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Scenes from Exodus, the death of the first-born including Pharaoh's son; the Israelites leaving Egypt. 14th century illustration

The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim), in the story of the Exodus, are ten disasters inflicted on Egypt by Yahweh, the God of Israel, in order to force the Pharaoh to allow the Israelites to depart from slavery;[1] they serve as "signs and marvels" given by God to answer Pharaoh's taunt that he does not know Yahweh: "The Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD."[2]

PlaguesEdit

 
The First Plague: Water Is Changed into Blood, James Tissot

1. Blood: Ex. 7:14–24Edit

This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD: With the staff that is in my hands I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood. The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink and the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.

— Exodus 7:17–18

2. Frogs: Ex. 7:25–8:15Edit

This is what the great LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs. The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading troughs. The frogs will go up on you and your people and all your officials.

— Exodus 8:1–4

3. Lice or Gnats: Ex. 8:16-19Edit

"And the LORD said [...] Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt." […] When Aaron stretched out his hand with the rod and struck the dust of the ground, lice came upon men and animals. All the dust throughout the land of Egypt became lice.

— Exodus 8:16–17

4. Wild animals or flies: Ex. 8:20-32Edit

The fourth plague of Egypt was of creatures capable of harming people and livestock. The Torah emphasizes that the ‘arob (עָרוֹב "mixture" or "swarm") only came against the Egyptians and did not affect the Israelites. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to grant the Israelites their freedom. However, after the plague was gone, the LORD "hardened Pharaoh's heart", and he refused to keep his promise.

Various sources use either "wild animals" or "flies".[3][4][5][6]

5. Pestilence of livestock: Ex. 9:1–7Edit

This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back, the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field—on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.

— Exodus 9:1–3

6. Boils: Ex. 9:8–12Edit

 
The Sixth Plague: Miniature out of the Toggenburg Bible (Switzerland) of 1411

Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh. It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land."

— Exodus 9:8–9

7. Thunderstorm of hail and fire: Ex. 9:13–35Edit

This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me, or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth. But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth. You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go. Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now. Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die. […] The LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt; hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.

— Exodus 9:13–24

8. Locusts: Ex. 10:1–20Edit

This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: 'How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will bring locusts into your country tomorrow. They will cover the face of the ground so that it cannot be seen. They will devour what little you have left after the hail, including every tree that is growing in your fields. They will fill your houses and those of all your officials and all the Egyptians—something neither your fathers nor your forefathers have ever seen from the day they settled in this land till now.

— Exodus 10:3–6

9. Darkness for three days: Ex. 10:21–29Edit

Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that darkness will spread over Egypt—darkness that can be felt." So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and total darkness covered all Egypt for three days. No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days.

— Exodus 10:21–23

10. Death of firstborn: Ex. 11:1–12:36Edit

This is what the LORD says: "About midnight I will go throughout Egypt. Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn of the slave girl, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well. There will be loud wailing throughout Egypt—worse than there has ever been or ever will be again."

— Exodus 11:4–6

Before this final plague God commands Moses to tell the Israelites to mark a lamb's blood above their doors in order that Yahweh will pass over them (i.e., that they will not be touched by the death of the firstborn). Pharaoh orders the Israelites to leave, taking whatever they want, and asks Moses to bless him in the name of the Lord.

Composition and theologyEdit

Scholars are in broad agreement that the publication of the Torah took place in the mid-Persian period (the 5th century BCE).[7] The Book of Deuteronomy, composed in stages between the 7th and 6th centuries, mentions the "diseases of Egypt" (Deuteronomy 7:15 and 28:60) but refers to something that afflicted the Israelites, not the Egyptians, and never specifies the plagues.[8][9]

The traditional number of ten plagues is not actually mentioned in Exodus, and other sources differ; Psalms 78 and 105 seem to list only seven or eight plagues and order them differently.[1] It appears that originally there were only seven (which included the tenth), to which were added the third, sixth, and ninth, bringing the count to ten.[10]

In this final version, the first nine plagues form three triads, each of which God introduces by informing Moses of the main lesson it will teach.[2] In the first triad, the Egyptians begin to experience the power of God;[11] in the second, God demonstrates that he is directing events;[12] and in the third, the incomparability of Yahweh is displayed.[13] Overall, the plagues are "signs and marvels" given by the God of Israel to answer Pharaoh's taunt that he does not know Yahweh: "The Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD."[2]

HistoricityEdit

Scholars broadly agree that the Exodus is not a historical account, and that the Israelites originated in Canaan and from the Canaanites.[14][15] A majority of scholars nevertheless believes that the Exodus has a historical basis of some kind, even if this does not closely resemble the biblical narrative.[16][17] The Ipuwer Papyrus, written probably in the late Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (c. 1991–1803 BCE),[18] has been put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the Biblical account, most notably because of its statement that "the river is blood" and its frequent references to servants running away; however, these arguments ignore the many points on which Ipuwer contradicts Exodus, such as Asiatics arriving in Egypt rather than leaving and the likelihood that the "river is blood" phrase is simply a poetic image of turmoil.[19] Attempts to find natural explanations for the plagues (e.g., a volcanic eruption to explain the "darkness" plague) have been dismissed by biblical scholars on the grounds that their pattern, timing, rapid succession, and above all, control by Moses mark them as supernatural.[20][21]

Artistic representationEdit

Visual artEdit

 
Lamentations over the Death of the First-Born of Egypt by Charles Sprague Pearce (1877)

In visual art, the plagues have generally been reserved for works in series, especially engravings. Still, relatively few depictions in art emerged compared to other religious themes until the 19th century, when the plagues became more common subjects, with John Martin and Joseph Turner producing notable canvases. This trend probably reflected a Romantic attraction to landscape and nature painting, for which the plagues were suited, a Gothic attraction to morbid stories, and a rise in Orientalism, wherein exotic Egyptian themes found currency. Given the importance of noble patronage throughout Western art history, the plagues may have found consistent disfavor because the stories emphasize the limits of a monarch's power, and images of lice, locusts, darkness, and boils were ill-suited for decoration in palaces and churches.[citation needed]

MusicEdit

Taking direct inspiration from the ten plagues, Iced Earth's eleventh studio album Plagues of Babylon contains many references and allusions to the plagues. Metallica's song "Creeping Death" (from their second album, Ride the Lightning) makes references to a few of the plagues, in addition to the rest of the story of the Exodus. Perhaps the most successful artistic representation of the plagues is Handel's oratorio Israel in Egypt, which, like his perennial favorite, "Messiah", takes a libretto entirely from scripture. The work was especially popular in the 19th century because of its numerous choruses, generally one for each plague, and its playful musical depiction of the plagues. For example, the plague of frogs is performed as a light aria for alto, depicting frogs jumping in the violins, and the plague of flies and lice is a light chorus with fast scurrying runs in the violins.[22]

FilmsEdit

TVEdit

Image galleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Greifenhagen 2000, p. 1062.
  2. ^ a b c Tigay 2004, p. 117.
  3. ^ https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1653/jewish/The-Ten-Plagues.htm
  4. ^ "Exodus 8 - LXX Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  5. ^ "Philo: On the Life of Moses, I". www.earlyjewishwritings.com. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  6. ^ "Beasts or Bugs?". The BAS Library. August 24, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  7. ^ Romer 2008, p. 2 and fn.3.
  8. ^ Rogerson 2003b, p. 154.
  9. ^ Van Seters 2015, p. 124.
  10. ^ Johnstone 2003, p. 83-84.
  11. ^ Tigay 2004, p. 118.
  12. ^ Tigay 2004, p. 119.
  13. ^ Tigay 2004, p. 121.
  14. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 81.
  15. ^ Meyers 2005, pp. 6–7.
  16. ^ Faust 2015, p. 476.
  17. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 87.
  18. ^ Willems 2010, p. 83.
  19. ^ Enmarch 2011, p. 173-175.
  20. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 90.
  21. ^ Tigay 2004, p. 117-118.
  22. ^ Leon 2011, p. unpaginated.
  23. ^ "The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971) – Did You Know?". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012. Dr. Phibes murders were inspired by the 10 plagues of Egypt found in the Old Testament
  24. ^ "The Prince of Egypt". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  25. ^ "FAQ for Magnolia (1999)". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  26. ^ Sommers, Stephen (May 7, 1999), The Mummy, Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah, retrieved April 4, 2018
  27. ^ "The Reaping". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  28. ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings". imdb.com. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  29. ^ "Seder-Masochism". imdb.com. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  30. ^ Gomes, Marta (March 17, 2015). "Tudo pronto para a estreia de "Os Dez Mandamentos"". Notícias do dia (Grupo RIC). Retrieved March 21, 2015.

BibliographyEdit

Collins, John J. (2005). The Bible After Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802828927.
Faust, Avraham (2015). "The Emergence of Iron Age Israel: On Origins and Habitus". In Thomas E. Levy; Thomas Schneider; William H.C. Propp (eds.). Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-04768-3.
Greifenhagen, F.V. (2000). "Plagues of Egypt". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press.
Herzog, Ze'ev (October 29, 1999). "Deconstructing the walls of Jericho". lib1.library.cornell.edu. Ha'aretz. Archived from the original on November 10, 2001. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
Johnstone, William D. (2003). "Exodus". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
Leon, Donna (2011). Handel's Bestiary: In Search of Animals in Handel's Operas. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0802195616.
Meyers, Carol (2005). Exodus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521002912.
Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802862600.
Redmount, Carol A. (2001) [1998]. "Bitter Lives: Israel In And Out of Egypt". In Coogan, Michael D. (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. OUP. ISBN 9780199881482.
Rogerson, John W. (2003b). "Deuteronomy". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
Tigay, Jeffrey H. (2004). "Exodus". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press.
Van Seters, John (2015). The Pentateuch: A Social Science Commentary. Bloomsbury.

External linksEdit