The Torah (/ˈtɔːrə, ˈtrə/; Biblical Hebrew: תּוֹרָה Tōrā, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") is the compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.[1] The Torah is known as the Pentateuch (/ˈpɛntətjk/) or the Five Books of Moses by Christians. It is also known as the Written Torah (תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב, Tōrā šebbīḵṯāv) in Rabbinical Jewish tradition. If meant for liturgic purposes, it takes the form of a Torah scroll (Sefer Torah or ספר תורה). If in bound book form, it is called Chumash, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim).

An opened Torah scroll (Book of Genesis part).

In rabbinic literature, the word Torah denotes both the five books (תורה שבכתב "Torah that is written") and the Oral Torah (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is spoken"). It has also been used, however, to designate the entire Hebrew Bible. The Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.[2] Rabbinic tradition's understanding is that all of the teachings found in the Torah (both written and oral) were given by their God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today. According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and was used as the blueprint for Creation.[3] Though hotly debated, the general trend in recent scholarship is to recognize the final form of the Torah as a literary and ideological unity, based on earlier sources, mostly complete by the Persian period[4][5][6] with some continuing additions into the Hellenistic period.[7][8]

Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe (sofer) in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read every Monday morning and Thursday morning at a shul (synagogue) but only if there are ten males above the age of thirteen. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life. The Torah is also considered a sacred book outside Judaism; in Samaritanism, the Samaritan Pentateuch is a text of the Torah written in the Samaritan script and used as sacred scripture by the Samaritans; the Torah is also common among all the different versions of the Christian Old Testament; in Islam, the "Tawrat" (Arabic: توراة‎) is the Arabic name for the Torah within its context as an Islamic holy book believed by Muslims to have been given by God to the prophets and messengers amongst the Children of Israel.[9]

Meaning and names edit

The word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means 'to guide' or 'to teach'.[10] The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the commonly accepted "law" gives a wrong impression.[11] The Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, standard, doctrine, and later "law". Greek and Latin Bibles then began the custom of calling the Pentateuch (five books of Moses) The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, theory, guidance,[2] or system.[12]

The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written and oral law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Oral Torah which comprises the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more. The inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law"[13] may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal that is summed up in the term talmud torah (תלמוד תורה, "study of Torah").[2] The term "Torah" is also used to designate the entire Hebrew Bible.[14]

The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses". This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua[15] and Kings,[16] but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus (according to academic Bible criticism). In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works[17] was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses"[18] and "The Book of the Torah",[19] which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God".[20][21]

Alternative names edit

Christian scholars usually refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the 'Pentateuch' (/ˈpɛn.təˌtjuːk/, PEN-tə-tewk; Greek: πεντάτευχος, pentáteukhos, 'five scrolls'), a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.[22]

The "Tawrat" (also Tawrah or Taurat; Arabic: توراة‎) is the Arabic name for the Torah, which Muslims believe is an Islamic holy book given by their God to the prophets and messengers amongst the Children of Israel.[9]

Contents edit

 
Reading pointers, or yad, to ensure more ordinal reading of the Torah.

The Torah starts with God creating the world, then describes the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, and the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings (religious obligations and civil laws) given explicitly (i.e. Ten Commandments) or implicitly embedded in the narrative (as in Exodus 12 and 13 laws of the celebration of Passover).

In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book;[23] and the common English names for the books are derived from the Greek Septuagint[citation needed] and reflect the essential theme of each book:

  • Bəreshit (בְּרֵאשִׁית, literally "In the beginning")—Genesis, from Γένεσις (Génesis, "Creation")
  • Shəmot (שְׁמוֹת, literally "Names")—Exodus, from Ἔξοδος (Éxodos, "Exit")
  • Vayikra (וַיִּקְרָא, literally "And He called")—Leviticus, from Λευιτικόν (Leuitikón, "Relating to the Levites")
  • Bəmidbar (בְּמִדְבַּר, literally "In the desert [of]")—Numbers, from Ἀριθμοί (Arithmoí, "Numbers")
  • Dəvarim (דְּבָרִים, literally "Things" or "Words")—Deuteronomy, from Δευτερονόμιον (Deuteronómion, "Second-Law")

Genesis edit

The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Torah.[24] It is divisible into two parts, the Primeval history (chapters 1–11) and the Ancestral history (chapters 12–50).[25] The primeval history sets out the author's (or authors') concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world which is good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, using the flood, saving only the righteous Noah and his immediate family to reestablish the relationship between man and God.[26] The Ancestral history (chapters 12–50) tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people.[27] At God's command Noah's descendant Abraham journeys from his home into the God-given land of Canaan, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, and through the agency of his son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, and God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of Moses and the Exodus. The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively narrowing in scope from all mankind (the covenant with Noah) to a special relationship with one people alone (Abraham and his descendants through Isaac and Jacob).[28]

Exodus edit

The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah, immediately following Genesis. The book tells how the ancient Israelites leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, the God who has chosen Israel as his people. Yahweh inflicts horrific harm on their captors via the legendary Plagues of Egypt. With the prophet Moses as their leader, they journey through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land") in return for their faithfulness. Israel enters into a covenant with Yahweh who gives them their laws and instructions to build the Tabernacle, the means by which he will come from heaven and dwell with them and lead them in a holy war to possess the land, and then give them peace.

Traditionally ascribed to Moses himself, modern scholarship sees the book as initially a product of the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), from earlier written and oral traditions, with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period (5th century BCE).[29][30] Carol Meyers, in her commentary on Exodus suggests that it is arguably the most important book in the Bible, as it presents the defining features of Israel's identity: memories of a past marked by hardship and escape, a binding covenant with God, who chooses Israel, and the establishment of the life of the community and the guidelines for sustaining it.[31]

Leviticus edit

The Book of Leviticus begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernacle, which they had just built (Leviticus 1–10). This is followed by rules of clean and unclean (Leviticus 11–15), which includes the laws of slaughter and animals permissible to eat (see also: Kashrut), the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), and various moral and ritual laws sometimes called the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17–26). Leviticus 26 provides a detailed list of rewards for following God's commandments and a detailed list of punishments for not following them. Leviticus 17 establishes sacrifices at the Tabernacle as an everlasting ordinance, but this ordinance is altered in later books with the Temple being the only place in which sacrifices are allowed.[citation needed]

Numbers edit

 
An opened Torah scroll (Book of Numbers part), and a reading pointer (yad).

The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Torah.[32] The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is probably due to a Priestly redaction (i.e., editing) of a Yahwistic source made some time in the early Persian period (5th century BCE).[33] The name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites.

Numbers begins at Mount Sinai, where the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary.[34] The task before them is to take possession of the Promised Land. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march. The Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" at the hardships along the way, and about the authority of Moses and Aaron. For these acts, God destroys approximately 15,000 of them through various means. They arrive at the borders of Canaan and send spies into the land. Upon hearing the spies' fearful report concerning the conditions in Canaan, the Israelites refuse to take possession of it. God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task. The book ends with the new generation of Israelites in the "plains of Moab" ready for the crossing of the Jordan River.[35]

Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers. As such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in Genesis and played out in Exodus and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great (i.e. numerous) nation, that they will have a special relationship with Yahweh their god, and that they shall take possession of the land of Canaan. Numbers also demonstrates the importance of holiness, faithfulness and trust: despite God's presence and his priests, Israel lacks faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation.[33]

Deuteronomy edit

The Book of Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Torah. Chapters 1–30 of the book consist of three sermons or speeches delivered to the Israelites by Moses on the plains of Moab, shortly before they enter the Promised Land. The first sermon recounts the forty years of wilderness wanderings which had led to that moment, and ends with an exhortation to observe the law (or teachings), later referred to as the Law of Moses; the second reminds the Israelites of the need to follow Yahweh and the laws (or teachings) he has given them, on which their possession of the land depends; and the third offers the comfort that even should Israel prove unfaithful and so lose the land, with repentance all can be restored.[36] The final four chapters (31–34) contain the Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, and narratives recounting the passing of the mantle of leadership from Moses to Joshua and, finally, the death of Moses on Mount Nebo.

Presented as the words of Moses delivered before the conquest of Canaan, a broad consensus of modern scholars see its origin in traditions from Israel (the northern kingdom) brought south to the Kingdom of Judah in the wake of the Assyrian conquest of Aram (8th century BCE) and then adapted to a program of nationalist reform in the time of Josiah (late 7th century BCE), with the final form of the modern book emerging in the milieu of the return from the Babylonian captivity during the late 6th century BCE.[37] Many scholars see the book as reflecting the economic needs and social status of the Levite caste, who are believed to have provided its authors;[38] those likely authors are collectively referred to as the Deuteronomist.

One of its most significant verses is Deuteronomy 6:4,[39] the Shema Yisrael, which has become the definitive statement of Jewish identity: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one." Verses 6:4–5 were also quoted by Jesus in Mark 12:28–34[40] as part of the Great Commandment.

Composition edit

The Talmud states that the Torah was written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, describing his death and burial, being written by Joshua.[41] According to the Mishnah one of the essential tenets of Judaism is that God transmitted the text of the Torah to Moses[42] over the span of the 40 years the Israelites were in the desert[43] and Moses was like a scribe who was dictated to and wrote down all of the events, the stories and the commandments.[44]

According to Jewish tradition, the Torah was recompiled by Ezra during Second Temple period.[45][46] The Talmud says that Ezra changed the script used to write the Torah from the older Hebrew script to Assyrian script, so called according to the Talmud, because they brought it with them from Assyria.[47] Maharsha says that Ezra made no changes to the actual text of the Torah based on the Torah's prohibition of making any additions or deletions to the Torah in Deuteronomy 12:32. [48]

 
One common formulation of the documentary hypothesis.

By contrast, the modern scholarly consensus rejects Mosaic authorship, and affirms that the Torah has multiple authors and that its composition took place over centuries.[33] The precise process by which the Torah was composed, the number of authors involved, and the date of each author are hotly contested. Throughout most of the 20th century, there was a scholarly consensus surrounding the documentary hypothesis, which posits four independent sources, which were later compiled together by a redactor: J, the Jahwist source, E, the Elohist source, P, the Priestly source, and D, the Deuteronomist source. The earliest of these sources, J, would have been composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE, with the latest source, P, being composed around the 5th century BCE.

 
The supplementary hypothesis, one potential successor to the documentary hypothesis.

The consensus around the documentary hypothesis collapsed in the last decades of the 20th century.[49] The groundwork was laid with the investigation of the origins of the written sources in oral compositions, implying that the creators of J and E were collectors and editors and not authors and historians.[50] Rolf Rendtorff, building on this insight, argued that the basis of the Pentateuch lay in short, independent narratives, gradually formed into larger units and brought together in two editorial phases, the first Deuteronomic, the second Priestly.[51] By contrast, John Van Seters advocates a supplementary hypothesis, which posits that the Torah was derived from a series of direct additions to an existing corpus of work.[52] A "neo-documentarian" hypothesis, which responds to the criticism of the original hypothesis and updates the methodology used to determine which text comes from which sources, has been advocated by biblical historian Joel S. Baden, among others.[53][54] Such a hypothesis continues to have adherents in Israel and North America.[54]

The majority of scholars today continue to recognize Deuteronomy as a source, with its origin in the law-code produced at the court of Josiah as described by De Wette, subsequently given a frame during the exile (the speeches and descriptions at the front and back of the code) to identify it as the words of Moses.[55] However, since the 1990s, the biblical description of Josiah’s reforms (including his court’s production of a law-code) have become heavily debated among academics.[56][57][58] Most scholars also agree that some form of Priestly source existed, although its extent, especially its end-point, is uncertain.[59] The remainder is called collectively non-Priestly, a grouping which includes both pre-Priestly and post-Priestly material.[60]

Date of compilation edit

The final Torah is widely seen as a product of the Persian period (539–333 BCE, probably 450–350 BCE).[61] This consensus echoes a traditional Jewish view which gives Ezra, the leader of the Jewish community on its return from Babylon, a pivotal role in its promulgation.[62] Many theories have been advanced to explain the composition of the Torah, but two have been especially influential.[63] The first of these, Persian Imperial authorisation, advanced by Peter Frei in 1985, holds that the Persian authorities required the Jews of Jerusalem to present a single body of law as the price of local autonomy.[64] Frei's theory was, according to Eskenazi, "systematically dismantled" at an interdisciplinary symposium held in 2000, but the relationship between the Persian authorities and Jerusalem remains a crucial question.[65] The second theory, associated with Joel P. Weinberg and called the "Citizen-Temple Community", proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it.[66]

A minority of scholars would place the final formation of the Pentateuch somewhat later, in the Hellenistic (333–164 BCE) or even Hasmonean (140–37 BCE) periods.[67] Russell Gmirkin, for instance, argues for a Hellenistic dating on the basis that the Elephantine papyri, the records of a Jewish colony in Egypt dating from the last quarter of the 5th century BCE, make no reference to a written Torah, the Exodus, or to any other biblical event, though it does mention the festival of Passover.[68]

Adoption of Torah law edit

 
Josiah hearing the reading of Book of Deuteronomy (illustration by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld).

In his seminal Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels, Julius Wellhausen argued that Judaism as a religion based on widespread observance of the Torah and its laws first emerged in 444 BCE when, according to the biblical account provided in the Book of Nehemiah (chapter 8), a priestly scribe named Ezra read a copy of the Mosaic Torah before the populace of Judea assembled in a central Jerusalem square.[69] Wellhausen believed that this narrative should be accepted as historical because it sounds plausible, noting: "The credibility of the narrative appears on the face of it."[70] Following Wellhausen, most scholars throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries[like whom?] have accepted that widespread Torah observance began sometime around the middle of the 5th century BCE.[clarify][citation needed]

More recently, Yonatan Adler has argued that in fact there is no surviving evidence to support the notion that the Torah was widely known, regarded as authoritative, and put into practice prior to the middle of the 2nd century BCE.[71] Adler explored the likelihhood that Judaism, as the widespread practice of Torah law by Jewish society at large, first emerged in Judea during the reign of the Hasmonean dynasty, centuries after the putative time of Ezra.[72]

Significance in Judaism edit

 
Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey).

Traditional views on authorship edit

Rabbinic writings state that the Oral Torah was given to Moses at Mount Sinai, which, according to the tradition of Orthodox Judaism, occurred in 1312 BCE. The Orthodox rabbinic tradition holds that the Written Torah was recorded during the following forty years,[73] though many non-Orthodox Jewish scholars affirm the modern scholarly consensus that the Written Torah has multiple authors and was written over centuries.[74]

All classical rabbinic views hold that the Torah was entirely Mosaic and of divine origin.[75] Present-day Reform and Liberal Jewish movements all reject Mosaic authorship, as do most shades of Conservative Judaism.[76]

Ritual use edit

 
Presentation of The Torah, by Édouard Moyse, 1860, Museum of Jewish Art and History.

Torah reading (Hebrew: קריאת התורה, K'riat HaTorah, "Reading [of] the Torah") is a Jewish religious ritual that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. The term often refers to the entire ceremony of removing the Torah scroll (or scrolls) from the ark, chanting the appropriate excerpt with traditional cantillation, and returning the scroll(s) to the ark. It is distinct from academic Torah study.

Regular public reading of the Torah was introduced by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Jewish people from the Babylonian captivity (c. 537 BCE), as described in the Book of Nehemiah.[77] In the modern era, adherents of Orthodox Judaism practice Torah-reading according to a set procedure they believe has remained unchanged in the two thousand years since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (70 CE). In the 19th and 20th centuries CE, new movements such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism have made adaptations to the practice of Torah reading, but the basic pattern of Torah reading has usually remained the same:

As a part of the morning prayer services on certain days of the week, fast days, and holidays, as well as part of the afternoon prayer services of Shabbat, Yom Kippur, a section of the Pentateuch is read from a Torah scroll. On Shabbat (Saturday) mornings, a weekly section ("parashah") is read, selected so that the entire Pentateuch is read consecutively each year. The division of parashot found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, chapter 8. Maimonides based his division of the parashot for the Torah on the Aleppo Codex. Conservative and Reform synagogues may read parashot on a triennial rather than annual schedule,[78][79] On Saturday afternoons, Mondays, and Thursdays, the beginning of the following Saturday's portion is read. On Jewish holidays, the beginnings of each month, and fast days, special sections connected to the day are read.

Jews observe an annual holiday, Simchat Torah, to celebrate the completion and new start of the year's cycle of readings.

 
Silver Torah case, Ottoman Empire, displayed in the Museum of Jewish Art and History.

Torah scrolls are often dressed with a sash, a special Torah cover, various ornaments, and a keter (crown), although such customs vary among synagogues. Congregants traditionally stand in respect when the Torah is brought out of the ark to be read, while it is being carried, and lifted, and likewise while it is returned to the ark, although they may sit during the reading itself.

Biblical law edit

The Torah contains narratives, statements of law, and statements of ethics. Collectively these laws, usually called biblical law or commandments, are sometimes referred to as the Law of Moses (Torat Moshɛ תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה), Mosaic Law, or Sinaitic Law.

The Oral Torah edit

Rabbinic tradition holds that Moses learned the whole Torah while he lived on Mount Sinai for 40 days and nights and both the Oral and the written Torah were transmitted in parallel with each other. Where the Torah leaves words and concepts undefined, and mentions procedures without explanation or instructions, the reader is required to seek out the missing details from supplemental sources known as the Oral Law or Oral Torah.[80] Some of the Torah's most prominent commandments needing further explanation are:

  • Tefillin: As indicated in Deuteronomy 6:8 among other places, tefillin are to be placed on the arm and on the head between the eyes. However, there are no details provided regarding what tefillin are or how they are to be constructed.
  • Kashrut: As indicated in Exodus 23:19 among other places, a young goat may not be boiled in its mother's milk. In addition to numerous other problems with understanding the ambiguous nature of this law, there are no vowelization characters in the Torah; they are provided by the oral tradition. This is particularly relevant to this law, as the Hebrew word for milk (חלב) is identical to the word for animal fat when vowels are absent. Without the oral tradition, it is not known whether the violation is in mixing meat with milk or with fat.
  • Shabbat laws: With the severity of Sabbath violation, namely the death penalty, one would assume that direction would be provided as to how exactly such a serious and core commandment should be upheld. However, most information regarding the rules and traditions of Shabbat are dictated in the Talmud and other books deriving from Jewish oral law.

According to classical rabbinic texts this parallel set of material was originally transmitted to Moses at Sinai, and then from Moses to Israel. At that time it was forbidden to write and publish the oral law, as any writing would be incomplete and subject to misinterpretation and abuse.[81]

However, after exile, dispersion, and persecution, this tradition was lifted when it became apparent that in writing was the only way to ensure that the Oral Law could be preserved. After many years of effort by a great number of tannaim, the oral tradition was written down around 200 CE by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi, who took up the compilation of a nominally written version of the Oral Law, the Mishnah (משנה). Other oral traditions from the same time period not entered into the Mishnah were recorded as Baraitot (external teaching), and the Tosefta. Other traditions were written down as Midrashim.

After continued persecution more of the Oral Law was committed to writing. A great many more lessons, lectures and traditions only alluded to in the few hundred pages of Mishnah, became the thousands of pages now called the Gemara. Gemara is written in Aramaic (specifically Jewish Babylonian Aramaic), having been compiled in Babylon. The Mishnah and Gemara together are called the Talmud. The rabbis in the Land of Israel also collected their traditions and compiled them into the Jerusalem Talmud. Since the greater number of rabbis lived in Babylon, the Babylonian Talmud has precedence should the two be in conflict.

Orthodox and Conservative branches of Judaism accept these texts as the basis for all subsequent halakha and codes of Jewish law, which are held to be normative. Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism deny that these texts, or the Torah itself for that matter, may be used for determining normative law (laws accepted as binding) but accept them as the authentic and only Jewish version for understanding the Torah and its development throughout history.[citation needed] Humanistic Judaism holds that the Torah is a historical, political, and sociological text, but does not believe that every word of the Torah is true, or even morally correct. Humanistic Judaism is willing to question the Torah and to disagree with it, believing that the entire Jewish experience, not just the Torah, should be the source for Jewish behavior and ethics.[82]

Divine significance of letters, Jewish mysticism edit

 
Closeup of Torah scroll showing a verse from Numbers with tagin markings decorating letters written in Ktav Ashuri.

Kabbalists hold that not only do the words of Torah give a divine message, but they also indicate a far greater message that extends beyond them. Thus they hold that even as small a mark as a kotso shel yod (קוצו של יוד), the serif of the Hebrew letter yod (י), the smallest letter, or decorative markings, or repeated words, were put there by God to teach scores of lessons. This is regardless of whether that yod appears in the phrase "I am the LORD thy God" (אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, Exodus 20:2) or whether it appears in "And God spoke unto Moses saying" (וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה; וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו, אֲנִי יְהוָה. Exodus 6:2). In a similar vein, Rabbi Akiva (c. 50 – c. 135 CE), is said to have learned a new law from every et (את) in the Torah (Talmud, tractate Pesachim 22b); the particle et is meaningless by itself, and serves only to mark the direct object. In other words, the Orthodox belief is that even apparently contextual text such as "And God spoke unto Moses saying ..." is no less holy and sacred than the actual statement.[citation needed]

Production and use of a Torah scroll edit

 
An old open Torah case with scroll.

Manuscript Torah scrolls are still scribed and used for ritual purposes (i.e., religious services); this is called a Sefer Torah ("Book [of] Torah"). They are written using a painstakingly careful method by highly qualified scribes. It is believed that every word, or marking, has divine meaning and that not one part may be inadvertently changed lest it lead to error. The fidelity of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered paramount, down to the last letter: translations or transcriptions are frowned upon for formal service use, and transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error of a single letter, ornamentation, or symbol of the 304,805 stylized letters that make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a special skill is required and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.

According to Jewish law, a sefer Torah (plural: Sifrei Torah) is a copy of the formal Hebrew text handwritten on gevil or klaf (forms of parchment) by using a quill (or other permitted writing utensil) dipped in ink. Written entirely in Hebrew, a sefer Torah contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated precisely by a trained sofer ("scribe"), an effort that may take as long as approximately one and a half years. Most modern Sifrei Torah are written with forty-two lines of text per column (Yemenite Jews use fifty), and very strict rules about the position and appearance of the Hebrew letters are observed. See for example the Mishnah Berurah on the subject.[83] Any of several Hebrew scripts may be used, most of which are fairly ornate and exacting.

The completion of the Sefer Torah is a cause for great celebration, and it is a mitzvah for every Jew to either write or have written for him a Sefer Torah. Torah scrolls are stored in the holiest part of the synagogue in the Ark known as the "Holy Ark" (אֲרוֹן הקֹדשׁ aron hakodesh in Hebrew.) Aron in Hebrew means "cupboard" or "closet", and kodesh is derived from "kadosh", or "holy".

Torah translations edit

 
A page from a Mikraot Gedolot including text in Yiddish.

Aramaic edit

The Book of Ezra refers to translations and commentaries of the Hebrew text into Aramaic, the more commonly understood language of the time. These translations would seem to date to the 6th century BCE. The Aramaic term for translation is Targum.[84] The Encyclopaedia Judaica has:

At an early period, it was customary to translate the Hebrew text into the vernacular at the time of the reading (e.g., in Palestine and Babylon the translation was into Aramaic). The targum ("translation") was done by a special synagogue official, called the meturgeman ... Eventually, the practice of translating into the vernacular was discontinued.[85]

However, there is no suggestion that these translations had been written down as early as this. There are suggestions that the Targum was written down at an early date, although for private use only.

The official recognition of a written Targum and the final redaction of its text, however, belong to the post-Talmudic period, thus not earlier than the fifth century C.E.[86]

Greek edit

One of the earliest known translations of the first five books of Moses from the Hebrew into Greek was the Septuagint. This is a Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible that was used by Greek speakers. This Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures dates from the 3rd century BCE, originally associated with Hellenistic Judaism. It contains both a translation of the Hebrew and additional and variant material.[87]

Later translations into Greek include seven or more other versions. These do not survive, except as fragments, and include those by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.[88]

Latin edit

Early translations into Latin—the Vetus Latina—were ad hoc conversions of parts of the Septuagint. With Saint Jerome in the 4th century CE came the Vulgate Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible.[89]

Arabic edit

From the eighth century CE, the cultural language of Jews living under Islamic rule became Arabic rather than Aramaic. "Around that time, both scholars and lay people started producing translations of the Bible into Judeo-Arabic using the Hebrew alphabet." Later, by the 10th century, it became essential for a standard version of the Bible in Judeo-Arabic. The best known was produced by Saadiah (the Saadia Gaon, aka the Rasag), and continues to be in use today, "in particular among Yemenite Jewry".[90]

Rav Sa'adia produced an Arabic translation of the Torah known as Targum Tafsir and offered comments on Rasag's work.[91] There is a debate in scholarship whether Rasag wrote the first Arabic translation of the Torah.[92]

Modern languages edit

Jewish translations edit

The Torah has been translated by Jewish scholars into most of the major European languages, including English, German, Russian, French, Spanish and others. The most well-known German-language translation was produced by Samson Raphael Hirsch. A number of Jewish English Bible translations have been published, for example by Artscroll publications.[citation needed]

Christian translations edit

As a part of the Christian biblical canons, the Torah has been translated into hundreds of languages.

In other religions edit

Samaritanism edit

 
Samaritan Torah scrolls, Mount Gerizim Samaritan synagogue, at Mount Gerizim.

The Samaritan Torah (‮ࠕࠫ‎‬ࠅࠓࠡࠄ‎‎, Tōrāʾ), also called the Samaritan Pentateuch, is a slightly different version of the Torah, written in the Samaritan script, and used as sacred scripture by the Samaritans. It forms the entire textual document of Samaritanism.

Christianity edit

Although different Christian denominations have slightly different versions of the Old Testament in their Bibles, the Torah as the "Five Books of Moses" (or "the Mosaic Law") is common among them all.

Islam edit

Islam states that the Torah was sent by God. The "Tawrat" (Arabic: توراة) is the Arabic name for the Torah within its context as an Islamic holy book believed by Muslims to be given by God to Prophets among the Children of Israel, and often refers to the entire Hebrew Bible.[9] According to the Quran, God says, "It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Quran) to you with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)." (Q3:3) However, some self-professed Muslims believe that this original revelation was corrupted (tahrif) (or simply altered by the passage of time and human fallibility) over time by Jewish scribes.[93] The Torah in the Quran is always mentioned with respect in Islam. The Muslims' belief in the Torah, as well as the prophethood of Moses, is one of the fundamental tenets of Islam.

The Islamic methodology of tafsir al-Qur'an bi-l-Kitab (Arabic: تفسير القرآن بالكتاب) refers to interpreting the Qur'an with/through the Bible.[94] This approach adopts canonical Arabic versions of the Bible, including the Torah, both to illuminate and to add exegetical depth to the reading of the Qur'an. Notable Muslim mufassirun (commentators) of the Bible and Qur'an who weaved from the Torah together with Qur'anic ones include Abu al-Hakam Abd al-Salam bin al-Isbili of Al-Andalus and Ibrahim bin Umar bin Hasan al-Biqa'i.[94]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Torah | Definition, Meaning, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
  2. ^ a b c Birnbaum 1979, p. 630.
  3. ^ Vol. 11 Trumah Section 61
  4. ^ Greifenhagen, Franz V. (2003). p. 206-207 Egypt on the Pentateuch's Ideological Map. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-567-39136-0
  5. ^ Newsom, Carol Ann (2004). The Self as Symbolic Space: Constructing Identity and Community at Qumran. Brill. ISBN 9789004138032
  6. ^ Whisenant, Jessica (2010). "The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance by Gary N. Knoppers, Bernard M. Levinson". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130 (4): 679–681. JSTOR 23044597. “[A]ll of the contributors take as a starting point the assumption that the Pentateuch was not composed until the exilic and postexilic periods: such a consensus among pentateuchal specialists would not have been found twenty years ago…the Pentateuch is seen as a sophisticated scribal composition in which diverse earlier traditions have been shaped into a coherent narrative presenting a creation-to-wilderness story of origins for the entity ‘Israel.’”
  7. ^ Schmid, Konrad; Lackowski, Mark; Bautch, Richard. “How to Identify a Persian Period Text in the Pentateuch.” R. J. Bautch / M. Lackowski (eds.), On Dating Biblical Texts to the Persian Period, FAT II/101, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019, 101–118. “There are, however, a few exceptions regarding the pre-Hellenistic dating of the Pentateuch. The best candidate for a post-Persian, Hellenistic text in the Pentateuch seems to be the small ‘apocalypse’ in Num 24:14-24, which in v. 24 mentions the victory of the ships of the כִּתִּים over Ashur and Eber. This text seems to allude to the battles between Alexander and the Persians, as some scholars suggested. Another set of post-Persian text elements might be the specific numbers in the genealogies of Gen 5 and 11. These numbers build the overall chronology of the Pentateuch and differ significantly in the various versions. But these are just minor elements. The substance of the Pentateuch seems pre- Hellenistic.”
  8. ^ For a specific example, see Römer, Joseph “How “Persian” or “Hellenistic” is the Joseph Narrative?”, in T. Römer, K. Schmid et A. Bühler (ed.), The Joseph Story Between Egypt and Israel (Archaeology and Bible 5), Tübinngen: Mohr Siebeck, 2021, pp. 35-53. “The date of the original narrative can be the late Persian period, and while there are several passages that fit better into a Greek, Ptolemaic context, most of these passages belong to later revisions."
  9. ^ a b c Lang 2015, p. 98.
  10. ^ cf. Lev 10:11
  11. ^ Rabinowitz, Louis; Harvey, Warren (2007). "Torah". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 20 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. pp. 39–46. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  12. ^ Alcalay (1996), p. 2767.
  13. ^ Scherman 2001, pp. 164–165, Exodus 12:49.
  14. ^ "Torah | Definition, Meaning, & Facts | Britannica". 28 December 2023.
  15. ^ Joshua 8:31–32; 23:6
  16. ^ I Kings 2:3; II Kings 14:6; 23:25
  17. ^ Malachi 3:22; Daniel 9:11, 13; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Nehemiah 8:1; II Chronicles 23:18; 30:16
  18. ^ Ezra 6:18; Neh. 13:1; II Chronicles 35:12; 25:4; cf. II Kings 14:6
  19. ^ Nehemiah 8:3
  20. ^ Nehemiah 8:8, 18; 10:29–30; cf. 9:3
  21. ^ Sarna, Nahum M.; et al. (2007). "Bible". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 3 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. pp. 576–577. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  22. ^ Merrill, Rooker & Grisanti 2011, p. 163, Part 4. The Pentateuch by Michael A. Grisanti: "The Term 'Pentateuch' derives from the Greek pentateuchos, literally, ... The Greek term was apparently popularized by the Hellenized Jews of Alexandria, Egypt, in the first century AD..."
  23. ^ Pattanaik, David (9 July 2017). "The Fascinating Design Of The Jewish Bible". Mid-Day. Mumbai.
  24. ^ Hamilton 1990, p. 1.
  25. ^ Bergant 2013, p. xii.
  26. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 35.
  27. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 78.
  28. ^ Bandstra 2004, pp. 28–29.
  29. ^ Johnstone 2003, p. 72.
  30. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 68.
  31. ^ Meyers 2005, p. xv.
  32. ^ Ashley 1993, p. 1.
  33. ^ a b c McDermott 2002, p. 21.
  34. ^ Olson 1996, p. 9.
  35. ^ Stubbs 2009, p. 19–20.
  36. ^ Phillips 1973, pp. 1–2.
  37. ^ Rogerson 2003, pp. 153–154.
  38. ^ Sommer 2015, p. 18.
  39. ^ Deuteronomy 6:4
  40. ^ Mark 12:28–34
  41. ^ Bava Basra 14b
  42. ^ Mishnah, Sanhedrin 10:1
  43. ^ Talmud Gitten 60a,
  44. ^ language of Maimonides, Commentary on the Mishnah, Sanhedrin 10:1
  45. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. IV: Ezra (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  46. ^ Ross 2004, p. 192.
  47. ^ Sanhedrin 21b
  48. ^ Commentary on the Talmud, Sanhedrin 21b
  49. ^ Carr 2014, p. 434.
  50. ^ Thompson 2000, p. 8.
  51. ^ Ska 2014, pp. 133–135.
  52. ^ Van Seters 2004, p. 77.
  53. ^ Baden 2012.
  54. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 271.
  55. ^ Otto 2014, p. 605.
  56. ^ Grabbe, Lester (2017). Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?. T&T Clark. p. 249-250. “It was once conventional to accept Josiah’s reform at face value, but the question is currently much debated (Albertz 1994: 198–201; 2005; Lohfink 1995; P. R. Davies 2005; Knauf 2005a).” See Albertz, Rainer. 1994. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. Vol. I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Vol. II: From the Exile to the Maccabees (London: SCM Press); ibid. 2005. ‘Why a Reform Like Josiah’s Must Have Happened’, in Lester L. Grabbe (ed.), Good Kings and Bad Kings: The Kingdom of Judah in the Seventh Century BCE (JSOTSup, 393; ESHM, 5: London/New York: T&T Clark International): 27–46.; Lohfink, Norbert. 1995 ‘Gab es eine deuteronomistische Bewegung?’, in Walter Gross (ed.), Jeremia und die ‘deuteronomistische Bewegung’ (BBB, 98; Beltz: Athenäum): 313–82.; Davies, Philip R. 2005. ‘Josiah and the Law Book’, in Lester L. Grabbe (ed.), Good Kingsand Bad Kings: The Kingdom of Judah in the Seventh Century BCE (JSOTSup, 393; ESHM, 5: London/New York: T&T Clark International): 65–77.; Knauf, Ernst Axel. ‘The Glorious Days of Manasseh’, in Lester L. Grabbe (ed.), Good Kings and Bad Kings: The Kingdom of Judah in the Seventh Century BCE (JSOTSup, 393; ESHM, 5: London/New York: T&T Clark International): 164–88.
  57. ^ Pakkala, Juha (2010). "Why the Cult Reforms In Judah Probably Did Not Happen". In Kratz, Reinhard G.; Spieckermann, Hermann (eds.). One God – One Cult – One Nation. De Gruyter. pp. 201–235. ISBN 9783110223576. Retrieved 2024-01-25.
  58. ^ Fried, Lisbeth S. (2002). "The High Places (Bāmôt) and the Reforms of Hezekiah and Josiah: An Archaeological Investigation". Journal of the American Oriental Society: 437–464. doi:10.2307/3087515. JSTOR 3087515. Retrieved 2024-01-25. There is no archaeological evidence consistent with the assumption that Josiah removed cult sites from the Iron Age II cities of Judah, Samaria, Megiddo, or the Negev. Except for sites under the control of Edom and beyond Josiah's reach, there were none to be removed. All had either been destroyed by Egyptian or Assyian kings, or purposely buried in anticipation of such destruction. None was rebuilt. Neither the reforms of Josiah nor those of Hezekiah against the bāmôt should be considered historical.
  59. ^ Carr 2014, p. 457.
  60. ^ Otto 2014, p. 609.
  61. ^ Frei 2001, p. 6.
  62. ^ Romer 2008, p. 2 and fn.3.
  63. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 217.
  64. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 218.
  65. ^ Eskenazi 2009, p. 86.
  66. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 226–227.
  67. ^ Greifenhagen 2003, p. 206–207, 224 fn.49.
  68. ^ Gmirkin 2006, p. 30, 32, 190.
  69. ^ Wellhausen 1885, p. 405–410.
  70. ^ Wellhausen 1885, p. 408 n. 1.
  71. ^ Adler 2022.
  72. ^ Adler 2022, p. 223–234.
  73. ^ Spiro, Ken (9 May 2009). "History Crash Course #36: Timeline: From Abraham to Destruction of the Temple". Aish.com. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  74. ^ Berlin, Brettler & Fishbane 2004, pp. 3–7.
  75. ^ For more information on these issues from an Orthodox Jewish perspective, see Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations, Ed. Shalom Carmy, and Handbook of Jewish Thought, Volume I, by Aryeh Kaplan.
  76. ^ Siekawitch 2013, pp. 19–30.
  77. ^ Neh. 8
  78. ^ Rogovin, Richard D. (2006). "The Authentic Triennial Cycle: A Better Way to Read Torah?". United Synagogue Review. 59 (1). Archived from the original on 6 September 2009 – via The United Synagoue of Conservative Judaism.
  79. ^ Fields, Harvey J. (1979). "Section Four: The Reading of the Torah". Bechol Levavcha: with all your heart. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations Press. pp. 106–111. Archived from the original on 19 February 2005 – via Union for Reform Judaism.
  80. ^ "Rabbi Jonathan Rietti | New York City | Breakthrough Chinuch". breakthroughchunich.
  81. ^ Talmud, Gittin 60b
  82. ^ "FAQ for Humanistic Judaism, Reform Judaism, Humanists, Humanistic Jews, Congregation, Arizona, AZ". Oradam.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  83. ^ Mishnat Soferim The forms of the letters Archived 2008-05-23 at the Wayback Machine translated by Jen Taylor Friedman (geniza.net)
  84. ^ Chilton 1987, p. xiii.
  85. ^ Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred, eds. (2007). "Torah, Reading of". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  86. ^ Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred, eds. (2007). "Bible: Translations". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  87. ^ Greifenhagen 2003, p. 218.
  88. ^ Greenspoon, Leonard J. (2007). "Greek: The Septuagint". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 3 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 597. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  89. ^ Harkins, Franklin T.; Harkins, Angela Kim (2007). "Old Latin/Vulgate". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 3 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 598. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  90. ^ Sasson, Ilana (2007). "Arabic". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 3 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 603. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  91. ^ Robinson 2008, pp. 167–: "Sa'adia's own major contribution to the Torah is his Arabic translation, Targum Tafsir."
  92. ^ Zohar 2005, pp. 106–: "Controversy exists among scholars as to whether Rasag was the first to translate the Hebrew Bible into Arabic."
  93. ^ Is the Bible God's Word Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine by Sheikh Ahmed Deedat
  94. ^ a b McCoy 2021.

Bibliography edit

Further reading edit

  • Adler, Yonatan (16 February 2023). "When Did Jews Start Observing Torah? - TheTorah.com". www.thetorah.com. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  • Rothenberg, Naftali, (ed.), Wisdom by the week – the Weekly Torah Portion as an Inspiration for Thought and Creativity, Yeshiva University Press, New York 2012
  • Friedman, Richard Elliott, Who Wrote the Bible?, HarperSanFrancisco, 1997
  • Welhausen, Julius, Prolegomena to the History of Israel, Scholars Press, 1994 (reprint of 1885)
  • Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: A year-by-year history from Creation to the present, Jason Aronson Inc., London, 1992
  • Wheeler, Brannon M., Moses in the Quran and Islamic Exegesis, Routledge, 2002
  • DeSilva, David Arthur, An Introduction to the New Testament: Contexts, Methods & Ministry, InterVarsity Press, 2004
  • Heschel, Abraham Joshua, Tucker, Gordon & Levin, Leonard, Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations, London, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005
  • Hubbard, David "The Literary Sources of the Kebra Nagast" Ph.D. dissertation St Andrews University, Scotland, 1956
  • Peterson, Eugene H., Praying With Moses: A Year of Daily Prayers and Reflections on the Words and Actions of Moses, HarperCollins, New York, 1994 ISBN 9780060665180

External links edit