Aramaic

Aramaic[2] (Ar膩m膩y膩; Old Aramaic: 饜饜饜饜饜; Imperial Aramaic: 饜饜饜饜饜; square script 讗址专指诪指讬指讗, Classical Syriac: 軔塥堋軡軔) is a language originating in the ancient region of Syria, subsequently used throughout the ancient Middle East.[3] It belongs to the Northwest Semitic group of the Afroasiatic language family, which also includes the Canaanite languages, such as Hebrew, Edomite, Moabite, and Phoenician, as well as Amorite and Ugaritic. The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[4] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires, as a language of divine worship and religious study, and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East.

Aramaic
軔塥堋軡軔, 讗专诪讬讗, 饜饜饜饜饜
Ar膩m膩y膩
Geographic
distribution
Mesopotamia, Levant, Fertile Crescent, Northern Arabia
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
Early form
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5arc
Linguasphere12-AAA
Glottologaram1259[1]
Ar膩m膩y膩 in Syriac Es峁璻angel膩 script

Historically and originally Aramaic was the language of the Arameans, a Semitic-speaking people of the region between the northern Levant and the northern Tigris valley. By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of Syria, Jordan, and the fringes of southern Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Aramaic rose to prominence under the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911鈥605 BC), under whose influence Aramaic became a prestige language after being adopted as a lingua franca of the empire, and its use spread throughout Mesopotamia, the Levant and parts of Asia Minor. At its height, variants of Aramaic, having gradually replaced earlier Semitic languages, and were spoken all over what is today Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Bahrain, Sinai and parts of southeast and south central Turkey, and parts of northwest Iran.[5] Aramaic was the language of Jesus,[6][7][8] who spoke the Galilean dialect during his public ministry, as well as the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and also one of the languages of the Talmud.

The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had also used Aramaic, and this practice鈥攖ogether with other administrative practices鈥攚as subsequently inherited by the succeeding Neo-Babylonians (605鈥539 BC), and the Achaemenids (539鈥330 BC). Mediated by scribes that had been trained in the language, highly standardized written Aramaic (in its Achaemenid form called Imperial Aramaic) progressively also become the lingua franca of trade and commerce throughout the Achaemenid territories, which extended as far east as the Indus valley. (That use of written Aramaic subsequently led to the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet and鈥攁s logograms鈥攕ome Aramaic vocabulary in the Pahlavi scripts, which were used by several Middle Iranian languages, including Parthian, Middle Persian, Sogdian, and Khwarazmian).[9][10]

Aramaic's long history and diverse and widespread use has led to the development of many divergent varieties, which are sometimes considered dialects, though they have become distinct enough over time that they are now sometimes considered as separate languages. Therefore, there is not one singular, static Aramaic language; each time and place rather has had its own variation. The more widely spoken Eastern Aramaic and Mandaic forms are today largely restricted to Assyrian Christian and Mandean gnostic communities in Iraq, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey, whilst the severely endangered Western Neo-Aramaic is spoken by small communities of Arameans in northwestern Syria.

Certain dialects of Aramaic are also retained as a sacred language by certain religious communities. One of those liturgical dialects is Mandaic, which besides being a living variant of Aramaic is also the liturgical language of Mandaeism. Significantly more widespread is Syriac, the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Church,[11] and also the Saint Thomas Christian denominations of India.[12] Syriac was also the liturgical language of several now-extinct gnostic faiths, such as Manichaeism.

Neo-Aramaic languages are still spoken today as a first language by many communities of Syriac Christians, Jews (in particular, the Kurdish Jews), and Mandaeans of Western Asia,[13] most numerously by Chaldeans, Syriacs and Assyrians with numbers of fluent speakers ranging approximately from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (590,000 speakers), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (240,000 speakers) and Turoyo (100,000 speakers), together with a number of smaller closely related languages with no more than 5,000 to 10,000 speakers between them. They have retained use of the once dominant lingua franca despite subsequent language shifts experienced throughout the Middle East. However, the Aramaic languages are now considered endangered.[14] The languages are used by the older generation, all beyond retirement age, and so could go extinct within a generation. However, researchers are working to record all the dialects of Neo-Aramaic languages before they go extinct.[15] Royal Aramaic inscriptions from the Aramean city-states date from 10th century BC, making Aramaic one of the world's oldest recorded living languages.[16]

EtymologyEdit

"Aram" is used as a proper name of several people in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) including descendants of Shem (Genesis 10:22), Nahor (Genesis 22:21), and Jacob (1 Chronicles 7:34).[17]

The ancient Greeks did not use the term Aramaic, instead referring to 鈥淪yrians鈥,[18] a name derived from Assyria[19] (biblical Ashur,[20] Akkadian Ashuru[21]).

Josephus and Strabo (the latter citing Posidonius) both stated that the 鈥淪yrians鈥 called themselves 鈥淎rameans鈥.[22][23][24][25] The Septuagint, the earliest extant copy of the Bible, used the terms Syria and Syrian where the Masoretic Text, the earliest extant Hebrew copy of the Bible, uses the terms Aramean and Aramaic; numerous later bibles followed the Septuagint's usage, including the King James Version.[26]

The connection between Chaldean, Syriac, and Samaritan as "Aramaic" was first identified in 1679 by German theologian Johann Wilhelm Hilliger.[27][28] The connection between the names Syrian and Aramaic was made in 1835 by 脡tienne Marc Quatrem猫re.[18][29] Ancient Aram, bordering northern Israel and what is now called Syria, is considered the linguistic center of Aramaic, the language of the Arameans who settled the area during the Bronze Age circa 3500 BC. The language is often mistakenly considered to have originated within Assyria (Iraq). In fact, Arameans carried their language and writing into Mesopotamia by voluntary migration, by forced exile of conquering armies, and by nomadic Chaldean invasions of Babylonia during the period from 1200 to 1000 BC.[30]

The Christian New Testament uses the Koine Greek phrase 峒櫸蚕佄毕娤兿勎 Hebra茂st铆 to denote "Aramaic", as Aramaic was at that time the language commonly spoken by the Jews.[17] The Hellenized Jewish community of Alexandria instead translated "Aramaic" to "the Syrian tongue".

Geographic distributionEdit

Syriac inscription at the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church's Major Archbishop's House in Kerala, India

During the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, Arameans, the native speakers of Aramaic, began to settle in greater numbers, at first in Babylonia, and later in Assyria (Upper Mesopotamia, modern-day northern Iraq, northeast Syria, northwest Iran, and south eastern Turkey (what was Armenia at the time).[16] The influx eventually resulted in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911鈥605 BC) adopting an Akkadian-influenced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of its empire.[31] This policy was continued by the short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire and Medes, and all three empires became operationally bilingual in written sources, with Aramaic used alongside Akkadian. The Achaemenid Empire (539鈥323 BC) continued this tradition, and the extensive influence of these empires led to Aramaic gradually becoming the lingua franca of most of western Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Egypt.[16]

Beginning with the rise of the Rashidun Caliphate in the late 7th century, Arabic gradually replaced Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Middle East. However, Aramaic remains a spoken, literary, and liturgical language for local Christians and also some Jews. Aramaic also continues to be spoken by the Assyrians of Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwest Iran, with diaspora communities in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and southern Russia. The Mandaeans also continue to use Mandaic Aramaic as a liturgical language, although most now speak Arabic as their first language. There are still also a small number of first-language speakers of Western Aramaic varieties in isolated villages in western Syria.

The turbulence of the last two centuries (particularly the Assyrian genocide) has seen speakers of first-language and literary Aramaic dispersed throughout the world. However, there are a number of sizable Assyrian towns in northern Iraq such as Alqosh, Bakhdida, Bartella, Tesqopa, and Tel Keppe, and numerous small villages, where Aramaic is still the main spoken language, and many large cities in this region also have Assyrian Aramaic-speaking communities, particularly Mosul, Erbil, Kirkuk, Dohuk, and al-Hasakah. In Modern Israel, the only native Aramaic speaking population are the Kurdish Jews, although the language is dying out.[32] However, Aramaic is also experiencing a revival among Maronites in Israel in Jish.[33]

Aramaic languages and dialectsEdit

"Jesus" in Jewish Aramaic

Aramaic is often spoken of as a single language, but is in reality a group of related languages.[citation needed] Some Aramaic languages differ more from each other than the Romance languages do among themselves. Its long history, extensive literature, and use by different religious communities are all factors in the diversification of the language. Some Aramaic dialects are mutually intelligible, whereas others are not, not unlike the situation with modern varieties of Arabic. Some Aramaic languages are known under different names; for example, Syriac is particularly used to describe the Eastern Aramaic variety used in Christian ethnic communities in Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northeastern Syria, and northwestern Iran, and Saint Thomas Christians in India. Most dialects can be described as either "Eastern" or "Western", the dividing line being roughly the Euphrates, or slightly west of it. It is also helpful to draw a distinction between those Aramaic languages that are modern living languages (often called "Neo-Aramaic"), those that are still in use as literary languages, and those that are extinct and are only of interest to scholars. Although there are some exceptions to this rule, this classification gives "Modern", "Middle", and "Old" periods, alongside "Eastern" and "Western" areas, to distinguish between the various languages and dialects that are Aramaic.

Writing systemEdit

11th century book in Syriac Serto

The earliest Aramaic alphabet was based on the Phoenician alphabet. In time, Aramaic developed its distinctive "square" style. The ancient Israelites and other peoples of Canaan adopted this alphabet for writing their own languages. Thus, it is better known as the Hebrew alphabet today. This is the writing system used in Biblical Aramaic and other Jewish writing in Aramaic. The other main writing system used for Aramaic was developed by Christian communities: a cursive form known as the Syriac alphabet. A highly modified form of the Aramaic alphabet, the Mandaic alphabet, is used by the Mandaeans.

In addition to these writing systems, certain derivatives of the Aramaic alphabet were used in ancient times by particular groups: the Nabataean alphabet in Petra and the Palmyrene alphabet in Palmyra. In modern times, Turoyo (see below) has sometimes been written in a Latin script.

HistoryEdit

The history of Aramaic is broken down into three broad periods:

This classification is based on that used by semitist Klaus Beyer (1929-2014).

Old AramaicEdit

The term "Old Aramaic" is used to describe the varieties of the language from its first known use until the point roughly marked by the rise of the Sasanian Empire (224 AD), dominating the influential, eastern dialect region. As such, the term covers over thirteen centuries of the development of Aramaic. This vast time span includes all Aramaic that is now effectively extinct.

The central phase in the development of Old Aramaic was its official use by the Achaemenid Empire (500鈥330 BC). The period before this, dubbed "Ancient Aramaic", saw the development of the language from being spoken in Aramaean city-states to become a major means of communication in diplomacy and trade throughout Mesopotamia, the Levant and Egypt. After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, local vernaculars became increasingly prominent, fanning the divergence of an Aramaic dialect continuum and the development of differing written standards.

Ancient AramaicEdit

"Ancient Aramaic" refers to the earliest known period of the language, from its origin until it becomes the lingua franca of the Fertile Crescent. It was the language of the Aramean city-states of Damascus, Hamath and Arpad.

Silver ingot of Bar-Rakib, son of Panammuwa II,[34] King of Sam'al. This inscription is in the Samalian language.

There are inscriptions that evidence the earliest use of the language, dating from the 10th century BC. These inscriptions are mostly diplomatic documents between Aramaean city-states. The alphabet of Aramaic at this early period seems to be based on the Phoenician alphabet, and there is a unity in the written language. It seems that, in time, a more refined alphabet, suited to the needs of the language, began to develop from this in the eastern regions of Aram. Due to increasing Aramean migration eastward, the Western periphery of Assyria became bilingual in Akkadian and Aramean at least as early as the mid-9th century BC. As the Neo-Assyrian Empire conquered Aramean lands west of the Euphrates, Tiglath-Pileser III made Aramaic the Empire's second official language, and it eventually supplanted Akkadian completely.

From 700 BC, the language began to spread in all directions, but lost much of its unity. Different dialects emerged in Assyria, Babylonia, the Levant and Egypt. Around 600 BC, Adon, a Canaanite king, used Aramaic to write to an Egyptian Pharaoh.[35]

"Chaldee" or "Chaldean Aramaic" used to be common terms for the Aramaic of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia. It was used to describe Biblical Aramaic, which was, however, written in a later style. It is not to be confused with the modern language Chaldean Neo-Aramaic.

Imperial AramaicEdit

Around 500 BC, following the Achaemenid (Persian) conquest of Mesopotamia under Darius I, Aramaic (as had been used in that region) was adopted by the conquerors as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did".[36] In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language.[37] Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought.

Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect, and the inevitable influence of Persian gave the language a new clarity and robust flexibility. For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire (in 330 BC), Imperial Aramaic 鈥 or a version thereof near enough for it to be recognisable 鈥 would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages. Aramaic script and 鈥 as ideograms 鈥 Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi scripts.[38]

One of the largest collections of Imperial Aramaic texts is that of the Persepolis fortification tablets, which number about five hundred.[39] Many of the extant documents witnessing to this form of Aramaic come from Egypt, and Elephantine in particular (see Elephantine papyri). Of them, the best known is the Story of Ahikar, a book of instructive aphorisms quite similar in style to the biblical Book of Proverbs. In addition, current consensus regards the Aramaic portion of the Biblical book of Daniel (i.e., 2:4b-7:28) as an example of Imperial (Official) Aramaic.[40]

Achaemenid Aramaic is sufficiently uniform that it is often difficult to know where any particular example of the language was written. Only careful examination reveals the occasional loan word from a local language.

A group of thirty Aramaic documents from Bactria have been discovered, and an analysis was published in November 2006. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC Achaemenid administration of Bactria and Sogdia.[41]

Biblical AramaicEdit

Biblical Aramaic is the Aramaic found in four discrete sections of the Hebrew Bible:

  • Ezra 4:8鈥6:18 and 7:12鈥26 鈥 documents from the Achaemenid period (5th century BC) concerning the restoration of the temple in Jerusalem.
  • Daniel 2:4b鈥7:28 鈥 five subversive tales and an apocalyptic vision.
  • Jeremiah 10:11 鈥 a single sentence in the middle of a Hebrew text denouncing idolatry.
  • Genesis 31:47 鈥 translation of a Hebrew place-name.

Biblical Aramaic is a somewhat hybrid dialect. It is theorized that some Biblical Aramaic material originated in both Babylonia and Judaea before the fall of the Achaemenid dynasty.

Post-Achaemenid AramaicEdit

Coin of Alexander the Great bearing an Aramaic language inscription
Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian king Ashoka, 3rd century BC at Kandahar, Afghanistan
11th century Hebrew Bible with Targum intercalated between verses of Hebrew text

The conquest by Alexander the Great did not destroy the unity of Aramaic language and literature immediately. Aramaic that bears a relatively close resemblance to that of the 5th century BC can be found right up to the early 2nd century BC. The Seleucids imposed Greek in the administration of Syria and Mesopotamia from the start of their rule. In the 3rd century BC, Greek overtook Aramaic as the common[clarification needed] language in Egypt and Syria. However, a post-Achaemenid Aramaic continued to flourish from Judaea, Assyria, Mesopotamia, through the Syrian Desert and into northern Arabia.

Under the category of post-Achaemenid is Hasmonaean Aramaic, the official administrative language of Hasmonaean Judaea (142鈥37 BC), alongside Hebrew which was the language preferred on coinage and other public uses. It influenced the Biblical Aramaic of the Qumran texts, and was the main language of non-biblical theological texts of that community. The major Targums, translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, were originally composed in Hasmonaean. Hasmonaean also appears in quotations in the Mishnah and Tosefta, although smoothed into its later context. It is written quite differently from Achaemenid Aramaic; there is an emphasis on writing as words are pronounced rather than using etymological forms.

Babylonian Targumic is the later post-Achaemenid dialect found in the Targum Onqelos and Targum Jonathan, the "official" targums. The original, Hasmonaean targums had reached Babylon sometime in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. They were then reworked according to the contemporary dialect of Babylon to create the language of the standard targums. This combination formed the basis of Babylonian Jewish literature for centuries to follow.

Galilean Targumic is similar to Babylonian Targumic. It is the mixing of literary Hasmonaean with the dialect of Galilee. The Hasmonaean targums reached Galilee in the 2nd century AD, and were reworked into this Galilean dialect for local use. The Galilean Targum was not considered an authoritative work by other communities, and documentary evidence shows that its text was amended. From the 11th century AD onwards, once the Babylonian Targum had become normative, the Galilean version became heavily influenced by it.

Babylonian Documentary Aramaic is a dialect in use from the 3rd century AD onwards. It is the dialect of Babylonian private documents, and, from the 12th century, all Jewish private documents are in Aramaic. It is based on Hasmonaean with very few changes. This was perhaps because many of the documents in BDA are legal documents, the language in them had to be sensible throughout the Jewish community from the start, and Hasmonaean was the old standard.

Nabataean Aramaic was the written language of the Arab kingdom of Nabataea, whose capital was Petra. The kingdom (c. 200 BC 鈥 106 AD) controlled the region to the east of the Jordan River, the Negev, the Sinai Peninsula and the northern Hijaz, and supported a wide-ranging trade network. The Nabataeans used imperial Aramaic for written communications, rather than their native Arabic. Nabataean Aramaic developed from Imperial Aramaic, with some influence from Arabic: "l" is often turned into "n", and there are some Arabic loanwords. Arabic influence on Nabataean Aramaic increased over time. Some Nabataean Aramaic inscriptions date from the early days of the kingdom, but most datable inscriptions are from the first four centuries AD. The language is written in a cursive script which was the precursor to the Arabic alphabet. After annexation by the Romans in 106 AD, most of Nabataea was subsumed into the province of Arabia Petraea, the Nabataeans turned to Greek for written communications, and the use of Aramaic declined.

Palmyrene Aramaic is the dialect that was in use in the Syriac city state of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert from 44 BC to 274 AD. It was written in a rounded script, which later gave way to cursive Estrangela. Like Nabataean, Palmyrene was influenced by Arabic, but to a much lesser degree.

The use of written Aramaic in the Achaemenid bureaucracy also precipitated the adoption of Aramaic(-derived) scripts to render a number of Middle Iranian languages. Moreover, many common words, including even pronouns, particles, numerals, and auxiliaries, continued to written as Aramaic "words" even when writing Middle Iranian languages. In time, in Iranian usage, these Aramaic "words" became disassociated from the Aramaic language and came to be understood as signs (i.e. logograms), much like the symbol '&' is read as "and" in English and the original Latin et is now no longer obvious. Under the early 3rd-century BC Parthians Arsacids, whose government used Greek but whose native language was Parthian, the Parthian language and its Aramaic-derived writing system both gained prestige. This in turn also led to the adoption of the name 'pahlavi' (< parthawi, "of the Parthians") for that writing system. The Persian Sassanids, who succeeded the Parthian Arsacids in the mid-3rd century AD, subsequently inherited/adopted the Parthian-mediated Aramaic-derived writing system for their own Middle Iranian ethnolect as well.[42] That particular Middle Iranian dialect, Middle Persian, i.e. the language of Persia proper, subsequently also became a prestige language. Following the conquest of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the 7th-century, the Aramaic-derived writing system was replaced by Arabic script in all but Zoroastrian usage, which continued to use the name 'pahlavi' for the Aramaic-derived writing system and went on to create the bulk of all Middle Iranian literature in that writing system.

Late Old Eastern AramaicEdit

The dialects mentioned in the last section were all descended from Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic. However, the diverse regional dialects of Late Ancient Aramaic continued alongside these, often as simple, spoken languages. Early evidence for these spoken dialects is known only through their influence on words and names in a more standard dialect. However, these regional dialects became written languages in the 2nd century BC. These dialects reflect a stream of Aramaic that is not dependent on Imperial Aramaic, and shows a clear division between the regions of Mesopotamia, Babylon and the east, and Judah, Syria, and the west.

In the East, the dialects of Palmyrene and Arsacid Aramaic merged with the regional languages to create languages with a foot in Imperial and a foot in regional Aramaic. The written form of Mandaic, the language of the Mandaean religion, was descended from the Arsacid chancery script.[43]

In the kingdom of Osroene, centred on Edessa and founded in 132 BC, the regional dialect became the official language: Old Syriac. On the upper reaches of the Tigris, East Mesopotamian Aramaic flourished, with evidence from Hatra, Assur and the Tur Abdin. Tatian, the author of the gospel harmony the Diatessaron came from Assyria, and perhaps wrote his work (172 AD in East Mesopotamian rather than Syriac or Greek. In Babylonia, the regional dialect was used by the Jewish community, Jewish Old Babylonian (from c. 70 AD). This everyday language increasingly came under the influence of Biblical Aramaic and Babylonian Targumic.

Late Old Western AramaicEdit

The western regional dialects of Aramaic followed a similar course to those of the east. They are quite distinct from the eastern dialects and Imperial Aramaic. Aramaic came to coexist with Canaanite dialects, eventually completely displacing Phoenician in the first century BC and Hebrew around the turn of the fourth century AD.

The form of Late Old Western Aramaic used by the Jewish community is best attested, and is usually referred to as Jewish Old Palestinian. Its oldest form is Old East Jordanian, which probably comes from the region of Caesarea Philippi. This is the dialect of the oldest manuscript of the Book of Enoch (c. 170 BC). The next distinct phase of the language is called Old Judaean lasting into the second century AD. Old Judean literature can be found in various inscriptions and personal letters, preserved quotations in the Talmud and receipts from Qumran. Josephus' first, non-extant edition of his The Jewish War was written in Old Judean.

The Old East Jordanian dialect continued to be used into the first century AD by pagan communities living to the east of the Jordan. Their dialect is often then called Pagan Old Palestinian, and it was written in a cursive script somewhat similar to that used for Old Syriac. A Christian Old Palestinian dialect may have arisen from the pagan one, and this dialect may be behind some of the Western Aramaic tendencies found in the otherwise eastern Old Syriac gospels (see Peshitta).

Languages during Jesus' lifetimeEdit

It is generally believed by Christian scholars that in the first century, Jews in Judea primarily spoke Aramaic with a decreasing number using Hebrew as their first language, though many learned Hebrew as a liturgical language. Additionally, Koine Greek was the lingua franca of the Middle East in trade, among the Hellenized classes (much like French in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries in Europe), and in the Roman administration. Latin, the language of the Roman army and higher levels of administration, had almost no impact on the linguistic landscape.

In addition to the formal, literary dialects of Aramaic based on Hasmonean and Babylonian, there were a number of colloquial Aramaic dialects. Seven Western Aramaic varieties were spoken in the vicinity of Judea in Jesus' time. They were probably distinctive yet mutually intelligible. Old Judean was the prominent dialect of Jerusalem and Judaea. The region of Ein Gedi spoke the Southeast Judaean dialect. Samaria had its distinctive Samaritan Aramaic, where the consonants "he", "heth" and "鈥ayin" all became pronounced as "aleph". Galilean Aramaic, the dialect of Jesus' home region, is only known from a few place names, the influences on Galilean Targumic, some rabbinic literature and a few private letters. It seems to have a number of distinctive features: diphthongs are never simplified into monophthongs. East of the Jordan, the various dialects of East Jordanian were spoken. In the region of Damascus and the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Damascene Aramaic was spoken (deduced mostly from Modern Western Aramaic). Finally, as far north as Aleppo, the western dialect of Orontes Aramaic was spoken.

The three languages, especially Hebrew and Aramaic, influenced one another through loanwords and semantic loans. Hebrew words entered Jewish Aramaic. Most were mostly technical religious words, but a few were everyday words like 注抓 士膿峁 "wood". Conversely, Aramaic words, such as m膩mm么n "wealth", were borrowed into Hebrew, and Hebrew words acquired additional senses from Aramaic. For instance, Hebrew 专讗讜讬 r膩鈥櫭籭 "seen" borrowed the sense "worthy, seemly" from the Aramaic 岣卯 meaning "seen" and "worthy".

The Greek of the New Testament preserves some semiticisms, including transliterations of Semitic words. Some are Aramaic, like talitha (蟿伪位喂胃伪), which represents the noun 讟诇讬转讗 峁璦l墨峁 (Mark 5:41), and others may be either Hebrew or Aramaic like 专讘讜谞讬 Rabbounei (巍伪尾尾慰蠀谓蔚喂), which means "my master/great one/teacher" in both languages (John 20:16). Other examples:

  • "Talitha kumi" (讟诇讬转讗 拽讜诪讬) (Mark 5:41)
  • "Ephphatha" (讗转驻转讞) (Mark 7:34)
  • "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" (讗诇讬, 讗诇讬, 诇诪讛 砖讘拽转谞讬?) (Mark 15:34)

The 2004 film The Passion of the Christ used Aramaic for much of its dialogue, specially reconstructed by a scholar, William Fulco, S.J. Where the appropriate words (in first-century Aramaic) were no longer known, he used the Aramaic of Daniel and fourth-century Syriac and Hebrew as the basis for his work.[44]

Middle AramaicEdit

The 3rd century AD is taken as the threshold between Old and Middle Aramaic. During that century, the nature of the various Aramaic languages and dialects began to change. The descendants of Imperial Aramaic ceased to be living languages, and the eastern and western regional languages began to develop vital new literatures. Unlike many of the dialects of Old Aramaic, much is known about the vocabulary and grammar of Middle Aramaic.

Eastern Middle AramaicEdit

Only two of the Old Eastern Aramaic languages continued into this period. In the north of the region, Old Syriac transitioned into Middle Syriac. In the south, Jewish Old Babylonian became Jewish Middle Babylonian. The post-Achaemenid, Arsacid dialect became the background of the new Mandaic language.

SyriacEdit

9th century Syriac Estrangela manuscript of John Chrysostom's Homily on the Gospel of John

Syriac (also "Middle Syriac") is the classical, literary, liturgical and often spoken language of Syriac Christianity to this day, particularly the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox Church and Saint Thomas Christians. It originated in fifth century BC Achaemenid Assyria, but its golden age was the fourth to sixth centuries. This period began with the translation of the Bible into the language: the Peshitta and the masterful prose and poetry of Ephrem the Syrian. Middle Syriac became the language of those opposed to the Byzantine leadership of the Church of the East. Missionary activity by Assyrian and Nestorian Christians led to the spread of Syriac from Mesopotamia and Persia, into Central Asia, India and China.

Jewish Middle Babylonian AramaicEdit

Jewish Middle Babylonian is the language employed by Jewish writers in Babylonia between the fourth and the eleventh century. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic Geonic literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Judaism. The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of incantation bowls written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.

MandaicEdit

The Mandaic language, spoken by the Mandaeans of Iraq, is a sister dialect to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, though it is both linguistically and culturally distinct. Classical Mandaic is the language in which the Mandaeans' gnostic religious literature was composed. It is characterized by a highly phonetic orthography.

Western Middle AramaicEdit

The dialects of Old Western Aramaic continued with Jewish Middle Palestinian (in Hebrew "square script"), Samaritan Aramaic (in the old Hebrew script) and Christian Palestinian (in cursive Syriac script). Of these three, only Jewish Middle Palestinian continued as a written language.[clarification needed]

Jewish Middle Palestinian AramaicEdit

Hebrew (left) and Aramaic (right) in parallel in a 1299 Hebrew Bible held by the Bodleian Library

In 135, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, many Jewish leaders, expelled from Jerusalem, moved to Galilee. The Galilean dialect thus rose from obscurity to become the standard among Jews in the west. This dialect was spoken not only in Galilee, but also in the surrounding parts. It is the linguistic setting for the Jerusalem Talmud (completed in the 5th century), Palestinian targumim (Jewish Aramaic versions of scripture), and midrashim (biblical commentaries and teaching). The standard vowel pointing for the Hebrew Bible, the Tiberian system (7th century), was developed by speakers of the Galilean dialect of Jewish Middle Palestinian. Classical Hebrew vocalisation, therefore, in representing the Hebrew of this period, probably reflects the contemporary pronunciation of this Aramaic dialect.

Middle Judaean, the descendant of Old Judaean, was no longer the dominant dialect, and was used only in southern Judaea (the variant Engedi dialect continued throughout this period). Likewise, Middle East Jordanian continued as a minor dialect from Old East Jordanian. The inscriptions in the synagogue at Dura-Europos are either in Middle East Jordanian or Middle Judaean.

Samaritan AramaicEdit

The Samaritan Aramaic is earliest attested by the documentary tradition of the Samaritans that can be dated back to the fourth century. Its modern pronunciation is based on the form used in the tenth century.

Christian Palestinian AramaicEdit

This was the language of the Christian Melkite community from the 5th to the 8th century. It was also used from the 10th to 13th centuries, though probably only as a liturgical language. It is also been called "Melkite Aramaic" and "Palestinian Syriac".[45] The language itself comes from Old Christian Palestinian Aramaic, but its writing conventions were based on early Middle Syriac, and it was heavily influenced by Greek. For example, the name Jesus, although 讬砖讜注 Ye拧ua鈥 in Jewish Aramaic, and I拧o in Syriac, is written Yes没s (a transliteration of the Greek form) in Christian Palestinian.[46]

Modern AramaicEdit

As the Western Aramaic languages of the Levant and Lebanon have become nearly extinct in non-liturgical usage, the most prolific speakers of Aramaic dialects today are predominantly ethnic Assyrian Eastern Neo-Aramaic speakers, the most numerous being the Northeastern Neo-Aramaic speakers of Mesopotamia. This includes speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (235,000 speakers), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (216,000 speakers), and Turoyo (Surayt) (112,000 to 450,000 speakers). Having largely lived in remote areas as insulated communities for over a millennium, the remaining modern Aramaic dialects, such as the Assyrians, and the Arameans, escaped the linguistic pressures experienced by others during the large-scale language shifts that saw the proliferation of other tongues among those who previously did not speak them, most recently the Arabization of the Middle East and North Africa by Arabs beginning with the early Muslim conquests of the seventh century.[47][48]

Another Eastern Aramaic language, Neo-Mandaean, is spoken by the Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran. They number some 50,000鈥75,000 people, but it is believed the Mandaic language may now be spoken fluently by as few as 5,000 people, with other Mandaeans having varying degrees of knowledge.[49]

Modern Eastern AramaicEdit

Modern Eastern Aramaic exists in a wide variety of dialects and languages. There is significant difference between the Aramaic spoken by Jews, Christians, and Mandaeans.

The Christian varieties are often called Modern Syriac (or Neo-Syriac, particularly when referring to their literature), being deeply influenced by the literary and liturgical language of Middle Syriac. However, they also have roots in numerous, previously unwritten, local Aramaic varieties, and are not purely the direct descendants of the language of Ephrem the Syrian. The varieties are not all mutually intelligible. The principal Christian varieties are Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, both used by the ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, southeast Turkey, Iran, and northeast Syria.

The Judeo-Aramaic languages are now mostly spoken in Israel, and most are facing extinction. The Jewish varieties that have come from communities that once lived between Lake Urmia and Mosul are not all mutually intelligible. In some places, for example Urmia, Assyrian Christians and Jews speak mutually unintelligible varieties of Modern Eastern Aramaic in the same place. In others, the Nineveh plains around Mosul for example, the varieties of these two ethnic communities are similar enough to allow conversation.

Modern Central Neo-Aramaic, being in between Western Neo-Aramaic and Eastern Neo-Aramaic) is generally represented by Turoyo, the language of the Assyrians of Tur Abdin. A related language, Mlahs么, has recently become extinct.

Mandaeans living in the Khuzestan Province of Iran and scattered throughout Iraq, speak Modern Mandaic. It is quite distinct from any other Aramaic variety.

Modern Central AramaicEdit

Central Neo-Aramaic consists of Turoyo and the recently extinct Mlahs么.

Modern Western AramaicEdit

Very little remains of Western Aramaic. It is still spoken in the villages of Maaloula, al-Sarkha (Bakhah), and Jubb'adin on Syria's side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, as well as by some people who migrated from these villages, to Damascus and other larger towns of Syria. All these speakers of Modern Western Aramaic are fluent in Arabic as well. Jewish Palestinian Aramaic and Samaritan Aramaic are preserved in liturgical and literary usage.

PhonologyEdit

Each dialect of Aramaic has its own distinctive pronunciation, and it would not be feasible here to go into all these properties. Aramaic has a phonological palette of 25 to 40 distinct phonemes. Some modern Aramaic pronunciations lack the series of "emphatic" consonants, and some have borrowed from the inventories of surrounding languages, particularly Arabic, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Persian and Turkish.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ()
Open a ()

As with most Semitic languages, Aramaic can be thought of as having three basic sets of vowels:

  • Open a-vowels
  • Close front i-vowels
  • Close back u-vowels

These vowel groups are relatively stable, but the exact articulation of any individual is most dependent on its consonantal setting.

The open vowel is an open near-front unrounded vowel ("short" a, somewhat like the first vowel in the English "batter", [a]). It usually has a back counterpart ("long" a, like the a in "father", [], or even tending to the vowel in "caught", []), and a front counterpart ("short" e, like the vowel in "head", []). There is much correspondence between these vowels between dialects. There is some evidence that Middle Babylonian dialects did not distinguish between the short a and short e. In West Syriac dialects, and possibly Middle Galilean, the long a became the o sound. The open e and back a are often indicated in writing by the use of the letters 讗 "alaph" (a glottal stop) or 讛 "he" (like the English h).

The close front vowel is the "long" i (like the vowel in "need", [i]). It has a slightly more open counterpart, the "long" e, as in the final vowel of "caf茅" ([e]). Both of these have shorter counterparts, which tend to be pronounced slightly more open. Thus, the short close e corresponds with the open e in some dialects. The close front vowels usually use the consonant 讬 y as a mater lectionis.

The close back vowel is the "long" u (like the vowel in "school", [u]). It has a more open counterpart, the "long" o, like the vowel in "low" ([o]). There are shorter, and thus more open, counterparts to each of these, with the short close o sometimes corresponding with the long open a. The close back vowels often use the consonant 讜 w to indicate their quality.

Two basic diphthongs exist: an open vowel followed by 讬 y (ay), and an open vowel followed by 讜 w (aw). These were originally full diphthongs, but many dialects have converted them to e and o respectively.

The so-called "emphatic" consonants (see the next section) cause all vowels to become mid-centralised.

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emp.
Nasal m n
Stop voiceless p t t摔 k q
voiced b d
Fricative voiceless f s s摔 x h
voiced v z
Approximant l j w
Trill r

The various alphabets used for writing Aramaic languages have twenty-two letters (all of which are consonants). Some of these letters, though, can stand for two or three different sounds (usually a stop and a fricative at the same point of articulation). Aramaic classically uses a series of lightly contrasted plosives and fricatives:

  • Labial set: 驻旨\ p/f and 讘旨\ b/v,
  • Dental set: 转旨\ t/ and 讚旨\ d/,
  • Velar set: 讻旨\ k/x and 讙旨\ g/.

Each member of a certain pair is written with the same letter of the alphabet in most writing systems (that is, p and f are written with the same letter), and are near allophones.

A distinguishing feature of Aramaic phonology (and that of Semitic languages in general) is the presence of "emphatic" consonants. These are consonants that are pronounced with the root of the tongue retracted, with varying degrees of pharyngealization and velarization. Using their alphabetic names, these emphatics are:

Ancient Aramaic may have had a larger series of emphatics, and some Neo-Aramaic languages definitely do. Not all dialects of Aramaic give these consonants their historic values.

Overlapping with the set of emphatics are the "guttural" consonants. They include 讞 岣っ汞 and 注 式Ayn from the emphatic set, and add 讗 始膧lap虅 (a glottal stop) and 讛 H锚 (as the English "h").

Aramaic classically has a set of four sibilants (ancient Aramaic may have had six):

  • 住, 砖讉 /s/ (as in English "sea"),
  • /z/ (as in English "zero"),
  • 砖讈 /蕛/ (as in English "ship"),
  • /s摔/ (the emphatic 峁⒛佱笍锚 listed above).

In addition to these sets, Aramaic has the nasal consonantsm and 谞 n, and the approximantsr (usually an alveolar trill), 诇 l, 讬 y and 讜 w.

Historical sound changesEdit

Six broad features of sound change can be seen as dialect differentials:

  • Vowel change occurs almost too frequently to document fully, but is a major distinctive feature of different dialects.
  • Plosive/fricative pair reduction. Originally, Aramaic, like Tiberian Hebrew, had fricatives as conditioned allophones for each plosive. In the wake of vowel changes, the distinction eventually became phonemic; still later, it was often lost in certain dialects. For example, Turoyo has mostly lost /p/, using /f/ instead, like Arabic; other dialects (for instance, standard Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) have lost /胃/ and /冒/ and replaced them with /t/ and /d/, as with Modern Hebrew. In most dialects of Modern Syriac, /f/ and /v/ are realized as [w] after a vowel.
  • Loss of emphatics. Some dialects have replaced emphatic consonants with non-emphatic counterparts, while those spoken in the Caucasus often have glottalized rather than pharyngealized emphatics.
  • Guttural assimilation is the main distinctive feature of Samaritan pronunciation, also found in Samaritan Hebrew: all the gutturals are reduced to a simple glottal stop. Some Modern Aramaic dialects do not pronounce h in all words (the third person masculine pronoun hu becomes ow).
  • Proto-Semitic */胃/ */冒/ are reflected in Aramaic as */t/, */d/, whereas they became sibilants in Hebrew (the number three is 砖诇讜砖 拧膩l么拧 in Hebrew but 转诇转 tl膩峁 in Aramaic, the word gold is 讝讛讘 zahav[50] in Hebrew but 讚讛讘 dehav[51] in Aramaic). Dental/sibilant shifts are still happening in the modern dialects.
  • New phonetic inventory. Modern dialects have borrowed sounds from the dominant surrounding languages. The most frequent borrowings are [蕭] (as the first consonant in "azure"), [d汀蕭] (as in "jam") and [t汀蕛] (as in "church"). The Syriac alphabet has been adapted for writing these new sounds.

GrammarEdit

As with other Semitic languages, Aramaic morphology (the way words are formed) is based on the consonantal root. The root generally consists of two or three consonants and has a basic meaning, for example, 讻转状讘 k-t-b has the meaning of 'writing'. This is then modified by the addition of vowels and other consonants to create different nuances of the basic meaning:

  • 讻转讘讛 k峁佱竾芒, handwriting, inscription, script, book.
  • 讻转讘讬 k峁佱竾锚, books, the Scriptures.
  • 讻转讜讘讛 k膩峁会竾芒, secretary, scribe.
  • 讻转讘转 ki峁竾e峁, I wrote.
  • 讗讻转讘 'e岣祎没岣, I shall write.

Nouns and adjectivesEdit

Aramaic nouns and adjectives are inflected to show gender, number and state.

Aramaic has two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. The feminine absolute singular is often marked by the ending 讛- -芒.

Nouns can be either singular or plural, but an additional "dual" number exists for nouns that usually come in pairs. The dual number gradually disappeared from Aramaic over time and has little influence in Middle and Modern Aramaic.

Aramaic nouns and adjectives can exist in one of three states. To a certain extent, these states correspond to the role of articles and cases in the Indo-European languages:

  1. The absolute state is the basic form of a noun. In early forms of Aramaic, the absolute state expresses indefiniteness, comparable to the English indefinite article a(n) (for example, 讻转讘讛 k峁佱竾芒, "a handwriting"), and can be used in most syntactic roles. However, by the Middle Aramaic period, its use for nouns (but not adjectives) had been widely replaced by the emphatic state.
  2. The construct state is a form of the noun used to make possessive constructions (for example, 讻转讘转 诪诇讻转讗 k峁佱竾at malk峁, "the handwriting of the queen"). In the masculine singular the form of the construct is often the same as the absolute, but it may undergo vowel reduction in longer words. The feminine construct and masculine construct plural are marked by suffixes. Unlike a genitive case, which marks the possessor, the construct state is marked on the possessed. This is mainly due to Aramaic word order: possessed[const.] possessor[abs./emph.] are treated as a speech unit, with the first unit (possessed) employing the construct state to link it to the following word. In Middle Aramaic, the use of the construct state for all but stock phrases (like 讘专 谞砖讗 bar n膩拧芒, "son of man") begins to disappear.
  3. The emphatic or determined state is an extended form of the noun that functions similarly to the definite article. It is marked with a suffix (for example, 讻转讘转 k峁佱竾t芒, "the handwriting"). Although its original grammatical function seems to have been to mark definiteness, it is used already in Imperial Aramaic to mark all important nouns, even if they should be considered technically indefinite. This practice developed to the extent that the absolute state became extraordinarily rare in later varieties of Aramaic.

Whereas other Northwest Semitic languages, like Hebrew, have the absolute and construct states, the emphatic/determined state is a unique feature to Aramaic. Case endings, as in Ugaritic, probably existed in a very early stage of the language, and glimpses of them can be seen in a few compound proper names. However, as most of those cases were expressed by short final vowels, they were never written, and the few characteristic long vowels of the masculine plural accusative and genitive are not clearly evidenced in inscriptions. Often, the direct object is marked by a prefixed -诇 l- (the preposition "to") if it is definite.

Adjectives agree with their nouns in number and gender but agree in state only if used attributively. Predicative adjectives are in the absolute state regardless of the state of their noun (a copula may or may not be written). Thus, an attributive adjective to an emphatic noun, as in the phrase "the good king", is written also in the emphatic state 诪诇讻讗 讟讘讗 malk芒 峁佱竾芒鈥攌ing[emph.] good[emph.]. In comparison, the predicative adjective, as in the phrase "the king is good", is written in the absolute state 诪诇讻讗 讟讘 malk芒 峁佱竾鈥攌ing[emph.] good[abs.].

"good" masc. sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. fem. pl.
abs. 讟讘 峁佱竾 讟讘讛 峁佱竾芒 讟讘讬谉 峁佱竾卯n 讟讘谉 峁佱竾膩n
const. 讟讘转 峁佱竾a峁 讟讘讬 峁佱竾锚 讟讘转 峁佱竾膩峁
det./emph. 讟讘讗 峁佱竾芒 讟讘转讗 峁佱竾t芒 讟讘讬讗 峁佱竾ayy芒 讟讘转讗 峁佱竾膩峁

The final 讗- -芒 in a number of these suffixes is written with the letter aleph. However, some Jewish Aramaic texts employ the letter he for the feminine absolute singular. Likewise, some Jewish Aramaic texts employ the Hebrew masculine absolute singular suffix 讬诐- -卯m instead of 讬谉- -卯n. The masculine determined plural suffix, 讬讗- -ayy芒, has an alternative version, -锚. The alternative is sometimes called the "gentilic plural" for its prominent use in ethnonyms (讬讛讜讚讬讗 y蓹h没岣從亂锚, 'the Jews', for example). This alternative plural is written with the letter aleph, and came to be the only plural for nouns and adjectives of this type in Syriac and some other varieties of Aramaic. The masculine construct plural, -锚, is written with yodh. In Syriac and some other variants this ending is diphthongized to -ai.

Possessive phrases in Aramaic can either be made with the construct state or by linking two nouns with the relative particle -[讚[讬 d[卯]-. As the use of the construct state almost disappears from the Middle Aramaic period on, the latter method became the main way of making possessive phrases.

For example, the various forms of possessive phrases (for "the handwriting of the queen") are:

  1. 讻转讘转 诪诇讻转讗 k峁佱竾a峁 malk峁 鈥 the oldest construction, also known as 住诪讬讻讜转 s蓹m卯岣得会汞聽: the possessed object (讻转讘讛 k峁乥芒, "handwriting") is in the construct state (讻转讘转 k峁佱竾a峁); the possessor (诪诇讻讛 malk芒, "queen") is in the emphatic state (诪诇讻转讗 malk峁)
  2. 讻转讘转讗 讚诪诇讻转讗 k峁佱竾t芒 d(卯)-malk峁 鈥 both words are in the emphatic state and the relative particle -[讚[讬 d[卯]- is used to mark the relationship
  3. 讻转讘转讛 讚诪诇讻转讗 k峁佱竾t膩h d(卯)-malk峁 鈥 both words are in the emphatic state, and the relative particle is used, but the possessed is given an anticipatory, pronominal ending (讻转讘转讛 k峁佱竾t膩-h, "handwriting-her"; literally, "her writing, that (of) the queen").

In Modern Aramaic, the last form is by far the most common. In Biblical Aramaic, the last form is virtually absent.

VerbsEdit

The Aramaic verb has gradually evolved in time and place, varying between varieties of the language. Verb forms are marked for person (first, second or third), number (singular or plural), gender (masculine or feminine), tense (perfect or imperfect), mood (indicative, imperative, jussive or infinitive) and voice (active, reflexive or passive). Aramaic also employs a system of conjugations, or verbal stems, to mark intensive and extensive developments in the lexical meaning of verbs.

Aspectual tenseEdit

Aramaic has two proper tenses: perfect and imperfect. These were originally aspectual, but developed into something more like a preterite and future. The perfect is unmarked, while the imperfect uses various preformatives that vary according to person, number and gender. In both tenses the third-person singular masculine is the unmarked form from which others are derived by addition of afformatives (and preformatives in the imperfect). In the chart below (on the root 讻转状讘 K-T-B, meaning "to write"), the first form given is the usual form in Imperial Aramaic, while the second is Classical Syriac.

Person & gender Perfect Imperfect
Singular Plural Singular Plural
3rd m. 讻转讘 k蓹峁痑岣 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣 讻转讘讜 鈫 讻转讘(讜)\讻转讘讜谉 k蓹峁痑岣嚸 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣(w)/k蓹峁痑bb没n 讬讻转讜讘 鈫 谞讻转讜讘 yi岣祎u岣 鈫 ne岣祎o岣 讬讻转讘讜谉 鈫 谞讻转讘讜谉 yi岣祎蓹岣嚸籲 鈫 ne岣祎蓹岣嚸籲
3rd f. 讻转讘转 ki峁痓a峁 鈫 ke峁痓a峁 讻转讘转 鈫 讻转讘(讬)\讻转讘谉 k蓹峁痑岣嚸 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣(y)/k蓹峁痑bb锚n 转讻转讘 ti岣祎u岣 鈫 te岣祎o岣 讬讻转讘谉 鈫 谞讻转讘谉 yi岣祎蓹岣嚹乶 鈫 ne岣祎蓹岣嚹乶
2nd m. 讻转讘转 k蓹峁痑岣噒 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣噒 讻转讘转讜谉 k蓹峁痑岣噒没n 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣噒on 转讻转讘 ti岣祎u岣 鈫 te岣祎o岣 转讻转讘讜谉 ti岣祎蓹岣嚸籲 鈫 te岣祎蓹岣嚸籲
2nd f. (讻转讘转讬 鈫 讻转讘转(讬 k蓹峁痑岣噒卯 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣噒(y) 讻转讘转谉 k蓹峁痑岣噒膿n 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣噒锚n 转讻转讘讬谉 ti岣祎u岣嚸畁 鈫 te岣祎u岣嚸畁 转讻转讘谉 ti岣祎蓹岣嚹乶 鈫 te岣祎蓹岣嚹乶
1st m./f. 讻转讘转 ki峁竾膿峁 鈫 ke峁竾e峁 讻转讘谞讗 鈫 讻转讘谉 k蓹峁痑岣噉芒 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣噉 讗讻转讘 e岣祎u岣 鈫 e岣祎o岣 谞讻转讘 ni岣祎u岣 鈫 ne岣祎o岣

Conjugations or verbal stemsEdit

Like other Semitic languages, Aramaic employs a number of derived verb stems, to extend the lexical coverage of verbs. The basic form of the verb is called the ground stem, or G-stem. Following the tradition of mediaeval Arabic grammarians, it is more often called the P蓹鈥榓l 驻注诇 (also written Pe鈥榓l), using the form of the Semitic root 驻注状诇 P-鈥-L, meaning "to do". This stem carries the basic lexical meaning of the verb.

By doubling of the second radical, or root letter, the D-stem or 驻注诇 Pa鈥樷榚l is formed. This is often an intensive development of the basic lexical meaning. For example, q蓹峁璦l means "he killed", whereas qa峁弓el means "he slew". The precise relationship in meaning between the two stems differs for every verb.

A preformative, which can be -讛 ha-, -讗 a- or -砖 拧a-, creates the C-stem or variously the Hap虅鈥榚l, Ap虅鈥榚l or 艩ap虅鈥榚l (also spelt 讛驻注诇 Haph鈥榚l, 讗驻注诇 Aph鈥榚l and 砖驻注诇 Shaph鈥榚l). This is often an extensive or causative development of the basic lexical meaning. For example, 讟注讛 峁欌樏 means "he went astray", whereas 讗讟注讬 a峁樏 means "he deceived". The 艩ap虅鈥榚l 砖驻注诇 is the least common variant of the C-stem. Because this variant is standard in Akkadian, it is possible that its use in Aramaic represents loanwords from that language. The difference between the variants 讛驻注诇 Hap虅鈥榚l and 讗驻注诇 Ap虅鈥榚l appears to be the gradual dropping of the initial 讛 h sound in later Old Aramaic. This is noted by the respelling of the older he preformative with 讗 aleph.

These three conjugations are supplemented with three further derived stems, produced by the preformative -讛转 hi峁- or -讗转 e峁-. The loss of the initial 讛 h sound occurs similarly to that in the form above. These three derived stems are the Gt-stem, 讛转驻注诇 Hi峁痯蓹鈥榚l or 讗转驻注诇 E峁痯蓹鈥榚l (also written Hithpe鈥榚l or Ethpe鈥榚l), the Dt-stem, 讛转驻注旨诇 Hi峁痯a鈥樷榓l or 讗转驻注旨诇 E峁痯a鈥樷榓l (also written Hithpa鈥樷榓l or Ethpa鈥樷榓l), and the Ct-stem, 讛转讛驻注诇 Hi峁痟ap虅鈥榓l, 讗转旨驻注诇 Ettap虅鈥榓l, 讛砖转驻注诇 Hi拧tap虅鈥榓l or 讗砖转驻注诇 E拧tap虅鈥榓l (also written Hithhaph鈥榓l, Ettaph鈥榓l, Hishtaph鈥榓l or Eshtaph鈥榓l). Their meaning is usually reflexive, but later became passive. However, as with other stems, actual meaning differs from verb to verb.

Not all verbs use all of these conjugations, and, in some, the G-stem is not used. In the chart below (on the root 讻转状讘 K-T-B, meaning "to write"), the first form given is the usual form in Imperial Aramaic, while the second is Classical Syriac.

Stem Perfect active Imperfect active Perfect passive Imperfect passive
驻注诇 P蓹鈥榓l (G-stem) 讻转讘 k蓹峁痑岣 鈫 k蓹峁痑岣 讬讻转讘 鈫 谞讻转讘 yi岣祎u岣 鈫 ne岣祎o岣 讻转讬讘 k蓹峁竾
讛转驻注诇\讗转驻注诇 Hi峁痯蓹鈥樐搇/E峁痯蓹鈥榚l (Gt-stem) 讛转讻转讘 鈫 讗转讻转讘 hi峁痥蓹峁撫竾 鈫 e峁痥蓹峁痚岣 讬转讻转讘 鈫 谞转讻转讘 yi峁痥蓹峁撫竾 鈫 ne峁痥蓹峁痚岣
驻注旨诇 Pa鈥樷樐搇/Pa鈥樷榚l (D-stem) 讻转旨讘 katt膿岣 鈫 katte岣 讬讻转旨讘 鈫 谞讻转旨讘 y蓹岣礱tt膿岣 鈫 n蓹katte岣 讻只转旨讘 kutta岣
讛转驻注诇\讗转驻注诇 Hi峁痯a鈥樷榓l/E峁痯a鈥樷榓l (Dt-stem) 讛转讻转旨讘 鈫 讗转讻转旨讘 hi峁痥蓹tt膿岣 鈫 e峁痥蓹tte岣 讬转讻转旨讘 鈫 谞转讻转旨讘 yi峁痥蓹tt膿岣 鈫 ne峁痥蓹tte岣
讛驻注诇\讗驻注诇 Hap虅鈥樐搇/Ap虅鈥榚l (C-stem) 讛讻转讘 鈫 讗讻转讘 ha岣祎膿岣 鈫 a岣祎e岣 讬讛讻转讘鈫 谞讻转讘 y蓹ha岣祎膿岣 鈫 na岣祎e岣 讛只讻转讘 hu岣祎a岣
讛转讛驻注诇\讗转旨驻注诇 Hi峁痟ap虅鈥榓l/Ettap虅鈥榓l (Ct-stem) 讛转讛讻转讘 鈫 讗转旨讻转讘 hi峁痟a岣祎a岣 鈫 etta岣祎a岣 讬转讛讻转讘 鈫 谞转旨讻转讘 yi峁痟a岣祎a岣 鈫 netta岣祎a岣

In Imperial Aramaic, the participle began to be used for a historical present. Perhaps under influence from other languages, Middle Aramaic developed a system of composite tenses (combinations of forms of the verb with pronouns or an auxiliary verb), allowing for narrative that is more vivid. The syntax of Aramaic (the way sentences are put together) usually follows the order verb鈥搒ubject鈥搊bject (VSO). Imperial (Persian) Aramaic, however, tended to follow a S-O-V pattern (similar to Akkadian), which was the result of Persian syntactic influence.

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarstr枚m, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aramaic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Creason, Stuart (2008). "Aramaic" (PDF). In Woodard, Roger D. (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0521684989. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  3. ^ John Sawyer (2 October 2012). Sacred Languages and Sacred Texts. Routledge. p.聽14. ISBN978-1-134-80139-8. Aramaic, the language of ancient Syria...
  4. ^ Beyer (1986: 11) suggests that written Aramaic probably dates from the 11th century BCE, as it is established by the 10th century, to which he dates the oldest inscriptions of northern Syria. Heinrichs (1990: x) uses the less controversial date of the 9th century, for which there is clear and widespread attestation.
  5. ^ Kilpatrick, Hilary (2013). "Modernity in a Classical Arabic Adab Work, the Kit膩b al-Agh膩n墨". In Smart, J. R. (ed.). Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language And Literature. Routledge. p.聽253. ISBN9781136788123. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  6. ^ Myers, Allen C., ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Alban Books Limited. p.聽72. ISBN9780802824028. Retrieved 10 October 2018. It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Israel in the first century CE. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem (Matt. 26:73).
  7. ^ "Aramaic language". Encyclop忙dia Britannica. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  8. ^ Roberts, Rev. Dr. Mark D. "What Language Did Jesus Speak?". Patheos.com. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  9. ^ Chyet, Michael L. (1997). Afsaruddin, Asma; Krotkoff, Georg; Zahniser, A. H. Mathias (eds.). Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East: Studies in Honor of Georg Krotkoff. Eisenbrauns. p.聽284. ISBN978-1-57506-020-0. Retrieved 10 October 2018. In the Middle Iranian period (Parthian and Sassanid Empires), Aramaic was the medium of everyday writing, and it provided scripts for writing Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, and Khwarezmian.
  10. ^ Green 1992, p.聽45
  11. ^ Beyer 1986: 38鈥43; Casey 1998: 83鈥6, 88, 89鈥93; Eerdmans 1975: 72.
  12. ^ "City Youth Learn Dying Language, Preserve It". The New Indian Express. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  13. ^ Heinrichs 1990: xi鈥搙v; Beyer 1986: 53.
  14. ^ Naby, Eden. "From Lingua Franca to Endangered Language" (PDF). Assyrian International News Agency. Retrieved 10 October 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Shaviv, Miriam (14 July 2013). "The last of the Aramaic speakers". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  16. ^ a b c Richard, 2003, p. 69.
  17. ^ a b "The name Aram in the Bible". Abarim Publications. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  18. ^ a b N枚ldeke, 1871, p.115: 鈥淒ie Griechen haben den Namen 鈥濧ram盲er" nie eigentlich gekannt; ausser Posidonius (dem Strabo folgt) nennt ihn uns nur noch ein andrer Orientale, Josephus (Ant. 1, 6, 4). Dass Homer bei den '螘蟻蔚渭尾慰喂 oder in den Worten eiv '螒蟻委渭慰喂蟼 an sie d盲chte, ist sehr unwahrscheinlich. Die Griechen nannten das Volk 鈥濻yrer".鈥
  19. ^ Frye, R. N. (October 1992). "Assyria and Syria: Synonyms" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51 (4): 281鈥285. doi:10.1086/373570.
  20. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 804. 讗址砖旨讈讜旨专 (Ashshuwr) -- Asshur". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  21. ^ "Search Entry". www.assyrianlanguages.org. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  22. ^ Andrade, Nathanael J. (25 July 2013). Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge University Press. p.聽7. ISBN978-1-107-24456-6. In the first century ce, Josephus noted that the legendary figure Aramus had ruled the Arameans, whom the 鈥淕reeks call Syrians.鈥 Strabo, citing Posidonius, stated that the people named Syrians by the Greeks called themselves Arameans.
  23. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 1.144: "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians" (Greek: 峒埾佄蔽嘉蔽肯呄 未峤 峒屜佄蔽嘉肯 峒斚兿囄滴, 慰峤撓 峒澪晃晃肺轿迪 危蠉蟻慰蠀蟼 蟺蟻慰蟽伪纬慰蟻蔚蠉慰蠀蟽喂谓
  24. ^ Strabo, Geographica, 1.2.34: "But it would seem that the view of Poseidonius is best, for here he derives an etymology of the words from the kinship of the peoples and their common characteristics. For the nation of the Armenians and that of the Syrians and Arabians betray a close affinity, not only in their language, but in their mode of life and in their bodily build, and particularly wherever they live as close neighbours. Mesopotamia, which is inhabited by these three nations, gives proof of this, for in the case of these nations the similarity is particularly noticeable. And if, comparing the differences of latitude, there does exist a greater difference between the northern and the southern people of Mesopotamia than between these two peoples and the Syrians in the centre, still the common characteristics prevail. And, too, the Assyrians, the Arians, and the Aramaeans display a certain likeness both to those just mentioned and to each other. Indeed, Poseidonius conjectures that the names of these nations also are akin; for, says he, the people whom we call Syrians are by the Syrians themselves called Arimaeans and Arammaeans; and there is a resemblance between this name and those of the Armenians, the Arabians and the Erembians, since perhaps the ancient Greeks gave the name of Erembians to the Arabians, and since the very etymology of the word "Erembian" contributes to this result." (Greek: 峒勏佄瓜兿勎 未峋 峒偽 未蠈尉蔚喂蔚谓 蔚峒跋蔚峥栁 峤 螤慰蟽蔚喂未蠋谓喂慰蟼 魏峒谓蟿伪峥ξ肝 峒蟺峤 蟿峥喯 蟿峥段 峒愇肝结慷谓 蟽蠀纬纬蔚谓蔚委伪蟼 魏伪峤 魏慰喂谓蠈蟿畏蟿慰蟼 峒愊勏呂嘉课晃课翅慷谓. 蟿峤 纬峤跋 蟿峥段 峒埾佄嘉滴轿壩 峒斘肝轿肯 魏伪峤 蟿峤 蟿峥段 危蠉蟻蠅谓 魏伪峤 峒埾佄蚕壩 蟺慰位位峤次 峤佄嘉肯喯呂晃蔽 峒愇枷單蔽轿滴 魏伪蟿维 蟿蔚 蟿峤次 未喂维位蔚魏蟿慰谓 魏伪峤 蟿慰峤合 尾委慰蠀蟼 魏伪峤 蟿慰峤合 蟿峥段 蟽蠅渭维蟿蠅谓 蠂伪蟻伪魏蟿峥喯佄毕偼 魏伪峤 渭维位喂蟽蟿伪 魏伪胃峤 蟺位畏蟽喂蠈蠂蠅蟻慰委 蔚峒跋兾. 未畏位慰峥 未峋 峒 螠蔚蟽慰蟺慰蟿伪渭委伪 峒愇 蟿峥段 蟿蟻喂峥段 蟽蠀谓蔚蟽蟿峥断兾 蟿慰蠉蟿蠅谓 峒愇肝结慷谓路 渭维位喂蟽蟿伪 纬峤跋 峒愇 蟿慰蠉蟿慰喂蟼 峒 峤佄嘉课瓜屜勎废 未喂伪蠁伪委谓蔚蟿伪喂. 蔚峒 未苇 蟿喂蟼 蟺伪蟻峤 蟿峤 魏位委渭伪蟿伪 纬委谓蔚蟿伪喂 未喂伪蠁慰蟻峤 蟿慰峥栂 蟺蟻慰蟽尾蠈蟻蟻慰喂蟼 峒愊峤 蟺位苇慰谓 蟺蟻峤赶 蟿慰峤合 渭蔚蟽畏渭尾蟻喂谓慰峤合 魏伪峤 蟿慰蠉蟿慰喂蟼 蟺蟻峤赶 渭苇蟽慰蠀蟼 蟿慰峤合 峤呄佄肯呄偼 峒位位峋 峒愊喂魏蟻伪蟿蔚峥 纬蔚 蟿峤 魏慰喂谓蠈谓. 魏伪峤 慰峒 峒埾兿兿嵪佄刮课 未峤 魏伪峤 慰峒 峒埾佄刮蔽轿酷蕉 蟺伪蟻伪蟺位畏蟽委蠅蟼 蟺蠅蟼 峒斚囄肯呄兾 魏伪峤 蟺蟻峤赶 蟿慰蠉蟿慰蠀蟼 魏伪峤 蟺蟻峤赶 峒位位萎位慰蠀蟼. 蔚峒拔何段滴 纬蔚 未峤 魏伪峤 蟿峤跋 蟿峥段 峒愇肝结慷谓 蟿慰蠉蟿蠅谓 魏伪蟿慰谓慰渭伪蟽委伪蟼 峒愇枷單迪佄滇繓蟼 峒位位萎位伪喂蟼 蔚峒段轿蔽. 蟿慰峤合 纬峤跋 峤懴嗎窘 峒∥坚慷谓 危蠉蟻慰蠀蟼 魏伪位慰蠀渭苇谓慰蠀蟼 峤懴峋 伪峤愊勧慷谓 蟿峥段 危蠉蟻蠅谓 峒埾佄蔽嘉嘉蔽肯呄 魏伪位蔚峥栂兾肝蔽孤 蟿慰蠉蟿蠅喂 未峋 峒愇课刮何轿蔽 蟿慰峤合 峒埾佄嘉滴轿肯呄 魏伪峤 蟿慰峤合 峒屜佄蔽参毕 魏伪峤 峒樝佄滴嘉参肯嵪偼 蟿维蠂伪 蟿峥段 蟺维位伪喂 峒櫸晃晃较壩 慰峤曄勏 魏伪位慰蠉谓蟿蠅谓 蟿慰峤合 峒屜佄蔽参毕偼 峒呂嘉 魏伪峤 蟿慰峥 峒愊勏嵨嘉肯 蟽蠀谓蔚蟻纬慰峥ξ较勎肯 蟺蟻峤赶 蟿慰峥ο勎.
  25. ^ Strabo, Geographica, 16.4.27: "Poseidonius says that the Arabians consist of three tribes, that they are situated in succession, one after another, and that this indicates that they are homogeneous with one another, and that for this reason they were called by similar names 鈥 one tribe "Armenians," another "Aramaeans," and another "Arambians." And just as one may suppose that the Arabians were divided into three tribes, according to the differences in the latitudes, which ever vary more and more, so also one may suppose that they used several names instead of one. Neither are those who write "Eremni" plausible; for that name is more peculiarly applicable to the Aethiopians. The poet also mentions "Arimi,"by which, according to Poseidonius, we should interpret the poet as meaning, not some place in Syria or in Cilicia or in some other land, but Syria itself; for the people in Syria are Aramaeans, though perhaps the Greeks called them Arimaeans or Arimi." (Greek: 蟺喂胃伪谓蠋蟿蔚蟻慰谓 未峤 螤慰蟽蔚喂未蠋谓喂慰蟼 纬蟻维蠁蔚喂 蟿峥段 蟺伪蟻峤 渭喂魏蟻峤肝 峒位位维尉伪喂 魏伪峤 危喂未慰谓委慰蠀蟼 魏伪峤 峒埾佄蔽嘉参肯嵪偼 峤∠ 蟿慰峥 蟺慰喂畏蟿慰峥 蟿慰峤合 谓峥ξ 峒屜佄蔽参毕 慰峤曄勏 魏伪位苇蟽伪谓蟿慰蟼偷 魏伪胃维蟺蔚蟻 魏伪峤 峤懴峤 蟿峥段 峒勎晃幌壩 峤犖轿课嘉段课较勎 魏伪蟿峋 伪峤愊勏屛. 蠁畏蟽峤 未峤 蟿伪峥ο勎 蟿蟻委伪 峒斘肝轿 蟽蠀谓蔚蠂峥 峒位位萎位慰喂蟼 峒蔽聪佅呂嘉轿 峤佄嘉课澄轿滴刮 蟿喂谓伪 峒愇枷單蔽轿滴刮 蟺蟻峤赶 峒勎晃晃肺晃蓖 魏伪峤 未喂峤 [蟿慰峥蟿慰 蟺伪蟻伪魏蔚喂渭苇谓慰喂蟼 峤谓蠈渭伪蟽喂 魏蔚魏位峥喯兾肝蔽雇 蟿慰峤合 渭峤参 峒埾佄嘉滴轿肯呄 蟿慰峤合 未峤 峒埾佄蔽嘉蔽肯呄 蟿慰峤合 未峤 峒埾佄蔽嘉参肯嵪偮 峤ハ兿蔚蟻 未峤 峒蟺峤 峒斘肝轿肯呄 [峒懳结礁蟼] 峤懴慰位伪渭尾维谓蔚喂谓 峒愊兿勧蕉谓 蔚峒跋 蟿蟻委伪 未喂畏喂蟻峥喯兾肝蔽 魏伪蟿峤 蟿峤跋 蟿峥段 魏位喂渭维蟿蠅谓 未喂伪蠁慰蟻峤跋 峒蔚峤 魏伪峤 渭峋段晃晃课 峒愇疚蔽晃晃毕勏勎课嘉较壩酵 慰峤曄勏 魏伪峤 蟿慰峥栂 峤谓蠈渭伪蟽喂 蠂蟻萎蟽伪蟽胃伪喂 蟺位蔚委慰蟽喂谓 峒谓胃峋 峒懳较屜. 慰峤愇瘁窘 慰峒 峒樝佄滴嘉轿酷胶蟼 纬蟻维蠁慰谓蟿蔚蟼 蟺喂胃伪谓慰委路 蟿峥段 纬峤跋 螒峒拔肝瓜屜蠅谓 渭峋段晃晃课 峒次次刮课. 位苇纬蔚喂 未峤 魏伪峤 蟿慰峤合 峒埾佄嘉肯呄 峤 蟺慰喂畏蟿萎蟼偷 慰峤曄 蠁畏蟽喂 螤慰蟽蔚喂未蠋谓喂慰蟼 未苇蠂蔚蟽胃伪喂 未蔚峥栁 渭峤 蟿蠈蟺慰谓 蟿喂谓峤 蟿峥喯 危蠀蟻委伪蟼 峒 蟿峥喯 螝喂位喂魏委伪蟼 峒 峒勎晃晃废 蟿喂谓峤赶 纬峥喯偼 峒位位峤 蟿峤次 危蠀蟻委伪谓 伪峤愊勎铰 峒埾佄蔽嘉贬繓慰喂 纬峤跋 慰峒 峒愇 伪峤愊勧繂喂路 蟿维蠂伪 未峋 慰峒 峒澪晃晃肺轿迪 峒埾佄刮嘉蔽肯呄 峒愇何晃肯呂 峒 峒埾佄嘉肯呄.
  26. ^ Joseph, John (2000). The Modern Assyrians of the Middle East: A History of Their Encounter with Western Christian Missions, Archaeologists, and Colonial Powers. BRILL. pp.聽9鈥10. ISBN90-04-11641-9. The designations Syria and Syrian were derived from Greek usage long before Christianity. When the Greeks became better acquainted with the Near East, especially after Alexander the Great overthrew the Achaemenian empire in the 4th century B.C., they restricted the name Syria to the lands west of the Euphrates. During the 3rd century B.C., when the Hebrew Bible was translated by Jewish scholars into the Greek Septuagint for the use of the Hellenized Jews of Alexandria, the terms for 鈥楢ramean鈥 and 鈥楢ramaic鈥 in the Hebrew Bible, were translated into 鈥楽yrian鈥 and 鈥榯he Syrian tongue鈥 respectively. [Footnote: 鈥淭he Authorized Version of the Bible continued to use the same terms that the Septuagint had adopted. In 1970, the New English Bible, published by Oxford and Cambridge University presses, and translated by biblical scholars drawn from various British universities, went back to the original Hebrew terms, using Aram and Arameans for Syria and Syrians respectively.鈥漖 In Palestine itself, according to Noldeke, the Jews and later the Christians there referred to their dialect of Aramaic as Syriac; in Babylon, both Greeks and Persians called the Arameans Syrians. The second-century B.C. Greek historian Posidonius, a native of Syria, noted that 鈥榯he people we [Greeks] call Syrians were called by the Syrians themselves Arameans鈥.for the people in Syria are Arameans鈥.鈥
  27. ^ Schmidt, Nathaniel. 鈥淓arly Oriental Studies in Europe and the Work of the American Oriental Society, 1842-1922.鈥 Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 43, 1923, pp. 1鈥14. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/593293 "Hilliger first saw clearly the relation of the so-called Chaldee, Syriac, and Samaritan (1679)"
  28. ^ Johann Wilhelm Hilliger (1679). Summarium Lingv忙 Aram忙忙, i.e. Chald忙o-Syro-Samaritan忙: olim in Academia Wittebergensi orientalium lingvarum consecraneis, parietes intra privatos, pr忙lectum & nunc ... publico bono commodatum. Sumtibus h忙red. D. Tobi忙 Mevii & Elerti Schumacheri, per Matth忙um Henckelium. [Partial English translation]: "The Aramaic language name comes from its gentile founder, Aram (Gen 10:22), in the same manner as the Slavic languages Bohemian, Polish, Vandal etc. Multiple dialects are Chaldean, Syrian, Samaritan."; Latin Original: Linguae Aramaeae nomen 脿 gentis conditore, Aramo nimirum (Gen. X 22) desumptum est, & complectitur, perinde ut Lingua Sclavonica, Bohemican, Polonican, Vandalicam &c. Dialectos plures, ceu sunt: Chaldaica, Syriaca, Samaritana. Quod ad Chaldaicam dictam a Chesedo (Gen. XXII 22) adeoque quasi Chasdiacam, aeque ac Ulysses pro Udysses, dispescitur in Babylonicam, & Hierosalymitanam: Quarum illa Babyloniis antehac frequens, continetur purissim猫 in Daniele, Esra, ac unico Jeremiae versiculo, impuri霉s in Onkeloso, & Jonathane; omnium impurissim猫 in Targum Josephi, & Pseudo-Jonathanis, nec non Talmude Babylonico: Haec ver貌, Chrysti, & Apostolorum tempore Hierosolymitanis vernacula, prostat & in Targum & Talmude Hierosolymitano. Quantum porr貌 Syriacam, ab Assur (Gen X 22) propri猫 Assyriacam, veluti Spanien & Hispanien / nominatem, viget ipsa in potiori Syriae parte, jamque; Comagena, 脿 provincia, metropolim Samosatam celebrante; jam Antiochena, ab usu ejusdem in Patriarchatu Antiocheno; jam Maronitica, 脿 Maronitis, hodiedum Palestinae ad Libanum incolis, salutatur. Quod denique Samaritanam attinet natales illi dedere Samaritani, acerrimi olim Judaeorum hostes, & solius Mosaicae Pentateuchi receptores: Unde sicut Dialecto Syriaca Utrumque Testamentum; sie duntaxat Pentateuchum Samaritica licet legere.
  29. ^ Quatrem猫re, 脡tienne Marc (1835). "M茅moire Sur Les Nabat茅ens". Journal asiatique. Soci茅t茅 asiatique: 122鈥127. Les livres du Nouveau Testament furent imm茅diatement traduits dans fa langue du pays. Or ces livres 茅taient 茅crits dans la langue des Grecs, et offraient par cons茅quent les expressions et les d茅nominations en usage chez'ce peuple. Or les noms de Syrie, de Syriens se trouvaient souvent employ茅s dans les livres fondamentaux du christianisme. Les habitants des pays situ茅s entre la M茅diterran茅e et l'Euphrate, se voyant d茅sign茅s par une d茅nomination qui leur 茅tait 茅trang猫re, mais qui se trouvait en quelque sorte consacr茅e par l'autorit茅 des livres qu'ils v茅n茅raient 脿 tant de titres, ne crurent pas sans doute pouvoir rejeter ce nom, et l'adopt猫rent sans r茅pugnance. Ils se persuad猫rent que, r茅g茅n茅r茅s par un nouveau culte, ils devaient sous tous les rapports devenir un peuple nouveau et abjurer leur nom antique, qui semblait leur rappeler l'idol芒trie 脿 laquelle le christianisme venait de les arracher. Cette conjecture est, si je ne me trompe, confirm茅e par un fait que je crois d茅cisif. Dans la langue syriaque eccl茅siastique, le mot armo茂o, 軔塥堋軡軔, qui ne diff猫re du nom ancien, ormo茂o, 軔塥堋軡軔, que par une seule voyelle, d茅signe un pa茂en, un idol芒tre. Ainsi s'intr么duisit le nom de Sourio茂o, Syrien. Quant 脿 la d茅nomination Orom, Aram, ou le pays des Aram茅ens, elle fut appliqu茅e de pr茅f茅rence 脿 la contr茅e que les Grecs et les Latins appelaient Assyrie.
  30. ^ "Hittites, Assyrians and Aramaeans". fsmitha.com. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  31. ^ Yana, George V. (2008). Ancient and Modern Assyrians: A Scientific Analysis. Xlibris Corporation. p.聽88. ISBN9781465316295. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  32. ^ [The last of the Aramaic speakers] By MIRIAM SHAVIV, 14 July 2013, Times of Israel
  33. ^ "Aramaic Israelis seek to revive endangered language of Jesus". The Jerusalem Post. 9 November 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  34. ^ Younger, Jr., K. Lawson (1986). "Panammuwa and Bar-Rakib: Two Structural Analyses" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  35. ^ Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic Language, Its Distribution and Subdivisions. Translated by Healey, John F. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Gottingen. p.聽14. ISBN9783525535738. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  36. ^ Shaked, Saul (1987). "Aramaic". Aramaic. Encyclop忙dia Iranica. 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp.聽251鈥252. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  37. ^ Frye, Richard N.; Driver, G. R. (1955). "Review of G. R. Driver's 'Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C.'". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 18 (3/4): 457. doi:10.2307/2718444. JSTOR2718444.
  38. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm; Kuhn, Ernst (2002). "Grundriss der iranischen Philologie: Band I. Abteilung 1". Boston: Adamant: 249. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ Stolper, John A. Matthew (2007). "What are the Persepolis Fortification Tablets?". The Oriental Studies News & Notes (winter): 6鈥9. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  40. ^ Collins, John J. (1993). "Review of The Aramaic of Daniel in the Light of Old Aramaic". Journal of Biblical Literature. 112: 711, 712.
  41. ^ Naveh, Joseph; Shaked, Shaul (2006). Ancient Aramaic Documents from Bactria. Studies in the Khalili Collection. Oxford: Khalili Collections. ISBN1-874780-74-9.
  42. ^ Beyer. p. 28 n. 27; Wieseh枚fer, Josef (2001). Ancient Persia. Translated by Azodi, Azizeh. I.B. Taurus. pp.聽118鈥120. ISBN9781860646751. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  43. ^ H盲berl, Charles G. (February 2006). "Iranian Scripts for Aramaic Languages: The Origin of the Mandaic Script". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (341): 53鈥62. doi:10.7282/T37D2SGZ. JSTOR25066933.
  44. ^ Darling, Cary (25 February 2004). "What's up with Aramaic?". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 3 April 2004. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  45. ^ Stefan Weninger (23 December 2011). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp.聽628鈥9. ISBN978-3-11-025158-6.
  46. ^ Emran El-Badawi (17 December 2013). The Qur'an and the Aramaic Gospel Traditions. Routledge. p.聽35. ISBN978-1-317-92933-8.
  47. ^ Turoyo at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  48. ^ Khan 2008, pp. 6
  49. ^ "Mandaic: A language of Iran". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  50. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 2091. 讝指讛指讘 (zahab) -- gold". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  51. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 1722. 讚职旨讛址讘 (dehab) -- gold". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-07-31.

ReferencesEdit

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