The Tetragrammaton // or Tetragram (from Greek τετραγράμματον, meaning "[consisting of] four letters") is the four-letter Hebrew word יהוה, the name of the biblical God of Israel. The four letters, read from right to left, are yodh, he, waw and he. While there is no consensus about the structure and etymology of the name, "the form Yahweh is now accepted almost universally".
The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible except Esther, Ecclesiastes, and (with a possible instance in verse 8:6) the Song of Songs contain this Hebrew name. Observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not pronounce יהוה nor do they read aloud proposed transcription forms such as Yahweh or Yehovah; instead they replace it with a different term, whether in addressing or referring to the God of Israel. Common substitutions in Hebrew are Adonai ("My Lord"), HaShem ("The Name") and hakadosh baruch hu ("The Holy One, Blessed Be He").
The letters, properly read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew), are:
|ו||Waw||[w], or placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel (see mater lectionis)|
|ה||He||[h] (or often a silent letter at the end of a word)|
Modern scholars generally agree that YHWH is derived from the Hebrew triconsonantal root היה (h-y-h), “to be, become, come to pass”, an archaic form of which is הוה (h-w-h), with a third person masculine y- prefix, equivalent to English “he”. They connect it to Exodus 3:14, where the divinity who spoke with Moses responds to a question about his name by declaring: אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה (Ehyeh asher ehyeh), "I am that I am" or "I will be what I will be" (in Biblical Hebrew, the form of the verb here is not associated with any particular English tense).
YHWH and Hebrew scriptEdit
Like all letters in the Hebrew script, the letters in YHWH originally indicated consonants. In unpointed Biblical Hebrew, most vowels are not written and others are written ambiguously, as certain letters came to have a secondary function indicating vowels (similar to the Latin use of I and V to indicate either the consonants /j, w/ or the vowels /i, u/). Hebrew letters used to indicate vowels are known as matres lectionis ("mothers of reading"). Therefore it can be difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced from its spelling, and the Tetragrammaton is a particular example: all four of its letters can be matres lectionis.
The original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was, several centuries later, provided with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading. In places that the consonants of the text to be read (the qere) differed from the consonants of the written text (the ketiv), they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read. In such a case the vowels of the qere were written on the ketiv. For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are called qere perpetuum.
One of the frequent cases was the Tetragrammaton, which according to later Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai" ("My Lord"), or, if the previous or next word already was Adonai, as "Elohim" ("God"). Writing the vowel diacritics of these two words on the consonants YHVH produces יְהֹוָה and יֱהֹוִה respectively, non-words that would spell "Yehovah" and "Yehovih" respectively.
The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century, mostly write יְהוָה (yhwah), with no pointing on the first h. It could be because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to the qere being Shema, which is Aramaic for "the Name".
Uncertainty in the first half of the nineteenth centuryEdit
In his German-language Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, the first edition of which was published in sections between 1810 and 1812 and the third edition in 1828, in the 1833 edition in Latin, and in the revised German text of 1834 the Hebrew scholar Wilhelm Gesenius (1786–1842), while recognising that the vowels attached to the Tetragrammaton in the Masoretic text are those of "Adonai" and "Elohim", very briefly summarised the arguments in support of different views on the original pronunciation.
For an English translation of Gesenius' Lexicon see that by Robinson.
Most commentators, Gesenius said, favoured Yahwoh, in line with the statement by several ancient writers that the Jews called their God ΙΑΩ. This form has the same vowel structure as in the Hebrew names of Jacob and Pharaoh.
Others favoured Yahweh on the basis of the account by Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 458/466) of the Samaritan pronunciation as Ιαβε, of the theophoric name suffixes יָה֫וּ /jahu/ and יָהּ /jah/, and the abbreviated name YH /jah/.
Pronunciation according to the Masoretic vowel-points was defended by Michaëlis. (In his 1828 book, Gesenius attributed this view also to Reland and Simonis, but removed their names in 1833 and 1834 and placed Reland as a supporter instead of Yahweh.) Supporters of this view, Gesenius said, were not altogether without means of defending their position, since the theophoric name prefixes יְהוֹ /jeho/ and יו /jo/ could most easily be explained as derived from "Jehovah".
In 1833 and 1834 Gesenius referred to the 1707 book in which Adriaan Reland reprinted the views of several other scholars debating the reasons for and against the pronunciation as "Yahweh" or as "Jehovah", to enable readers to make their own judgement. By then the majority view, shared by Reland, was that the pronunciation as Yahweh (for which the Hebrew punctuation would be יַהְוֶה: see image to the right) more accurately represents how the Tetragrammaton was pronounced than the usual Masoretic punctuation "יְהֹוָה", from which the English transliteration Jehovah has been derived. (A less usual Masoretic punctuation, "יֱהֹוִה", is used where the synagogue reader speaks "Elohim", as he speaks "Adonai" where the more usual punctuation appears.)
Neither in the 1833 and 1834 books did Gesenius explicitly give his personal opinion, but he maintained that the Tetragrammaton name is derived from the verb הוה (to be). He continued his studies and in the vast Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti, on which he had only reached the second-last letter of the Hebrew alphabet at the time of his death, he rejected the interpretation of the name as "Yahwoh" and declared firmly in favour of "Yahweh", from which the theophoric name prefixes יְהוֹ and יו can be derived also. This view is found also in later editions of his Lexicon.
Robert Alter states that, in spite of the uncertainties that exist, there is now strong scholarly consensus that the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is Yahweh (יַהְוֶה): "The strong consensus of biblical scholarship is that the original pronunciation of the name YHWH that God goes on to use in verse 15 was Yahweh." R. R. Reno agrees that, when in the late first millennium Jewish scholars inserted indications of vowels into the Hebrew Bible, they signalled that what was pronounced was "Adonai" (Lord); non-Jews later combined the vowels of Adonai with the consonants of the Tetragrammaton and invented the name "Jehovah", and "modern scholars have developed their own, more plausible speculations, and a consensus has emerged that vocalizes the divine name as "Yahweh" (YaHWeH). But at the end of the day, we really don't know, and in any event, the ancient imperative of spiritual modesty remains compelling. [...] [F]or many centuries Christians followed the Jewish tradition of vocalizing the divine name 'YHWH' as 'Adonai', which is Hebrew for 'Lord'. Newer translations try to restore the particularity of the name of God by spelling it out as Yahweh. There are good reasons to support the older approach. It has the advantage of spiritual and intellectual modesty." Paul Joüon and Takamitsu Muraoka state: "The Qre is יְהֹוָה the Lord, whilst the Ktiv is probably יַהְוֶה (according to ancient witnesses)", and they add: "Note 1: In our translations, we have used Yahweh, a form widely accepted by scholars, instead of the traditional Jehovah." Already in 1869, when, as shown by the use of the then traditional form "Jehovah" as title for its article on the question, the present strong consensus that the original pronunciation was "Yahweh" had not yet attained full force, Smith's Bible Dictionary, a collaborative work of noted scholars of the time, declared: "Whatever, therefore, be the true pronunciation of the word, there can be little doubt that it is not Jehovah." Mark P. Arnold remarks that certain conclusions drawn from the pronunciation of YHWH as "Yahweh" would be valid even if the scholarly consensus were not correct.
Texts with TetragrammatonEdit
Of the same century are two pottery sherds found at Kuntillet Ajrud with inscriptions mentioning "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" and "Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah". A tomb inscription at Khirbet el-Qom also mentions Yahweh. Dated slightly later (VII century BCE) there are an ostracon from the collections of Shlomo Moussaieff, and two tiny silver amulet scrolls found at Ketef Hinnom that mention Yahweh. Also a wall inscription, dated to the late 6th century BCE, with mention of Yahweh had been found in a tomb at Khirbet Beit Lei.
Texts with similar theonymsEdit
The theonyms YHW and YHH are found in the Elephantine papyri of about 500 BCE. One ostracon with YH is thought to have lost the final letter of an original YHW. These texts are in Aramaic, not the language of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton (YHWH) and, unlike the Tetragrammaton, are of three letters, not four. However, because they were written by Jews, they are assumed to refer to the same deity and to be either an abbreviated form of the Tetragrammaton or the original name from which the name YHWH developed.
Kristin De Troyer says that YHW or YHH, and also YH, are attested in the fifth and fourth-century BCE papyri from Elephantine and Wadi Daliyeh: "In both collections one can read the name of God as Yaho (or Yahu) and Ya". The name YH (Yah/Jah), the first syllable of "Yahweh", appears 50 times in the Old Testament, 26 times alone (Exodus 15:2; 17:16; and 24 times in the Psalms), 24 times in the expression "Hallelujah". Thomas Römer holds that "the original pronunciation of Yhwh was 'Yahô' or 'Yahû'". Nonetheless, archaeological records of the Tetragrammaton (the Mesha Stele and the Kuntillet Ajrud and Khirbet el-Qom inscriptions, all of which are of the 9th-century BCE. and the later Tel Arad and Lachish ostraca) predate by several centuries those of the short names.
An Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1402-1363 BCE) mentions a group of Shasu whom it calls "the Shashu of Yhw³" (read as: ja-h-wi or ja-h-wa). James D. G. Dunn and John W. Rogerson tentatively suggest that the Amenhotep III inscription may indicate that worship of Yahweh originated in an area to the southeast of Palestine. A later inscription from the time of Ramesses II (1279-1213) in West Amara associates the Shasu nomads with S-rr, interpreted as Mount Seir, spoken of in some texts as where Yahweh comes from. Frank Moore Cross says: "It must be emphasized that the Amorite verbal form is of interest only in attempting to reconstruct the proto-Hebrew or South Canaanite verbal form used in the name Yahweh. We should argue vigorously against attempts to take Amorite yuhwi and yahu as divine epithets."
According to De Troyer, the short names, instead of being ineffable like "Yahweh", seem to have been in spoken use not only as elements of personal names but also in reference to God: "The Samaritans thus seem to have pronounced the Name of God as Jaho or Ja." She cites Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 460) as that the shorter names of God were pronounced by the Samaritans as "Iabe" and by the Jews as "Ia". She adds that the Bible also indicates that the short form "Yah" was spoken, as in the phrase "Halleluyah".
The Patrologia Graeca texts of Theodoret differ slightly from what De Troyer says. In Quaestiones in Exodum 15 he says that Samaritans pronounced the name Ἰαβέ and Jews the name Άϊά. (The Greek term Άϊά is a transcription of the Exodus 3:14 phrase אֶהְיֶה (ehyeh), "I am".) In Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium 5.3, he uses the spelling Ἰαβαί.
Representations of the Tetragrammaton name or combinations inspired by it in languages such as Greek and Coptic. giving some indication of its pronunciation, occur as names of powerful agents in Jewish magical papyri found in Egypt. There is a single instance of the heptagram ιαωουηε, while Iave and Iαβα Yaba occurs frequently. Among the Jews in the Second Temple Period magical amulets became very popular. The tetragram appeared on them, in the form of J, JJ, JJJ, JJJJ or JH, JHW, as the word 'HJH', and in a long series of permutations: ', H, W and J.[failed verification]
The Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew BibleEdit
In the Hebrew Bible, the Tetragrammaton occurs 6828 times,(p142) as can be seen in Kittel's Biblia Hebraica and the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. In addition, the marginal notes or masorah[note 1] indicate that in another 134 places, where the received text has the word Adonai, an earlier text had the Tetragrammaton.[note 2] which would add up to 142 additional occurrences. Even in the Dead Sea Scrolls practice varied with regard to use of the Tetragrammaton. According to Brown–Driver–Briggs, יְהֹוָה (Qr אֲדֹנָי) occurs 6,518 times, and יֱהֹוִה (Qr אֱלֹהִים) 305 times in the Masoretic Text.
In the Book of Esther the Tetragrammaton does not appear, but it has been distinguished acrostic-wise in the initial or last letters of four consecutive words,[note 3] as indicated in Est 7:5 by writing the four letters in red in at least three ancient Hebrew manuscripts.
The short form Yah (a digrammaton) "occurs 50 times if the phrase hallellu-Yah is included": 43 times in the Psalms, once in Exodus 15:2; 17:16; Isaiah 12:2; 26:4, and twice in Isaiah 38:11. It also appears in the Greek phrase Ἁλληλουϊά (Alleluia, Hallelujah) in Revelation 19:1–6.
Other short forms are found as a component of theophoric Hebrew names in the Bible: jô- or jehô- (29 names) and -jāhû or -jāh (127 jnames). A form of jāhû/jehô appears in the name Elioenai (Elj(eh)oenai) in 1Ch 3:23–24; 4:36; 7:8; Ezr 22:22, 27; Neh 12:41.
The following graph shows the absolute number of occurrences of the Tetragrammaton (6828 in all) in the books in the Masoretic Text, without relation to the length of the books.
Six presentations of the Tetragrammaton with some or all of the vowel points of אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) or אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) are found in the Leningrad Codex of 1008–1010, as shown below. The close transcriptions do not indicate that the Masoretes intended the name to be pronounced in that way (see qere perpetuum).
|Chapter and verse||Masoretic Text display||Close transcription of the display||Ref.||Explanation|
|Genesis 2:4||יְהוָה||Yǝhwāh||||This is the first occurrence of the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Bible and shows the most common set of vowels used in the Masoretic text. It is the same as the form used in Genesis 3:14 below, but with the dot (holam) on the first he left out, because it is a little redundant.|
|Genesis 3:14||יְהֹוָה||Yǝhōwāh||||This is a set of vowels used rarely in the Masoretic text, and are essentially the vowels from Adonai (with the hataf patakh reverting to its natural state as a shewa).|
|Judges 16:28||יֱהֹוִה||Yĕhōwih||||When the Tetragrammaton is preceded by Adonai, it receives the vowels from the name Elohim instead. The hataf segol does not revert to a shewa because doing so could lead to confusion with the vowels in Adonai.|
|Genesis 15:2||יֱהוִה||Yĕhwih||||Just as above, this uses the vowels from Elohim, but like the second version, the dot (holam) on the first he is omitted as redundant.|
|1 Kings 2:26||יְהֹוִה||Yǝhōwih||||Here, the dot (holam) on the first he is present, but the hataf segol does get reverted to a shewa.|
|Ezekiel 24:24||יְהוִה||Yǝhwih||||Here, the dot (holam) on the first he is omitted, and the hataf segol gets reverted to a shewa.|
The o diacritic dot (holam) on the first he is often omitted because it plays no useful role in distinguishing between the two intended replacements, Adonai and Elohim (which both have an o vowel in the same position).
Dead Sea ScrollsEdit
In the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Hebrew and Aramaic texts the Tetragrammaton and some other names of God in Judaism (such as El or Elohim) were sometimes written in paleo-Hebrew script, showing that they were treated specially. Most of God's names were pronounced until about the 2nd century BCE. Then, as a tradition of non-pronunciation of the names developed, alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared, such as Adonai, Kurios and Theos. The 4Q120, a Greek fragment of Leviticus (26:2–16) discovered in the Dead Sea scrolls (Qumran) has ιαω ("Iao"), the Greek form of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW. The historian John the Lydian (6th century) wrote: "The Roman Varo [116–27 BCE] defining him [that is the Jewish God] says that he is called Iao in the Chaldean mysteries" (De Mensibus IV 53). Van Cooten mentions that Iao is one of the "specifically Jewish designations for God" and "the Aramaic papyri from the Jews at Elephantine show that 'Iao' is an original Jewish term".
The preserved manuscripts from Qumran show the inconsistent practice of writing the Tetragrammaton, mainly in biblical quotations: in some manuscripts is written in paleo-Hebrew script, square scripts or replaced with four dots or dashes (tetrapuncta).
The members of the Qumran community were aware of the existence of the Tetragrammaton, but this was not tantamount to granting consent for its existing use and speaking. This is evidenced not only by special treatment of the Tetragrammaton in the text, but by the recommendation recorded in the 'Rule of Association' (VI, 27): "Who will remember the most glorious name, which is above all [...]".
The table below presents all the manuscripts in which the Tetragrammaton is written in paleo-Hebrew script,[note 4] in square scripts, and all the manuscripts in which the copyists have used tetrapuncta.
Copyists used the 'tetrapuncta' apparently to warn against pronouncing the name of God. In the manuscript number 4Q248 is in the form of bars.
|1Q11 (1QPsb) 2–5 3 (link: )||2Q13 (2QJer) (link: )||1QS VIII 14 (link: )|
|1Q14 (1QpMic) 1–5 1, 2 (link: )||4Q27 (4QNumb) (link: )||1QIsaa XXXIII 7, XXXV 15 (link: )|
|1QpHab VI 14; X 7, 14; XI 10 (link: )||4Q37 (4QDeutj) (link: )||4Q53 (4QSamc) 13 III 7, 7 (link: )|
|1Q15 (1QpZeph) 3, 4 (link: )||4Q78 (4QXIIc) (link: )||4Q175 (4QTest) 1, 19|
|2Q3 (2QExodb) 2 2; 7 1; 8 3 (link:  )||4Q96 (4QPso (link: )||4Q176 (4QTanḥ) 1–2 i 6, 7, 9; 1–2 ii 3; 8–10 6, 8, 10 (link: )|
|3Q3 (3QLam) 1 2 (link: )||4Q158 (4QRPa) (link: )||4Q196 (4QpapToba ar) 17 i 5; 18 15 (link: )|
|4Q20 (4QExodj) 1–2 3 (link: )||4Q163 (4Qpap pIsac) I 19; II 6; 15–16 1; 21 9; III 3, 9; 25 7 (link: )||4Q248 (history of the kings of Greece) 5 (link: )|
|4Q26b (4QLevg) linia 8 (link: )||4QpNah (4Q169) II 10 (link: )||4Q306 (4QMen of People Who Err) 3 5 (link: )|
|4Q38a (4QDeutk2) 5 6 (link: )||4Q173 (4QpPsb) 4 2 (link: )||4Q382 (4QparaKings et al.) 9+11 5; 78 2|
|4Q57 (4QIsac) (link: )||4Q177 (4QCatena A) (link: )||4Q391 (4Qpap Pseudo-Ezechiel) 36, 52, 55, 58, 65 (link: )|
|4Q161 (4QpIsaa) 8–10 13 (link: )||4Q215a (4QTime of Righteousness) (link: )||4Q462 (4QNarrative C) 7; 12 (link: )|
|4Q165 (4QpIsae) 6 4 (link: )||4Q222 (4QJubg) (link: )||4Q524 (4QTb)) 6–13 4, 5 (link: )|
|4Q171 (4QpPsa) II 4, 12, 24; III 14, 15; IV 7, 10, 19 (link: )||4Q225 (4QPsJuba) (link: )||XḤev/SeEschat Hymn (XḤev/Se 6) 2 7|
|11Q2 (11QLevb) 2 2, 6, 7 (link: )||4Q365 (4QRPc) (link: )|
|11Q5 (11QPsa) (link: )||4Q377 (4QApocryphal Pentateuch B) 2 ii 3, 5 (link: )|
|4Q382 (4Qpap paraKings) (link: )|
|11Q6 (11QPsb) (link: )|
|11Q7 (11QPsc) (link: )|
|11Q20 (11QTb) (link: )|
|11Q11 (11QapocrPs) (link: )|
Editions of the Septuagint Old Testament are based on the complete or almost complete fourth-century manuscripts Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus and consistently use Κύριος, "Lord", where the Masoretic Text has the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew. This corresponds with the Jewish practice of replacing the Tetragrammaton with "Adonai" when reading the Hebrew word.
However, five of the oldest manuscripts now extant (in fragmentary form) render the Tetragrammaton into Greek in a different way.
Two of these are of the first century BCE: Papyrus Fouad 266 uses יהוה in the normal Hebrew alphabet in the midst of its Greek text, and 4Q120 uses the Greek transcription of the name, ΙΑΩ. Three later manuscripts use 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄, the name יהוה in Paleo-Hebrew script: the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101.
Other extant ancient fragments of Septuagint or Old Greek manuscripts provide no evidence on the use of the Tetragrammaton, Κύριος, or ΙΑΩ in correspondence with the Hebrew-text Tetragrammaton. They include the oldest known example, Papyrus Rylands 458.
Scholars differ on whether in the original Septuagint translations the Tetragrammaton was represented by Κύριος, by ΙΑΩ, by the Tetragrammaton in either normal or Paleo-Hebrew form, or whether different translators used different forms in different books.
Frank Shaw argues that the Tetragrammaton continued to be articulated until the second or third century CE and that the use of Ιαω was by no means limited to magical or mystical formulas, but was still normal in more elevated contexts such as that exemplified by Papyrus 4Q120. Shaw considers all theories that posit in the Septuagint a single original form of the divine name as merely based on a priori assumptions. Accordingly, he declares: "The matter of any (especially single) 'original' form of the divine name in the LXX is too complex, the evidence is too scattered and indefinite, and the various approaches offered for the issue are too simplistic" to account for the actual scribal practices (p. 158). He holds that the earliest stages of the LXX's translation were marked by diversity (p. 262), with the choice of certain divine names depending on the context in which they appear (cf. Gen 4:26; Exod 3:15; 8:22; 28:32; 32:5; and 33:19). He treats of the related blank spaces in some Septuagint manuscripts and the setting of spaces around the divine name in 4Q120 and Papyrus Fouad 266b (p. 265), and repeats that "there was no one 'original' form but different translators had different feelings, theological beliefs, motivations, and practices when it came to their handling of the name" (p. 271). His view has won the support of Anthony R. Meyer, Bob Becking, Didier Fontaine, and (commenting on Shaw's 2011 dissertation on the subject) D.T. Runia.
Mogens Müller says that, while no clearly Jewish manuscript of the Septuagint has been found with Κύριος representing the Tetragrammaton, other Jewish writings of the time show that Jews did use the term Κύριος for God, and it was because Christians found it in the Septuagint that they were able to apply it to Christ. In fact, the deuterocanonical books of the Septuagint, written originally in Greek (e.g., Wisdom, 2 and 3 Maccabees), do speak of God as Κύριος and thus show that "the use of κύριος as a representation of יהוה must be pre-Christian in origin".
Similarly, while consistent use of Κύριος to represent the Tetragrammaton has been called "a distinguishing mark for any Christian LXX manuscript", Eugen J. Pentiuc says: "No definitive conclusion has been reached thus far." And Sean McDonough denounces as implausible the idea that Κύριος did not appear in the Septuagint before the Christian era.
Speaking of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, which is a kaige recension of the Septuagint, "a revision of the Old Greek text to bring it closer to the Hebrew text of the Bible as it existed in ca. 2nd-1st century BCE" (and thus not necessarily the original text), Kristin De Troyer remarks: "The problem with a recension is that one does not know what is the original form and what the recension. Hence, is the paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton secondary – a part of the recension – or proof of the Old Greek text? This debate has not yet been solved."
While some interpret the presence of the Tetragrammaton in Papyrus Fouad 266, the oldest Septuagint manuscript in which it appears, as an indication of what was in the original text, others see this manuscript as "an archaizing and hebraizing revision of the earlier translation κύριος". Of this papyrus, De Troyer asks: "Is it a recension or not?" In this regard she says that Emanuel Tov notes that in this manuscript a second scribe inserted the four-letter Tetragrammaton where the first scribe left spaces large enough for the six-letter word Κύριος, and that Pietersma and Hanhart say the papyrus "already contains some pre-hexaplaric corrections towards a Hebrew text (which would have had the Tetragrammaton". She also mentions manuscripts where Septuagint manuscripts have Θεός and one that has παντοκράτωρ where the Hebrew text has the Tetragrammaton. She concludes: "It suffices to say that in old Hebrew and Greek witnesses, God has many names. Most if not all were pronounced till about the second century BCE As slowly onwards there developed a tradition of non-pronunciation, alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared. The reading Adonai was one of them. Finally, before Kurios became a standard rendering Adonai, the Name of God was rendered with Theos." In the Book of Exodus alone, Θεός represents the Tetragrammaton 41 times.
Origen (Commentary on Psalms 2.2) said that in the most accurate manuscripts the name was written in an older form of the Hebrew characters, the paleo-Hebrew letters, not the square: "In the more accurate exemplars the (divine) name is written in Hebrew characters; not, however, in the current script, but in the most ancient." While Pietersma interprets this statement as referring to the Septuagint, Wilkinson says one might assume that Origen refers specifically to the version of Aquila of Sinope, which follows the Hebrew text very closely, but he may perhaps refer to Greek versions in general.
Some manuscripts of the Septuagint and later Greek translationsEdit
The Tetragrammaton or something possibly associated with it (ΙΑΩ or a space) in texts of the Septuagint
- 1st century BCE
- 4QpapLXXLevb – fragments of the Book of Leviticus, chapters 1 to 5. In two verses: 3:12; 4:27 the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrew Bible is represented by Greek ΙΑΩ.
- Papyrus Fouad 266b (848) – fragments of Deuteronomy, chapters 10 to 33. The Tetragrammaton appears in square Hebrew/Aramaic script. According to a disputed view, the first copyist left a blank space marked with a dot, and another inscribed the letters.
- 1st century CE
- Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 – contains parts of two verses of chapter 42 of the Book of Job and has the Tetragrammaton in paleo-Hebrew letters.
- Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever – in three fragments whose contents were published separately.
- 1st to 2nd century
- 3rd century CE
- Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1007 – contains Genesis 2 and 3. The divine name is written with a double yodh.
- Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656 – fragments of the Book of Genesis, chapters 14 to 27. The first copyist left blank spaces in which a second wrote Kyrios.
- Papyrus Berlin 17213 – fragments of the Book of Genesis, chapter 19. One blank space may have been for the name of God, but Emanuel Tov thinks that it marked the end of a paragraph. It has been dated to 3rd century CE.
- 6th century CE
- Taylor-Schechter 16.320 – Tetragrammaton in Hebrew, 550 – 649 CE.
- Codex Marchalianus – uses ΙΑΩ as the divine name, but in the margin represents the Tetragrammaton by the Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ. It is a 6th-century Greek manuscript.
- 3rd century CE
- 5th century CE
- 7th century CE
- Taylor-Schechter 12.182 – a Hexapla manuscript with Tetragrammaton in Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ. Hexaplaric manuscripts: In the Hexapla, the Tetragrammaton is included in works by Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion, but additionally in three other anonymous Greek translations (Quinta, Sextus and Septima).
- 9th century CE
- Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) writes Ἰαῶ (Iao);
- Irenaeus (d. c. 202) reports that the Gnostics formed a compound Ἰαωθ (Iaoth) with the last syllable of Sabaoth. He also reports that the Valentinian heretics use Ἰαῶ (Iao);
- Clement of Alexandria (d. c. 215) reports: "the mystic name of four letters which was affixed to those alone to whom the adytum was accessible, is called Ἰαοὺ"; manuscript variants also have the forms ἰαοῦε and ἰὰ οὐὲ.
- Origen (d. c. 254), Ἰαώ (Iao);
- Porphyry (d. c. 305) according to Eusebius (died 339), Ἰευώ (Ieuo);
- Epiphanius (died 404), who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there, gives Ἰά (Ia) and Ἰάβε (pronounced at that time /ja'vε/) and explains Ἰάβε as meaning He who was and is and always exists.
- (Pseudo-)Jerome (4th/5th century), (Tetragrammaton) can be read Iaho;
- Theodoret (d. c. 457) writes Ἰαώ (Iao); he also reports that the Samaritans say Ἰαβέ or Ἰαβαί (both pronounced at that time /ja'vε/), while the Jews say Ἀϊά (Aia). (The latter is probably not יהוה but אהיה Ehyeh = "I am " or "I will be", Exod. 3:14 which the Jews counted among the names of God.)
- Jacob of Edessa (died 708), Jehjeh;
- Jerome (died 420) speaks of certain Greek writers who misunderstood the Hebrew letters יהוה (read right-to-left) as the Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ (read left-to-right), thus changing YHWH to pipi.
The Vulgate translation, though made not from the Septuagint but from the Hebrew text, did not depart from the practice used in the Septuagint. Thus, for most of its history, Christianity's translations of the Scriptures have used equivalents of Adonai to represent the Tetragrammaton. Only at about the beginning of the 16th century did Christian translations of the Bible appear with transliterations of the Tetragrammaton.
Usage in religious traditionsEdit
Especially due to the existence of the Mesha Stele, the Jahwist tradition found in Exod. 3:15, and ancient Hebrew and Greek texts, biblical scholars widely hold that the Tetragrammaton and other names of God were spoken by the ancient Israelites and their neighbours.:40
Some time after the destruction of Solomon's Temple, the spoken use of God's name as it was written ceased among the people, even though knowledge of the pronunciation was perpetuated in rabbinic schools. The Talmud relays this occurred after the death of Simeon the Just (either Simon I or his great-great-grandson Simon II). Philo calls it ineffable, and says that it is lawful for those only whose ears and tongues are purified by wisdom to hear and utter it in a holy place (that is, for priests in the Temple). In another passage, commenting on Lev. xxiv. 15 seq.: "If any one, I do not say should blaspheme against the Lord of men and gods, but should even dare to utter his name unseasonably, let him expect the penalty of death."
Rabbinic sources suggest that the name of God was pronounced only once a year, by the high priest, on the Day of Atonement. Others, including Maimonides, claim that the name was pronounced daily in the liturgy of the Temple in the priestly benediction of worshippers (Num. vi. 27), after the daily sacrifice; in the synagogues, though, a substitute (probably "Adonai") was used. According to the Talmud, in the last generations before the fall of Jerusalem, the name was pronounced in a low tone so that the sounds were lost in the chant of the priests. Since the destruction of Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the Tetragrammaton has no longer been pronounced in the liturgy. However the pronunciation was still known in Babylonia in the latter part of the 4th century.
The vehemence with which the utterance of the name is denounced in the Mishnah suggests that use of Yahweh was unacceptable in rabbinical Judaism. "He who pronounces the Name with its own letters has no part in the world to come!" Such is the prohibition of pronouncing the Name as written that it is sometimes called the "Ineffable", "Unutterable", or "Distinctive Name".
Halakha prescribes that whereas the Name is written "yodh he waw he", it is only to be pronounced "Adonai"; and the latter name too is regarded as a holy name, and is only to be pronounced in prayer. Thus when someone wants to refer in third person to either the written or spoken Name, the term HaShem "the Name" is used; and this handle itself can also be used in prayer. The Masoretes added vowel points (niqqud) and cantillation marks to the manuscripts to indicate vowel usage and for use in ritual chanting of readings from the Bible in Jewish prayer in synagogues. To יהוה they added the vowels for "Adonai" ("My Lord"), the word to use when the text was read. While "HaShem" is the most common way to reference "the Name", the terms "HaMaqom" (lit. "The Place", i.e. "The Omnipresent") and "Raḥmana" (Aramaic, "Merciful") are used in the mishna and gemara, still used in the phrases "HaMaqom y'naḥem ethḥem" ("may The Omnipresent console you"), the traditional phrase used in sitting Shiva and "Raḥmana l'tzlan" ("may the Merciful save us" i.e. "God forbid").
The written Tetragrammaton, as well as six other names of God, must be treated with special sanctity. They cannot be disposed of regularly, lest they be desecrated, but are usually put in long term storage or buried in Jewish cemeteries in order to retire them from use. Similarly, writing the Tetragrammaton (or these other names) unnecessarily is prohibited, so as to avoid having them treated disrespectfully, an action that is forbidden. To guard the sanctity of the Name, sometimes a letter is substituted by a different letter in writing (e.g. יקוק), or the letters are separated by one or more hyphens, a practice applied also to the English name "God", which Jews commonly write as "G-d". Most Jewish authorities say that this practice is not obligatory for the English name.
Kabbalistic tradition holds that the correct pronunciation is known to a select few people in each generation, it is not generally known what this pronunciation is. There are two main schools of Kabbalah arising in 13th century Spain. These are called Theosophic Kabbalah represented by Rabbi Moshe De leon and the Zohar, and the Kabbalah of Names or Prophetic Kabbalah whose main representative is Rabbi Abraham Abulafia of Saragossa. Rabbi Abulafia wrote many wisdom books and prophetic books where the name is used for meditation purposes from 1271 onwards. Abulafia put a lot of attention on Exodus 15 and the Songs of Moses. In this song it says "Yehovah is a Man of War, Yehovah is his name". For Abulafia the goal of propecy was for a man to come to the level of prophecy and be called "Yehovah a man of war". Abulafia also used the tetragrammaton in a spiritual war against his spiritual enemies. For example, he prophesied in his book "The Sign", Therefore, thus said YHWH, the God of Israel: Have no fear of the enemy" (See Hylton, A The Prophetic Jew Abraham Abulafia, 2015).
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, says that the tree of the Tetragrammaton "unfolds" in accordance with the intrinsic nature of its letters, "in the same order in which they appear in the Name, in the mystery of ten and the mystery of four." Namely, the upper cusp of the Yod is Arich Anpin and the main body of Yod is and Abba; the first Hei is Imma; the Vav is Ze`ir Anpin and the second Hei is Nukvah. It unfolds in this aforementioned order and "in the mystery of the four expansions" that are constituted by the following various spellings of the letters:
ע"ב/`AV : יו"ד ה"י וי"ו ה"י, so called "`AV" according to its gematria value ע"ב=70+2=72.
ס"ג/SaG: יו"ד ה"י וא"ו ה"י, gematria 63.
מ"ה/MaH: יו"ד ה"א וא"ו ה"א, gematria 45.
ב"ן/BaN: יו"ד ה"ה ו"ו ה"ה, gematria 52.
Luzzatto summarises, "In sum, all that exists is founded on the mystery of this Name and upon the mystery of these letters of which it consists. This means that all the different orders and laws are all drawn after and come under the order of these four letters. This is not one particular pathway but rather the general path, which includes everything that exists in the Sefirot in all their details and which brings everything under its order."
Another parallel is drawn[by whom?] between the four letters of the Tetragrammaton and the Four Worlds: the י is associated with Atziluth, the first ה with Beri'ah, the ו with Yetzirah, and final ה with Assiah.
There are some[who?] who believe that the tetractys and its mysteries influenced the early kabbalists. A Hebrew tetractys in a similar way has the letters of the Tetragrammaton (the four lettered name of God in Hebrew scripture) inscribed on the ten positions of the tetractys, from right to left. It has been argued that the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, with its ten spheres of emanation, is in some way connected to the tetractys, but its form is not that of a triangle. The occult writer Dion Fortune says:
- "The point is assigned to Kether;
- the line to Chokmah;
- the two-dimensional plane to Binah;
- consequently the three-dimensional solid naturally falls to Chesed."
(The first three-dimensional solid is the tetrahedron.)
The relationship between geometrical shapes and the first four Sephirot is analogous to the geometrical correlations in tetractys, shown above under Pythagorean Symbol, and unveils the relevance of the Tree of Life with the tetractys.
The Samaritans shared the taboo of the Jews about the utterance of the name, and there is no evidence that its pronunciation was common Samaritan practice. However Sanhedrin 10:1 includes the comment of Rabbi Mana II, "for example those Kutim who take an oath" would also have no share in the world to come, which suggests that Mana thought some Samaritans used the name in making oaths. (Their priests have preserved a liturgical pronunciation "Yahwe" or "Yahwa" to the present day.) As with Jews, the use of Shema (שמא "the Name") remains the everyday usage of the name among Samaritans, akin to Hebrew "the Name" (Hebrew השם "HaShem").
It is assumed that early Jewish Christians inherited from Jews the practice of reading "Lord" where the Tetragrammaton appeared in the Hebrew text, or where a Tetragrammaton may have been marked in a Greek text. Gentile Christians, primarily non-Hebrew speaking and using Greek texts, may have read "Lord" as it occurred in the Greek text of the New Testament and their copies of the Greek Old Testament. This practice continued into the Latin Vulgate where "Lord" represented the Tetragrammaton in the Latin text. In Petrus Alphonsi's Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, the name is written as "Ieve". At the Reformation, the Luther Bible used "Jehova" in the German text of Luther's Old Testament.
As mentioned above, the Septuagint (Greek translation), the Vulgate (Latin translation), and the Peshitta (Syriac translation) use the word "Lord" (κύριος, kyrios, dominus, and ܡܳܪܝܳܐ, moryo respectively).
Use of the Septuagint by Christians in polemics with Jews led to its abandonment by the latter, making it a specifically Christian text. From it Christians made translations into Coptic, Arabic, Slavonic and other languages used in Oriental Orthodoxy and the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose liturgies and doctrinal declarations are largely a cento of texts from the Septuagint, which they consider to be inspired at least as much as the Masoretic Text. Within the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek text remains the norm for texts in all languages, with particular reference to the wording used in prayers.
The Septuagint, with its use of Κύριος to represent the Tetragrammaton, was the basis also for Christian translations associated with the West, in particular the Vetus Itala, which survives in some parts of the liturgy of the Latin Church, and the Gothic Bible.
Christian translations of the Bible into English commonly use "LORD" in place of the Tetragrammaton in most passages, often in small capitals (or in all caps), so as to distinguish it from other words translated as "Lord".
The Eastern Orthodox Church considers the Septuagint text, which uses Κύριος (Lord), to be the authoritative text of the Old Testament, and in its liturgical books and prayers it uses Κύριος in place of the Tetragrammaton in texts derived from the Bible.:247–248
In the Catholic Church, the first edition of the official Vatican Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, editio typica, published in 1979, used the traditional Dominus when rendering the Tetragrammaton in the overwhelming majority of places where it appears; however, it also used the form Iahveh for rendering the Tetragrammaton in three known places:
In the second edition of the Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, editio typica altera, published in 1986, these few occurrences of the form Iahveh were replaced with Dominus, in keeping with the long-standing Catholic tradition of avoiding direct usage of the Ineffable Name.
On 29 June 2008, the Holy See reacted to the then still recent practice of pronouncing, within Catholic liturgy, the name of God represented by the Tetragrammaton. As examples of such vocalisation it mentioned "Yahweh" and "Yehovah". The early Christians, it said, followed the example of the Septuagint in replacing the name of God with "the Lord", a practice with important theological implications for their use of "the Lord" in reference to Jesus, as in Philippians 2:9-11 and other New Testament texts. It therefore directed that, "in liturgical celebrations, in songs and prayers the name of God in the form of the Tetragrammaton YHWH is neither to be used or pronounced"; and that translations of Biblical texts for liturgical use are to follow the practice of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, replacing the divine name with "the Lord" or, in some contexts, "God". The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops welcomed this instruction, adding that it "provides also an opportunity to offer catechesis for the faithful as an encouragement to show reverence for the Name of God in daily life, emphasizing the power of language as an act of devotion and worship".
- masora parva (small) or masora marginalis: notes to the Masoretic text, written in the margins of the left, right and between the columns and the comments on the top and bottom margins to masora magna (large).
- C. D. Ginsburg in The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, London 1880, vol I, p. 25, 26, § 115 lists the 134 places where this practice is observed, and likewise in 8 places where the received text has Elohim (C. D. Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible, London 1897, s. 368, 369). These places are listed in: C.D. Ginsburg, The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, vol I, p. 26, § 116.
- These are Est 1:20; 5:4, 13 and 7:7. The same acrostic has been seen in Exodus 3:14 and in the first four words of Psalm 96:11 ("Bible Gateway passage: תהילים 96:11 – The Westminster Leningrad Codex".).
- In some manuscripts the Tetragrammaton was replaced by the word ’El or ’Elohim written in Paleo-Hebrew script, they are: 1QpMic (1Q14) 12 3; 1QMyst (1Q27) II 11; 1QHa I (Suk. = Puech IX) 26; II (X) 34; VII (XV) 5; XV (VII) 25; 1QHb (1Q35) 1 5; 3QUnclassified fragments (3Q14) 18 2; 4QpPsb (4Q173) 5 4; 4QAges of Creation A (4Q180) 1 1; 4QMidrEschate?(4Q183) 2 1; 3 1; fr. 1 kol. II 3; 4QSd (4Q258) IX 8; 4QDb (4Q267) fr. 9 kol. i 2; kol. iv 4; kol. v 4; 4QDc (4Q268) 1 9; 4QComposition Concerning Divine Providence (4Q413) fr. 1–2 2, 4; 6QD (6Q15) 3 5; 6QpapHymn (6Q18) 6 5; 8 5; 10 3. W 4QShirShabbg (4Q406) 1 2; 3 2 występuje ’Elohim.
- Knight, Douglas A.; Levine, Amy-Jill (2011). The Meaning of the Bible: What the Jewish Scriptures and Christian Old Testament Can Teach Us (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne. ISBN 978-0062098597.
- The word "tetragrammaton" originates from tetra "four" + γράμμα gramma (gen. grammatos) "letter" "Online Etymology Dictionary".
- Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. 5. G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (editors); David E. Green (translator). William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 1986. p. 500. ISBN 0-8028-2329-7.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Erwin Fahlbusch; Jan Milic Lochman; John Mbiti; Jaroslav Pelikan; Lukas Vischer (14 February 2008). "Yahweh". The Encyclopedia of Christianity. 5. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 823–824. ISBN 9780802824172.
- Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer; Fabry, Heinz-Josef (23 February 1974). חמר - יהוה: Volume V. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802823298 – via Google Books.
- The New Brown–Driver–Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, p. 217 (יהוה listed under הוה)
- Zuck, Roy B. (1 December 2012). Vital Old Testament Issues: Examining Textual and Topical Questions. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781620327630 – via Google Books.
- John A. Cook & Robert D. Holmstedt, Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (PDF)
- Kautzsch, Wilhelm Geseniusedited and enlarged Emil. "Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar" – via Wikisource.
- G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren, eds. (1979). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 3. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2327-4.
- Norbert Samuelson (2006). Jewish Philosophy: An Historical Introduction. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9244-9.
- Gesenius, Wilhelm (1828). Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch: über das Alte Testament (3 ed.). Leipzig: Friedrich Christian Wilhelm Vogel. pp. 322–323.
- Gesenius, Wilhelm (1833). Lexicon manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum in Veteris Testamenti libros. Leipzig: Friedrich Christian Wilhelm Vogel. p. 409.
- Gesenius, Wilhelm (1834). Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch: über das Alte Testament (4 ed.). Leipzig: Friedrich Christian Wilhelm Vogel. pp. 743–746.
- Gesenius, Wilhelm (1844). Edward Robinson (ed.). A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: Including the Biblical Chaldee (2 ed.). Boston: Crocker and Brewster. pp. 389–390.
- Gesenius cites Diodorus Siculus, Macrobius, and especially Theodoret, and says that this form remained in use among the Gnostics and in Egyptian gems.
- Reeland, Adrian (23 February 1707). "Decas exercitationum philologicarum de vera pronuntiatione nominis Jehova, quarum quinque priores lectionem Jehova impugnant, posteriores tuentur. Cum praefatione Adriani Relandi". ex officina Johannis Coster.
- Gesenius, Wilhelm (1840). Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti. 2 (2 ed.). Leipzig: Friedrich Christian Wilhelm Vogel. pp. 575–583.
- See p. 389 of Robinson's 1843 translation.
- Alter, Robert (18 December 2018). The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393292503 – via Google Books.
- Reno, R. R. (23 February 2010). Genesis. Brazos Press. ISBN 9781587430916 – via Google Books.
- Paul Joüon and T. Muraoka. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (Subsidia Biblica). Part One: Orthography and Phonetics. Rome : Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblio, 1996. ISBN 978-8876535956.
- William Smith (1872). Dictionary of the Bible. 2. p. 1239.
- Arnold, Mark P. (2015). Revealing the Name: An Investigation of the Divine Character through a Conversation Analysis of the Dialogues between God and Moses in the Book of Exodus (PhD thesis). University of Gloucestershire. p. 28.
- Lemaire, Andre (May–June 1994). ""House of David" Restored in Moabite Inscription" (PDF). Biblical Archaeology Review. Biblical Archaeology Society. 20 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012.
- Bonanno, Anthony (23 February 1986). Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean, University of Malta, 2-5 September 1985. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9060322886 – via Google Books.
- Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1 January 1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9780567085917.
- Becking, Bob (1 January 2001). Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah. A&C Black. ISBN 9781841271996 – via Google Books.
- F. M. Cross (1997). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Harvard University Press. p. 61.
- J.M. Lindenberger (2003). Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters. Atlanta. pp. 110, 111.
- Joseph Naveh (1963). "Old Hebrew Inscriptions in a Burial Cave". Israel Exploration Journal. 13 (2): 74–92.
- G. Davis (2004). Ancient Hebrew inscriptions: corpus and concordance. Vol. 2. Cambridge. p. 18.
- A. Vincent (1937). La religion des judéo-araméens d'Éléphantine (in French). Paris.
- B. Porten (1968). Archives from Elephantine, The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Berkeley – Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 105–106.
- D.N. Freedman. YHWH. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Vol 5. Eerdmans. p. 504. ISBN 0802823297.
- De Troyer, Kristin (2005). "The Names of God. Their Pronunciation and Their Translation. A Digital Tour of Some of the Main Witnesses". Lectio difficilior: European electronic journal for feminist exegesis. Theol. Fakultät der Universität Bern (2). ISSN 1661-3317. OCLC 174649029.
- Encyclopedia of World Religions. Foreign Media Group; 2006. ISBN 978-1-60136-000-7. p. 463.
- Thomas Römer (2015). The Invention of God. Translated by Raymond Geuss. Harvard University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780674504974.
- James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Coogan, Michael David; Coogan, Michael D. (23 February 2001). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195139372 – via Google Books.
- Smith, Mark S. (9 August 2001). The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199881178 – via Google Books.
- Frank Moore Cross (1997). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0674091760.
- Jacques-Paul Migne (1860). Patrologiae cursus completus, series graeca. 80. pp. col. 244. English translation: Walter Woodburn Hyde, Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire (Wipf and Stock 2008), p. 80
- Toy, Crawford Howell; Blau, Ludwig. "Tetragrammaton"". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020.
- Jacques-Paul Migne (1864). Patrologiae cursus completus, series graeca. 83. pp. .col. 460.
- B. Alfrink, La prononciation 'Jehova' du tétragramme, O.T.S. V (1948) 43–62.
- K. Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae, Leipzig-Berlin, I, 1928 and II, 1931.
- Moore, George Foot (1911). 311 "Jehovah" in Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 15. Edited by Hugh Chisholm (11th ed.)
- G. Bohak (2008). Ancient Jewish Magic. Cambridge: Oxford University Press. p. 306.
- C. D. Ginsburg. The Massorah. Translated into English with a critical and exegetical commentary. IV. p. 28,§115.
- Steven Ortlepp (2010). Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton: A Historico-Linguistic Approach. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-4452-7220-7.
- The Bible translator. vol. 56. United Bible Societies. 2005. p. 71.; Nelson's expository dictionary of the Old Testament. Merrill Frederick Unger, William White. 1980. p. 229.
- Geoffrey William Bromiley; Erwin Fahlbusch; Jan Milic Lochman; John Mbiti; Jaroslav Pelikan; Jaroslav Pelikan, eds. (2008). Yahweh. The Encyclodedia of Christianity. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Vol 5. Translated by Geoffrey William Bromiley. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 823–824. ISBN 9780802824172.
- The Name of Jehovah in the Book of Esther., appendix 60, Companion Bible.
- G.H. Parke-Taylor (2006). Yahweh: The Divine Name in the Bible. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 9780889206526.
- G. Lisowsky, Konkordanz zum hebräischen Alten Testament, Stuttgart 1958, p. 1612. Basic information about the form Jāh, see L. Koehler, W. Baumgartner, J.J. Stamm, Wielki słownik hebrajsko-polski i aramejsko-polski Starego Testamentu (Great Dictionary of the Hebrew-Aramaic-Polish and Polish Old Testament), Warszawa 2008, vol 1, p. 327, code No. 3514.
- E. Jenni, C. Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, Hendrickson Publishers 1997, page 685.
- "Genesis 2:4 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Genesis 3:14 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Judges 16:28 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Genesis 15:2 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "1 Kings 2:26 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Ezekiel 24:24 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- Troyer, Kristin De (February 2005), "lectio difficilior: The Names of God. Their Pronunciation and Their Translation", Lectio Difficilior : European Electronic Journal for Feminist Exegesis, ISSN 1661-3317, retrieved 20 April 2013
- Bezalel Porten, Archives from Elephantine: The life of an ancient Jewish military colony, 1968, University of California Press, pp. 105, 106.
- Stern M., Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism (1974–84) 1:172; Schafer P., Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World (1997) 232; Cowley A., Aramaic Papyri of the 5th century (1923); Kraeling E.G., The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the 5th century BCE from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine (1953)
- Sufficient examination of the subject is available at Sean McDonough's YHWH at Patmos (1999), pp 116 to 122 and George van Kooten's The Revelation of the Name YHWH to Moses (2006), pp 114, 115, 126–136. It is worth mentioning a fundamental, though aged, source about the subject: Adolf Deissmann's Bible studies: Contributions chiefly from papyri and inscriptions to the history of the language, the literature, and the religion of Hellenistic Judaism and primitive Christianity (1909), at chapter "Greek transcriptions of the Tetragrammaton".
- Translated by: P. Muchowski, Rękopisy znad Morza Martwego. Qumran – Wadi Murabba‘at – Masada, Kraków 1996, pp. 31.
- E. Tov, Scribal practices and approache's reflected in the texts found in the Judean Desert, s. 206.
- A complete list: A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa), serie Discoveries of the Judaean Desert of Jordan IV, pp. 9.
- T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint. Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 72.
- T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint. Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 56.
- E. Hatch, H.A. Redpath (1975). A Concordance to the Septuagint: And the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books). I. pp. 630–648.
- H. Bietenhard, “Lord,” in the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, C. Brown (gen. ed.), Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 512, ISBN 0310256208
- Metzger, Bruce M. (17 September 1981). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195365320 – via Google Books.
- The Old Greek Psalter: Studies in Honour of Albert Pietersma. Bloomsbury Publishing; 1 June 2001. ISBN 978-0-567-37628-2. Scribal Features of Early Witnesses of Greek Scripture. p. 127.
- Emanuel Tov. Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert. BRILL; 14 October 2004. ISBN 978-90-474-1434-6. p. 304.
- another source
- Albert Pietersma, "Kyrios or Tetragram: A Renewed Quest for the Original LXX" in Albert Pietersma and Claude Cox (editors), De Septuaginta: Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on his sixty-fifth birthday (Benben Publications: Mississauga, 1984) p. 90
- Rösel 2007, pp. 411. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRösel2007 (help)
- Skehan 1980, p. 38. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSkehan1980 (help)
- Larry Perkins, "ΚΥΡΙΟΣ – Articulation and Non-articulation in Greek Exodus" in Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, volume 41 (2008), p. 23
- Larry Perkins, "ΚΥΡΙΟΣ – Proper Name or Title in Greek Exodus", p. 6
- Patrick W. Skehan, "The Qumran Manuscripts and Textual Criticism" in Vatus Testamentum supp. 4 (1957) 148–160, reprinted in Frank Moore Cross; Šěmaryahū Ṭalmōn (1975). Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text. Harvard University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-674-74362-5.
- "F. Shaw, The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω". www.jhsonline.org.
- ThLZ - 2016 Nr. 11 / Shaw, Frank / The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of IAO. / Bob Becking Theologische Literaturzeitung, 241 (2016), 1203–1205
- Didier Fontaine, "English Review of F. Shaw, The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω (2014)"; also in French: "Review de F. Shaw, The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω (2014)".
- Runia, D. T. (28 October 2011). Philo of Alexandria: An Annotated Bibliography 1997-2006. BRILL. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-9004210806 – via Google Books.; David T. Runia, Philo of Alexandria: An Annotated Bibliography 1997–2006 (BRILL 2012), pp. 229–230
- Mogens Müller (1996). The First Bible of the Church. The First Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint, Volume 1 of Copenhagen International Seminar, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement series, Issue 206 of Supplement series. A&C Black. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85075571-5.
- Rösel 2007, pp. 425. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRösel2007 (help)
- Eugen J. Pentiuc (2014). Septuagint Manuscripts and Printed Editions. The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Oxford University Press USA. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-19533123-3.
- Sean M. McDonough (1999). "2". The Use of the Name YHWH. YHWH at Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting, Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. Mohr Siebeck. p. 60. ISBN 978-31-6147055-4.
- The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing; 27 November 2014. ISBN 978-0-8028-6680-6. p. 264.
- A New English Translation of the Septuagint. Oxford University Press; 2 November 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-972394-2. p. 46.
- Robert J. Wilkinson. Tetragrammaton: Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God: From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century. BRILL; 5 February 2015. ISBN 978-90-04-28817-1. p. 55.
- Robert J. Wilkinson. Tetragrammaton: Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God: From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century. BRILL; 5 February 2015. ISBN 978-90-04-28817-1. p. 70.
- Andrew Phillips. "The Septuagint". Orthodox England (journal).
- Z. Aly, L. Koenen, Three Rolls of the Early Septuagint: Genesis and Deuteronomy, Bonn 1980, s. 5, 6.
- Meron Piotrkowski; Geoffrey Herman; Saskia Doenitz, eds. (2018). Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism: Studies for Tal Ilan at Sixty. BRILL. p. 149. ISBN 9789004366985.
- E. Tov, Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert, pp. 231.
- Francisco A. J. Hoogendijk. Review of: A. Benaissa (2011) The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Volume LXXVII (2015)
- Michael P. Theophilos. Recently Discovered Greek Papyri and Parchment of the Psalter from the Oxford Oxyrhynchus Manuscripts: Implications for Scribal Practice and Textual Transmission. Australian Catholic University.
- Thomas J. Kraus (2007). Ad Fontes: Original Manuscripts and Their Significance for Studying Early Christianity: Selected Essays. Texts and Editions for New Testament Study. Vol. 3. BRILL. p. 3. ISBN 9789004161825.
- Emanuel Tov. P. Vindob. G 39777 (Symmachus) and the Use of the Divine Names in Greek Scripture Texts.
- Larry W. Hurtado (2006). The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 9780802828958.
- Carl Wessely (1911). Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde. Vol. XI. Leipzig. p. 171.
- B.D. Eerdmans, The Name Jahu, O.T.S. V (1948) 1–29.
- Anthony John Maas. Jehovah (Yahweh) in The Catholic encyclopedia; an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church. Special edition, under the auspices of The Knights of Columbus Catholic Truth Committee. Edited by Charles G. Herbermann [and others] Published 1907 by The Encyclopedia Press in New York.
- "Among the Jews Moses referred his laws to the god who is invoked as Iao (Gr. Ιαώ)." (Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica I, 94:2)
- Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", II, xxxv, 3, in P. G., VII, col. 840.
- Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", I, iv, 1, in P.G., VII, col. 481.
- Stromata v,6,34; see Karl Wilhelm Dindorf, ed. (1869). Clementis Alexandrini Opera (in Greek). iii. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 27.
ἀτὰρ καὶ τὸ τετράγραμμον ὄνομα τὸ μυστικόν, ὃ περιέκειντο οἷς μόνοις τὸ ἄδυτον βάσιμον ἦν· λέγεται δὲ Ἰαοὺ [also ἰαοῦε; ἰὰ οὐὲ]
- Origen, "In Joh.", II, 1, in P.G., XIV, col. 105, where a footnote says that the last part of the name of Jeremiah refers to what the Samaritans expressed as Ἰαβαί, Eusebius as Ἰευώ, Theodoretus as Ἀϊά and the ancient Greeks as Ἰαώ.
- Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica I, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 72 A; and also ibid. X, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 808 B.
- Epiphanius, Panarion, I, iii, 40, in P.G., XLI, col. 685
- "nomen Domini apud Hebraeos quatuor litterarum est, jod, he, vau, he: quod proprie Dei vocabulum sonat: et legi potest JAHO, et Hebraei ἄῤῥητον, id est, ineffabile opinatur." ("Breviarium in Psalmos. Psalm. viii.", in P.L., XXVI, col. 838 A). This work was traditionally attributed to Jerome, but authenticity has been doubted or denied since modern times. But "now believed to be genuine and to be dated before CE 392" ZATW (W. de Gruyter, 1936. page 266)
- "the word Nethinim means in Hebrew 'gift of Iao', that is of the God who is" (Theodoret, "Quaest. in I Paral.", cap. ix, in P. G., LXXX, col. 805 C)
- Theodoret, "Ex. quaest.", xv, in P. G., LXXX, col. 244 and "Haeret. Fab.", V, iii, in P. G., LXXXIII, col. 460
- cf. Lamy, "La science catholique", 1891, p. 196.
- Jerome, "Ep. xxv ad Marcell.", in P. L., XXII, col. 429.
- Sebastian P. Brock The Bible in the Syriac Tradition St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 1988. Quote Page 17: "The Peshitta Old Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text, and most Biblical scholars believe that the Peshitta New Testament directly from the original Greek. The so-called ""deuterocanonical" books, or "Apocrypha" were all translated from Greek, with ..."
- Joshua Bloch, The Authorship of the Peshitta The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1919
- Adam Kamesar. Jerome, Greek Scholarship, and the Hebrew Bible: A Study of the Quaestiones Hebraicae in Genesim. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 9780198147275. page 97.
- In the 7th paragraph of Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible, Sir Godfry Driver wrote, "The early translators generally substituted 'Lord' for [YHWH]. [...] The Reformers preferred Jehovah, which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530 A.D., in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (Exodus 6.3), from which it passed into other Protestant Bibles."
- Clifford Hubert Durousseau, "Yah: A Name of God" in Jewish Bible Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 1, January–March 2014; same on Questia
- "Names Of God". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- Kristin De Troyer The Names of God, Their Pronunciation and Their Translation, – lectio difficilior 2/2005.
- Miller, Patrick D (2000). The Religion of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664221454.
- Yoma; Tosef. Soṭah, xiii
- The Cambridge History of Judaism: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period p 779 William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz – 2006 "(BT Kidd 7ia) The historical picture described above is probably wrong because the Divine Names were a priestly ... Name was one of the climaxes of the Sacred Service: it was entrusted exclusively to the High Priest once a year on the "
- Mishneh Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings, Chapter 14; http://www.chabad.org/dailystudy/rambam.asp?tDate=28 March 2012&rambamChapters=3
- "Judaism 101 on the Name of God". jewfaq.org.
- For example, see Saul Weiss and Joseph Dov Soloveitchik (February 2005). Insights of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-4469-7. and Minna Rozen (1992). Jewish Identity and Society in the 17th century. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-16-145770-8.
- M. Rösel The reading and translation of the divine name in the Masoretic tradition and the Greek Pentateuch – Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2007 "It is in this book that we find the strictest prohibition against pronouncing the name of the Lord. The Hebrew of 24.16, which may be translated as 'And he that blasphemes/curses (3B?) the name of the Lord (9H9J), he shall surely be put to death', in the LXX is subjected to a ..."
- "They [the Priests, when reciting the Priestly Blessing, when the Temple stood] recite [God's] name – i.e., the name yod-hei-vav-hei, as it is written. This is what is referred to as the 'explicit name' in all sources. In the country [that is, outside the Temple], it is read [using another one of God's names], א-ד-נ-י ('Adonai'), for only in the Temple is this name [of God] recited as it is written." – Mishneh Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings, 14:10
- Kiddushin 71a states, "I am not referred to as [My name] is written. My name is written yod-hei-vav-hei and it is pronounced "Adonai."
- Stanley S. Seidner,"HaShem: Uses through the Ages." Unpublished paper, Rabbinical Society Seminar, Los Angeles, CA,1987.
- For example, two common prayer books are titled "Tehillat Hashem" and "Avodat Hashem." Or, a person may tell a friend, "Hashem helped me to perform a great mitzvah today."
- For example, in the common utterance and praise, "Barukh Hashem" (Blessed [i.e. the source of all] is Hashem), or "Hashem yishmor" (God protect [us])
- See Deut. 12:2-4: "You must destroy all the sites at which the nations you are to dispossess worshiped their gods...tear down their altars...and cut down the images of their gods, obliterating their name from that site. Do not do the same thing to Hashem (YHWH) your God."
- "Based on the Talmud (Shavuot 35a-b), Maimonides (Hilkhot Yesodei HaTorah, Chapter 6), and the Shulchan Arukh (Yoreh Deah 276:9) it is prohibited to erase or obliterate the seven Hebrew names for God found in the Torah (in addition to the above, there is E-l, E-loha, Tzeva-ot, Sha-dai,...).
- "Judaism 101: The Name of G-d". www.jewfaq.org.
- Why Don't You Spell Out G-d's Name?, Aron Moss, Chabad.org
- "Why do some Jews write "G-d" instead of "God"?". ReformJudaism.org. 19 February 2014.
- In קל"ח פתחי חכמה by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, Opening #31; English translation in book "138 Openings of Wisdom" by Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, 2008, also viewable at http://www.breslev.co.il/articles/spirituality_and_faith/kabbalah_and_mysticism/the_name_of_havayah.aspx?id=10847&language=english, accessed 12 March 2012
- The Mystical Qabalah, Dion Fortune, Chapter XVIII, 25
- The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture: Volume 3 – Page 152 Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser – 2002 " In fact, there is no proof in any other rabbinic writing that Samaritans used to pronounce the Divine Name when they took an oath. The only evidence for Sarmaritans uttering the Tetragrammaton at that ..."
- A Catholic Handbook: Essentials for the 21st Century Page 51 William C. Graham – 2010 "Why Do We No Longer Say Yahweh? The Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments directed in ... just as the Hebrews and early Christians substituted other names for Yahweh when reading Scripture aloud."
- "BibliaHebraica.org, "The Septuagint"". Archived from the original on 4 May 2010.
- "HTC: An Orthodox Critique of Bible Translations".
- Fairbarn, Donald (2002). Eastern Orthodoxy through Western Eyes. Westminister John Knox Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-66422497-4.
- Eugen J. Pentiuc. The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition, p. 77. Oxford University Press (6 February 2014) ISBN 978-0195331233
- "Fatherhood of God" in The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set, Editor John Anthony McGuckin. Wiley 2010 ISBN 9781444392548
- "Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices fíliis Israel: Iahveh (Qui est), Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum, et hoc memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem." (Exodus 3:15).
- "Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Iahveh nomen eius!" (Exodus 15:3).
- "Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Iahveh Nissi (Dominus vexillum meum)" (Exodus 17:15).
- "Exodus 3:15: Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices fíliis Israel: Dominus, Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum, et hoc memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem."
- "Exodus 15:3: Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Dominus nomen eius!"
- "Exodus 17:15: Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Dominus Nissi (Dominus vexillum meum)"
- "Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- "United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Divine Worship (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 15 May 2014.
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