Plagues of Egypt
In the Book of Exodus the Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim) are ten calamities inflicted on Egypt by Yahweh, the God of Israel, in order to force Pharaoh to allow the Israelites to depart from slavery.
The plagues are "signs and marvels" given by the God of Israel to answer Pharaoh's taunt that he does not know Yahweh: "The Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord." The many popular-level attempts to find natural explanations for the plagues (e.g., a volcanic eruption to explain the "darkness" plague) have been dismissed by biblical scholars. There is no indication that the Israelites ever lived in Ancient Egypt, and there is an almost universal consensus is that the Exodus story is best understood as myth.
1. Blood (דָם): Ex. 7:14–24Edit
This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD: With the staff that is in my hands I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood. The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink and the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.— Exodus 7:17–18
2. Frogs (צְּפַרְדֵּעַ): Ex. 7:25–8:15Edit
This is what the great LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs. The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading troughs. The frogs will go up on you and your people and all your officials.— Exodus 8:1–4
3. Lice (כִּנִּים): Ex. 8:16-19Edit
"And the LORD said [...] Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt." […] When Aaron stretched out his hand with the rod and struck the dust of the ground, lice came upon men and animals. All the dust throughout the land of Egypt became lice.— Exodus 8:16–17
The fourth plague of Egypt was of creatures capable of harming people and livestock. The Torah emphasizes that the ‘arob (עָרוֹב, meaning "mixture" or "swarm") only came against the Egyptians, and that it did not affect the Israelites. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove this plague and promised to allow the Israelites' freedom. However, after the plague was gone, the LORD "hardened Pharaoh's heart", and he refused to keep his promise.
5. Pestilence of livestock (דֶּבֶר): Ex. 9:1–7Edit
This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back, the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field—on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.— Exodus 9:1–3
6. Boils (שְׁחִין): Ex. 9:8–12Edit
Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take handfuls of soot from a furnace and have Moses toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh. It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on men and animals throughout the land."— Exodus 9:8–9
7. Thunderstorm of hail and fire (בָּרָד): Ex. 9:13–35Edit
This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me, or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth. But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth. You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go. Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now. Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die. […] The LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt; hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.— Exodus 9:13–24
8. Locusts (אַרְבֶּה): Ex. 10:1–20Edit
This is what the LORD, the God of the Jews, says: 'How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will bring locusts into your country tomorrow. They will cover the face of the ground so that it cannot be seen. They will devour what little you have left after the hail, including every tree that is growing in your fields. They will fill your houses and those of all your officials and all the Egyptians—something neither your fathers nor your forefathers have ever seen from the day they settled in this land till now.— Exodus 10:3–6
9. Darkness for three days (חוֹשֶך): Ex. 10:21–29Edit
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that darkness will spread over Egypt—darkness that can be felt." So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and total darkness covered all Egypt for three days. No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days.— Exodus 10:21–23
10. Death of firstborn (מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת): Ex. 11:1–12:36Edit
This is what the LORD says: "About midnight I will go throughout Egypt. Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn of the slave girl, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well. There will be loud wailing throughout Egypt—worse than there has ever been or ever will be again."— Exodus 11:4–6
Before this final plague God commands Moses to tell the Israelites to mark a lamb's blood above their doors in order that Yahweh will pass over them (i.e., that they will not be touched by the death of the firstborn). Pharaoh orders the Israelites to leave, taking whatever they want, and asks Moses to bless him in the name of the Lord.
Composition, theology and historicityEdit
Scholars are in broad agreement that the publication of the Torah took place in the mid-Persian period (the 5th century BCE). The Book of Deuteronomy, composed in stages between the 7th and 6th centuries, mentions the "diseases of Egypt" (Deuteronomy 7:15 and 28:60), but means something that afflicted the Israelites, not the Egyptians, and never specifies the plagues. The traditional number of ten is not actually mentioned in Exodus, and other sources differ - Psalms 78 and 105 seem to list only seven or eight and in a different order. It appears that originally there were only seven (which included the tenth), to which plagues 3,6 and 9 were later added to make the ten. In this final version the first nine form three triads (groups of three), and in introducing each triad God informs Moses of the main lesson it will teach. In the first triad the Egyptians begin to experience the power of God; in the second God demonstrates that he is directing events closely by targetting the Egyptians while exempting the Israelites; and the third shows the incomparability of the God who inflicts them. Overall, the plagues are "signs and marvels" given by the God of Israel to answer Pharaoh's taunt that he does not know Yahweh: "The Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord."
Scholars broadly agree that the exodus story has no historical basis and that the Israelites originated in Canaan and from the Canaanites. The Ipuwer Papyrus, written probably in the late Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (c.1991–1803 BCE) has been put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the Biblical account, most notably because of its statement that "the river is blood" and its frequent references to servants running away, but these arguments ignore the many points on which Ipuwer contradicts Exodus, such as the fact that its Asiatics are arriving in Egypt rather than leaving, and the likelihood that the "river is blood" phrase is simply a poetic image of turmoil. The many popular-level attempts to find natural explanations for the plagues (e.g., a volcanic eruption to explain the "darkness" plague) have been dismissed by biblical scholars, for while all except the last resemble natural catastrophes, their pattern, timing, rapid succession, and above all their control by Moses, mark them as supernatural, the work of God.
In visual art, the plagues have generally been reserved for works in series, especially engravings. Still, relatively few depictions in art emerged compared to other religious themes until the 19th century, when the plagues became more common subjects, with John Martin and Joseph Turner producing notable canvases. This trend probably reflected a Romantic attraction to landscape and nature painting, for which the plagues were suited, a Gothic attraction to morbid stories, and a rise in Orientalism, wherein exotic Egyptian themes found currency. Given the importance of noble patronage throughout Western art history, the plagues may have found consistent disfavor because the stories emphasize the limits of a monarch's power, and images of lice, locusts, darkness, and boils were ill-suited for decoration in palaces and churches.
Taking direct inspiration from the ten plagues, Iced Earth's eleventh studio album Plagues of Babylon contains many references and allusions to the plagues. Metallica's song "Creeping Death" (from their second album, Ride the Lightning) makes references to a few of the plagues, in addition to the rest of the story of the Exodus. Perhaps the most successful artistic representation of the plagues is Handel's oratorio Israel in Egypt, which, like his perennial favorite, "Messiah", takes a libretto entirely from scripture. The work was especially popular in the 19th century because of its numerous choruses, generally one for each plague, and its playful musical depiction of the plagues. For example, the plague of frogs is performed as a light aria for alto, depicting frogs jumping in the violins, and the plague of flies and lice is a light chorus with fast scurrying runs in the violins.
- The Ten Commandments (1956)
- The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971)
- Moses (1995)
- The Prince of Egypt (1998)
- Magnolia (1999)
- The Mummy (1999)
- The Reaping (2007)
- Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014)
- Os Dez Mandamentos (2015)
- Seder-Masochism (2018)
- The Bible (2013 miniseries) – Episode 2 has a scene of these plagues.
- Haven – In "A Tale of Two Audreys," the town of Haven is afflicted by almost all of the plagues of Egypt.
- A Rugrats Passover
- Simpsons Bible Stories
- Family Guy – In the second season episode "If I'm Dyin', I'm Lyin'", the Griffin family is affected by most of the plagues due to Peter being worshiped like God.
The Fourth Plague: The Plague of Flies, James Jacques Joseph Tissot, Jewish Museum, New York
The Fifth Plague: Pestilence of livestock, by Gustave Doré
The Seventh Plague: John Martin (1823)
The Eighth Plague: "The Plague of Locusts", illustration from the 1890 Holman Bible
The Ninth Plague: Darkness by Gustave Doré
- Greifenhagen 2000, p. 1062.
- Tigay 2004, p. 117.
- Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 90.
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- Redmount 2001, p. 77.
- Romer 2008, p. 2 and fn.3.
- Rogerson 2003b, p. 154.
- Van Seters 2015, p. 124.
- Johnstone 2003, p. 83-84.
- Tigay 2004, p. 118.
- Tigay 2004, p. 119.
- Tigay 2004, p. 121.
- Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 81.
- Meyers 2005, pp. 6–7.
- Willems 2010, p. 83.
- Enmarch 2011, p. 173-175.
- Tigay 2004, p. 117-118.
- Leon 2011, p. unpaginated.
- "The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971) – Did You Know?". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
Dr. Phibes murders were inspired by the 10 plagues of Egypt found in the Old Testament
- "The Prince of Egypt". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "FAQ for Magnolia (1999)". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Sommers, Stephen (May 7, 1999), The Mummy, Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah, retrieved April 4, 2018
- "The Reaping". imdb.com. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "Exodus: Gods and Kings". imdb.com. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- Gomes, Marta (March 17, 2015). "Tudo pronto para a estreia de "Os Dez Mandamentos"". Notícias do dia (Grupo RIC). Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "Seder-Masochism". imdb.com. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- Collins, John J. (2005). The Bible After Babel: Historical Criticism in a Postmodern Age. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802828927.
- Enmarch, Roland (2011). "The Reception of a Middle Egyptian Poem: The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All". In Collier, M.; Snape, S. (eds.). Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (PDF). Rutherford.
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- Johnstone, William D. (2003). "Exodus". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Leon, Donna (2011). Handel's Bestiary: In Search of Animals in Handel's Operas. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0802195616.
- Meyers, Carol (2005). Exodus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521002912.
- Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802862600.
- Redmount, Carol A. (2001) . "Bitter Lives: Israel In And Out of Egypt". In Coogan, Michael D. (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. OUP. ISBN 9780199881482.
- Rogerson, John W. (2003b). "Deuteronomy". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Tigay, Jeffrey H. (2004). "Exodus". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Van Seters, John (2015). The Pentateuch: A Social Science Commentary. Bloomsbury.
- Media related to Plagues of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons