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The word Hebrew: עברית‎, romanizedIvrit, lit. 'Hebrew' written in modern Hebrew language (top), and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)

The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: הכתב העברי הקדום), also spelled Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet (P-H), was the script used in the historic kingdoms of Israel and Judah by Israelites. It is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet[1] (abjad) of 22 (consonantal) letters. P-H was coined by Solomon Birnbaum in 1954; writing, "To apply the term Phoenician to the script of the Hebrews is hardly suitable".[2]

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Paleo-hebrew alphabet.jpg
LanguagesBiblical Hebrew
Time period
10th century BCE – 135 CE
Parent systems
ISO 15924Phnx, 115
Unicode alias

Archaeology dates usage of P-H for writing the Hebrew language to the 10th century BCE.[3] By the 5th century BCE (with the Hebrew Jews exiled in the diaspora) P-H was subsumed by the Imperial Aramaic abjad with little remnant -- the Aramaic sharing a common protolanguage with a simpler font. The present Jewish "square-script" Hebrew aleph beit abjad evolved from the Aramaic. Samaritans (population fewer than 1000) use a P-H abjad derivative, known as the Samaritan alphabet. Usage of P-H is negligible nowadays but it survives in nostalgia (see the ₪1 coin and the logo of the Israeli town Nahariyah).


The chart below compares the letters of the Phoenician script with those of the Paleo-Hebrew and the present Hebrew alphabet, with names traditionally used in English.

Phoenician Paleo-Hebrew Samaritan Square Hebrew English name
    א Aleph
    ב Bet
    ג Gimel
    ד Dalet
    ה He
    ו Waw
    ז Zayin
    ח Heth
    ט Teth
    י Yodh
    כ/ך Kaph
    ל Lamedh
    מ/ם Mem
    נ/ן Nun
    ס Samekh
    ע Ayin
    פ/ף Pe
    צ/ץ Tsade
    ק Qoph
    ר Resh
    ש Shin
    ת Taw



Photograph of section of the Zayit Stone, 10th century BCE: (right-to-left) the letters waw, he, het, zayin, tet

According to contemporary scholars, the Paleo-Hebrew script developed alongside others in the region during the course of the late second and first millennia BCE. It is closely related to the Phoenician script.

The earliest known inscription in the Paleo-Hebrew script is the Zayit Stone discovered on a wall at Tel Zayit, in the Beth Guvrin Valley in the lowlands of ancient Judea in 2005.[4] The 22 letters were carved on one side of the 38 lb (17 kg) stone, which resembles a bowl on the other. The find is attributed to the mid-10th century BCE.

The script of the Gezer calendar,[5][6] dated to the late 10th century BCE, bears strong resemblance to contemporaneous Phoenician script from inscriptions at Byblos. The script on the Zayit Stone and Gezer Calendar are an earlier form than the classical Paleo-Hebrew of the 8th century and later; this early script is almost identical to the early Phoenician script on the 10th century Ahiram Sarcophagus Inscription. By the 8th century these early forms developed into a number of national alphabets including Israelite Paleo-Hebrew in Israel and Judah, Moabite in Moab and Ammon, Edomite, Phoenician and Early Aramaic (from which came the Assyrian square script that later became the modern Hebrew Alphabet).

Clear Hebrew features are visible in the scripts of the Moabite inscriptions of the Mesha Stele, set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab.[7] Similarly, the Tel Dan Stele from approximately 810 BCE resembles Hebrew inscriptions although its writing is classified as Old Aramaic and it dates from a period when Dan had already fallen into the orbit of Damascus.

The 8th-century Hebrew inscriptions exhibit many specific and exclusive traits, leading modern scholars to conclude that already in the 10th century BCE the Paleo-Hebrew script was used by wide scribal circles.

Even though very few 10th-century Hebrew inscriptions have been found, the quantity of the epigraphic material from the 8th century onward shows the gradual spread of literacy among the people of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.

In 1855 a Phoenician inscription in 22 lines was found among the ruins of Sidon. Each line contained about 40 or 50 characters. A facsimile copy of the writing was published in United States Magazine in July 1855. The inscription was on the lid of a large stone sarcophagus carved in fine Egyptian style. The writing was primarily a genealogical history of a king of Sidon buried in the sarcophagus.[8]

The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was in common use in the ancient Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE, in the Babylonian exile, Jews began using a stylized, "square" form of the Assyrian script (Ashurit),[9] a writing script sometimes called the Aramaic alphabet, and which was used by the Persian Empire during the 3rd century BCE. The Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, called the Samaritan script.[10] After the fall of the Persian Empire, Jews used both scripts before settling on the Assyrian form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of the Paleo-Hebrew script among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton.[11]

Further developmentEdit

Illustration of script on a Ketef Hinnom amulet, circa 700 BCE—the "Silver Scroll"

The independent Hebrew script evolved by developing numerous cursive features, the lapidary features of the Phoenician alphabet being ever less pronounced with the passage of time. The aversion of the lapidary script may indicate that the custom of erecting stelae by the kings and offering votive inscriptions to the deity was not widespread in Israel. Even the engraved inscriptions from the 8th century exhibit elements of the cursive style, such as the shading, which is a natural feature of pen-and-ink writing. Examples of such inscriptions include the Siloam inscription,[12] numerous tomb inscriptions from Jerusalem,[13][14] the Ketef Hinnom amulets, a fragmentary Hebrew inscription on an ivory which was taken as war spoils (probably from Samaria) to Nimrud, the hundreds of 8th to 6th-century Hebrew seals from various sites, and the Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus scroll discovered near Tel Qumran. The most developed cursive script is found on the 18 Lachish ostraca,[15] letters sent by an officer to the governor of Lachish just before the destruction of the First Temple in 586 BCE. A slightly earlier (circa 620 BCE) but similar script is found on an ostracon excavated at Mesad Hashavyahu, containing a petition for redress of grievances (an appeal by a field worker to the fortress's governor regarding the confiscation of his cloak, which the writer considers to have been unjust).[16][17]


Coin from the Bar Kokhba revolt with the Paleo-Hebrew writings

After the Babylonian capture of Judea, when most of the nobles were taken into exile, the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet continued to be used by the people who remained. One example of such writings are the 6th-century BCE jar handles from Gibeon, on which the names of winegrowers are inscribed. Beginning from the 5th century BCE onward, the Aramaic language and script became an official means of communication. Paleo-Hebrew was still used by scribes and others. Some Paleo-Hebrew fragments of the Torah were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls: manuscripts 4Q12, 6Q1: Genesis. 4Q22: Exodus. 1Q3, 2Q5, 4Q11, 4Q45, 4Q46, 6Q2, and the Leviticus scroll (11QpaleoLev).[18] In some Qumran documents, YHWH is written in Paleo-Hebrew while the rest of the text is in Aramaic square script.[19] The vast majority of the Hasmonean coinage, as well as the coins of the First Jewish–Roman War and Bar Kokhba's revolt, bears Paleo-Hebrew legends. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet fell completely out of use only after 135 CE.


Samaritan alphabetEdit

A page from the Samaritan version of Leviticus

The paleo-Hebrew alphabet continued to be used by the Samaritans and over time developed into the Samaritan alphabet. The Samaritans have continued to use the script for writing both Hebrew and Aramaic texts until the present day. A comparison of the earliest Samaritan inscriptions and the medieval and modern Samaritan manuscripts clearly indicates that the Samaritan script is a static script which was used mainly as a book hand.

Babylonian TalmudEdit

The Talmudic sages did not share a uniform stance on the subject of Paleo-Hebrew. Some stated that Paleo-Hebrew was the original script used by the Israelites at the time of the Exodus,[20] while others believed that Paleo-Hebrew merely served as a stopgap in a time when the ostensibly original script (The Assyrian Script) was lost.[21] According to both opinions, Ezra the Scribe (c. 500 BCE) introduced, or reintroduced the Assyrian script to be used as the primary alphabet for the Hebrew language.[20] The arguments given for both opinions are rooted in Jewish scripture and/or tradition.

A third opinion[22] in the Talmud states that the script never changed altogether. It would seem that the sage who expressed this opinion did not believe that Paleo-Hebrew ever existed, despite the strong arguments supporting it. His stance is rooted in a scriptural verse,[23] which makes reference to the shape of the letter vav. The sage argues further that, given the commandment to copy a Torah scroll directly from another, the script could not conceivably have been modified at any point. This third opinion was accepted by some early Jewish scholars,[24] and rejected by others, partially because it was permitted to write the Torah in Greek.[25]

Use in Sacred Name BiblesEdit

The Paleo-Hebrew script has been recently revived for specific use in several Sacred Name Bibles: including Zikarown Say'fer, The Besorah and the Halleluyah Scriptures. These translations use it for writing the Tetragrammaton and other divine names, incorporating these names written in this script in the midst of the English text.


The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was unified with the Phoenician alphabet and added to the Unicode Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0.

The Unicode block for Paleo-Hebrew, called Phoenician, is U+10900–U+1091F. It is intended for the representation of text in Palaeo-Hebrew, Archaic Phoenician, Phoenician, Early Aramaic, Late Phoenician cursive, Phoenician papyri, Siloam Hebrew, Hebrew seals, Ammonite, Moabite, and Punic.

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1090x 𐤀 𐤁 𐤂 𐤃 𐤄 𐤅 𐤆 𐤇 𐤈 𐤉 𐤊 𐤋 𐤌 𐤍 𐤎 𐤏
U+1091x 𐤐 𐤑 𐤒 𐤓 𐤔 𐤕 𐤖 𐤗 𐤘 𐤙 𐤚 𐤛 𐤟
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Reinhard G. Kratz (11 November 2015). Historical and Biblical Israel: The History, Tradition, and Archives of Israel and Judah. OUP Oxford. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-19-104448-9. [...] scribes wrote in Paleo-Hebrew, a local variant of the Phoenician alphabetic script [...]
  2. ^ The Hebrew scripts, Volume 2, Salomo A. Birnbaum, Palaeographia, 1954, "To apply the term Phoenician to the script of the Hebrews is hardly suitable. I have therefore coined the term Palaeo-Hebrew."
  3. ^ Tel Dan Stele
  4. ^ The site of Tel Zayit is about 50 km (35 miles) southwest of Jerusalem.
  5. ^ An illustration of the Gezer script is available at this link.
  6. ^ A transcription showing the script is available at this link.
  7. ^ An illustration of the script used on Mesha's Stele is available at this link.
  8. ^ The Newly Discovered Phoenician Inscription, New York Times, June 15, 1855, pg. 4.
  9. ^ The Mishnah, ed. Herbert Danby, Oxford University Press: Oxford 1933, s.v. Megillah 1:8, p. 202 (note 20); Yadayim 4:5-6, p. 784 (note 6) (ISBN 0-19-815402-X)
  10. ^ Angel Sáenz-Badillos (1993). A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55634-1.
  11. ^ See Tetragrammaton#Dead Sea Scrolls Tetragrammaton: Dead Sea Scrolls.
  12. ^ An illustration of the Siloam script is available at this link.
  13. ^ An illustration of a tomb inscription said to be scratched onto an ossuary to identify the decedent is available here. An article describing the ossuaries Zvi Greenhut excavated from a burial cave in the south of Jerusalem can be found in Jerusalem Perspective (July 1, 1991), with links to other articles.
  14. ^ Another tomb inscription is believed to be from the tomb of Shebna, an official of King Hezekiah. An illustration of the inscription may be viewed, but it is too large to be placed inline.
  15. ^ An illustration of the Lachish script is available at this link.
  16. ^ See Worker's appeal to governor.
  17. ^ The conduct complained about is contrary to Exodus 22, which provides:"If you take your neighbor's garment in pledge, you must return it to him before the sun sets; it is his only clothing, the sole covering for his skin. In what else shall he sleep?"
  18. ^ Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library.
  19. ^ e.g. File:Psalms Scroll.jpg
  20. ^ a b Sanhedrin 21b
  21. ^ Megillah 3a, Shabbat 104a
  22. ^ Sanhedrin 22a
  23. ^ Exodus 27, 10
  24. ^ Rabbeinu Chananel on Sanhedrin 22a
  25. ^ Maimonides. "Mishne Torah Hilchos Stam 1:19".


External linksEdit