. London and New York: Continuum International. pp. 269–277. doi:10.2307/3712544. ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6. JSTOR 3712544. OCLC 436090427. S2CID 143265918.
  16. ^ Lemaire, André (May–June 1994). ""House of David" Restored in Moabite Inscription" (PDF). Biblical Archaeology Review. 20 (3). Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society. ISSN 0098-9444. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Leone, Massimo (Spring 2016). Asif, Agha (ed.). "Smashing Idols: A Paradoxical Semiotics" (PDF). Signs and Society. 4 (1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Semiosis Research Center at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies: 30–56. doi:10.1086/684586. eISSN 2326-4497. hdl:2318/1561609. ISSN 2326-4489. S2CID 53408911. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  18. ^ Van der Toorn 1999, pp. 362–363.
  19. ^ Betz 2000, pp. 916–917.
  20. ^ Gruber, Mayer I. (2013). "Israel". In Spaeth, Barbette Stanley (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean Religions. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 76–94. doi:10.1017/CCO9781139047784.007. ISBN 978-0-521-11396-0. LCCN 2012049271.
  21. ^ a b Stahl, Michael J. (2021). "The "God of Israel" and the Politics of Divinity in Ancient Israel". The "God of Israel" in History and Tradition. Vetus Testamentum: Supplements. Vol. 187. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 52–144. doi:10.1163/9789004447721_003. ISBN 978-90-04-44772-1. S2CID 236752143.
  22. ^ a b Smith, Mark S. (2003). "El, Yahweh, and the Original God of Israel and the Exodus". The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 133–148. doi:10.1093/019513480X.003.0008. ISBN 978-0-19-513480-3.
  23. ^ a b Smith, Mark S. (2000). "El". In Freedman, David Noel; Myer, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 384–386. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.
  24. ^ Van der Toorn 1999, pp. 352–365.
  25. ^ Niehr 1995, pp. 63–65, 71–72.
  26. ^ a b Van der Toorn 1999, pp. 361–362.
  27. ^ a b c d Moberly, R. W. L. (1990). ""Yahweh is One": The Translation of the Shema". In Emerton, J. A. (ed.). Studies in the Pentateuch. Vetus Testamentum: Supplements. Vol. 41. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 209–215. doi:10.1163/9789004275645_012. ISBN 978-90-04-27564-5.
  28. ^ a b c Lebens, Samuel (2022). "Is God a Person? Maimonidean and Neo-Maimonidean Perspectives". In Kittle, Simon; Gasser, Georg (eds.). The Divine Nature: Personal and A-Personal Perspectives (1st ed.). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 90–95. doi:10.4324/9781003111436. ISBN 9780367619268. LCCN 2021038406. S2CID 245169096.
  29. ^ a b c Angelini, Anna (2021). "Les dieux des autres: entre «démons» et «idoles»". L'imaginaire du démoniaque dans la Septante: Une analyse comparée de la notion de "démon" dans la Septante et dans la Bible Hébraïque. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism (in French). Vol. 197. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 184–224. doi:10.1163/9789004468474_008. ISBN 978-90-04-46847-4.
  30. ^ a b c d Bernard, David K. (2019) [2016]. "Monotheism in Paul's Rhetorical World". The Glory of God in the Face of Jesus Christ: Deification of Jesus in Early Christian Discourse. Journal of Pentecostal Theology: Supplement Series. Vol. 45. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 53–82. ISBN 978-90-04-39721-7. ISSN 0966-7393.
  31. ^ Nikiprowetzky, V. (Spring 1975). "Ethical Monotheism". Daedalus. 104 (2). MIT Press for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences: 69–89. ISSN 1548-6192. JSTOR 20024331. OCLC 1565785.
  32. ^ a b Tuling, Kari H. (2020). "PART 2: Does God Have a Personality—or Is God an Impersonal Force?". In Tuling, Kari H. (ed.). Thinking about God: Jewish Views. JPS Essential Judaism Series. Lincoln and Philadelphia: University of Nebraska Press/Jewish Publication Society. pp. 67–168. doi:10.2307/j.ctv13796z1.7. ISBN 978-0-8276-1848-0. LCCN 2019042781. S2CID 241520845.
  33. ^ a b Ehrman, Bart D. (2005) [2003]. "At Polar Ends of the Spectrum: Early Christian Ebionites and Marcionites". Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 95–112. doi:10.1017/s0009640700110273. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1. LCCN 2003053097. S2CID 152458823. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  34. ^ a b Hurtado, Larry W. (2005). "How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God? Approaches to Jesus-Devotion in Earliest Christianity". How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God? Historical Questions about Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 13–55. ISBN 978-0-8028-2861-3. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  35. ^ Freeman, Charles (2010). "Breaking Away: The First Christianities". A New History of Early Christianity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 31–46. doi:10.12987/9780300166583. ISBN 978-0-300-12581-8. JSTOR j.ctt1nq44w. LCCN 2009012009. S2CID 170124789. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  36. ^ Wilken, Robert Louis (2013). "Beginning in Jerusalem". The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 6–16. ISBN 978-0-300-11884-1. JSTOR j.ctt32bd7m. LCCN 2012021755. S2CID 160590164. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  37. ^ Lietaert Peerbolte, Bert Jan (2013). "How Antichrist Defeated Death: The Development of Christian Apocalyptic Eschatology in the Early Church". In Krans, Jan; Lietaert Peerbolte, L. J.; Smit, Peter-Ben; Zwiep, Arie W. (eds.). Paul, John, and Apocalyptic Eschatology: Studies in Honour of Martinus C. de Boer. Novum Testamentum: Supplements. Vol. 149. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 238–255. doi:10.1163/9789004250369_016. ISBN 978-90-04-25026-0. ISSN 0167-9732. S2CID 191738355. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  38. ^ a b Bermejo-Rubio, Fernando (2017). Feldt, Laura; Valk, Ülo (eds.). "The Process of Jesus' Deification and Cognitive Dissonance Theory". Numen. 64 (2–3). Leiden: Brill Publishers: 119–152. doi:10.1163/15685276-12341457. eISSN 1568-5276. ISSN 0029-5973. JSTOR 44505332. S2CID 148616605.
  39. ^ a b c d e Del Colle, Ralph (2001) [1997]. "Part II: The content of Christian doctrine – The Triune God". In Gunton, Colin E. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Christian Doctrine. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 121–140. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521471184.009. ISBN 9781139000000.
  40. ^ "Jewish Concepts: The Seven Noachide Laws". Jewish Virtual Library. American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE). 2021 [2017]. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2021. Even though the Talmud and Maimonides stipulate that a non-Jew who violated the Noachide laws was liable to capital punishment, contemporary authorities have expressed the view that this is only the maximal punishment. According to this view, there is a difference between Noachide law and halakhah. According to halakhah, when a Jew was liable for capital punishment it was a mandatory punishment, provided that all conditions had been met, whereas in Noachide law death is the maximal punishment, to be enforced only in exceptional cases. In view of the strict monotheism of Islam, Muslims were considered as Noachides whereas the status of Christians was a matter of debate. Since the late Middle Ages, however, Christianity too has come to be regarded as Noachide, on the ground that Trinitarianism is not forbidden to non-Jews.
  41. ^ a b c Bobrinskoy, Boris (2010) [2008]. "Part I: Doctrine and Tradition – God in Trinity". In Cunningham, Mary B.; Theokritoff, Elizabeth (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 49–62. doi:10.1017/CCOL9780521864848.004. ISBN 9781139001977.
  42. ^ a b c Cross, F. L.; Livingstone, E. A., eds. (2005). "Doctrine of the Trinity". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd Revised ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1652–1653. doi:10.1093/acref/9780192802903.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  43. ^ a b c d e f Robinson, Stephen E.; Burgon, Glade L.; Turner, Rodney; Largey, Dennis L. (1992), "God the Father", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 548–552, ISBN 978-0-02-879602-4, OCLC 24502140, retrieved 7 May 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
  44. ^ a b c d e f Davies, Douglas J. (2003). "Divine–human transformations: God". An Introduction to Mormonism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–77. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610028.004. ISBN 978-0-511-61002-8. OCLC 438764483. S2CID 146238056.
  45. ^ The term with its distinctive Mormon usage first appeared in Lectures on Faith (published 1834), Lecture 5 ("We shall in this lecture speak of the Godhead; we mean the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."). The term Godhead also appears several times in Lecture 2 in its sense as used in the Authorized King James Version, meaning divinity.
  46. ^ Böwering, Gerhard (2006). "God and his Attributes". In McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Vol. II. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00075. ISBN 978-90-04-14743-0.
  47. ^ a b Esposito, John L. (2016) [1988]. Islam: The Straight Path (Updated 5th ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-063215-1. S2CID 153364691.
  48. ^ Esposito, John L. (2016) [1988]. Islam: The Straight Path (Updated 5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-063215-1. S2CID 153364691.
  49. ^ "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  50. ^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 978-0-87808-299-5.
  51. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Allah
  52. ^ Annemarie Schimmel,The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic, SUNY Press, p.206
  53. ^ Zulfiqar Ali Shah (2012). Anthropomorphic Depictions of God: The Concept of God in Judaic, Christian, and Islamic Traditions: Representing the Unrepresentable. International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). pp. 48–56. ISBN 978-1-56564-583-7.
  54. ^ Zafar Isha Ansari; Isma'il Ibrahim Nawwab, eds. (2016). The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: The Foundations of Islam. Vol. 1. UNESCO Publishing. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-92-3-104258-4.
  55. ^ F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
  56. ^ Cole, Juan (March 2021). Stausberg, Michael; Engler, Steven (eds.). "'It was made to appear to them so': the Crucifixion, Jews, and Sasanian war propaganda in the Qur'ān". Religion. 51 (3). Taylor & Francis: 404–422. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2021.1909170. ISSN 1096-1151. LCCN 76615899. OCLC 186359943. S2CID 233646869.
  57. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel S. (May 2009). "The Muslim Jesus: Dead or Alive?" (PDF). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London). 72 (2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 237–258. doi:10.1017/S0041977X09000500. JSTOR 40379003. S2CID 27268737. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  58. ^ Robinson, Neal (1991). "The Crucifixion – Non-Muslim Approaches". Christ in Islam and Christianity: The Representation of Jesus in the Qur'an and the Classical Muslim Commentaries. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. pp. 106–140. ISBN 978-0-7914-0558-1. S2CID 169122179.
  59. ^ Hatcher, William S.; Martin, J. Douglas (1985). The Baháʼí Faith. San Francisco: Harper & Row. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-06-065441-2 – via Archive.org.
  60. ^ a b c d e Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6.
  61. ^ Britannica (1992). "The Baháʼí Faith". In Daphne Daume; Louise Watson (eds.). Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 978-0-85229-486-4.
  62. ^ a b c d e Cole, Juan (30 December 2012) [15 December 1988]. "BAHAISM i. The Faith". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. III/4. New York: Columbia University. pp. 438–446. doi:10.1163/2330-4804_EIRO_COM_6391. ISSN 2330-4804. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  63. ^ Hatcher, John S. (2005). "Unveiling the Hurí of Love". The Journal of Baháʼí Studies. 15: –38. Retrieved 2020-10-16 – via Bahá'í Library Online.
  64. ^ Hatcher, William S.; Martin, J. Douglas (1985). The Baháʼí Faith. San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp. 123–126. ISBN 978-0-06-065441-2 – via Archive.org.
  65. ^ Saiedi, Nader (2008). Gate of the Heart. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 163–180. ISBN 978-1-55458-035-4 – via Archive.org.

Bibliography edit

External links edit