West Semitic languages
The grouping, supported by semiticists like Robert Hetzron and John Huehnergard, divides the Semitic language family into two branches: Eastern and Western. The East Semitic languages consist of the extinct Eblaite and Akkadian languages, while the remaining majority of Semitic languages form the West Semitic languages grouping. It consists of the clearly defined sub-groups: Ethiopic, South Arabian, Arabic and Northwest Semitic (this including Hebrew, Aramaic, Amorite and Ugaritic). The first two, Ethiopic and South Arabian, show particular common features, and are often grouped together as South Semitic. The correct classification of Arabic with respect to other Semitic languages is debated. In older classifications, it is grouped with the South Semitic languages. However, Hetzron and Huehnergard connect it more closely with the Northwest Semitic languages, to form Central Semitic. Some semiticists continue to argue for the older classification based on the distinctive feature of broken plurals. Some linguists also argue that Eteocypriot was a Northwest Semitic language spoken in ancient Cyprus.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "West Semitic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Chapter V, page 425
- Aaron D. Rubin (2008). "The subgrouping of the Semitic languages". Language and Linguistics Compass. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2 (1): 61–84. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2007.00044.x.
P. Haupt (1878) first recognized that the qatala past tense found in West Semitic was an innovation, and that the Akkadian prefixed past tense must be archaic. It was F. Hommel, however, who recognized the implications of this for the subgrouping of Semitic; cf. Hommel(1883: 63, 442; 1892: 92–97; 1926: 75–82).
- Fritz Hommel, Die semitischen Volker und Sprachen als erster Versuch einer Encyclopadie der semitischen Sprach- und Alterthums-Wissenschaft, (1883)