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List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

The Iranian languages are also situated in around the Assyrian Homeland, where they'd influence the language.[1]

Loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic came about mostly due to the contact between Assyrian people and Arabs, Persians, Kurds and Turks in modern history, and can also be found in the other two major dialects spoken by the Assyrian people, these being Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo.[2] Assyrian is one of the few languages where most of its foreign words come from a different language family (in this case, Indo-European).[3]

Unlike other Neo-Aramaic languages, Assyrian has an extensive number of latterly introduced Iranian loanwords[4]. Depending on the dialect, Arabic loanwords are also reasonably present.[5] Some Turkish loanwords are Turkified words that are of Arabic origin.[6] To note, some of the loanwords are revised (or "Assyrianized"), and therefore would sound somewhat different to the original word.[7] Furthermore, some loanwords may also have a slightly different meaning from the original language.[8]

ListEdit

Below is a list of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, separated into sections based on the source language.

Notes:

ArabicEdit

Assyrian Word Original Word Part of Speech Meaning Notes Classical Syriac equivalent
Transliteration Spelling
ʿáskari عَسْكَرِيّ noun soldier Middle Persian loanword. pālḥā ܦܠܚܐ
ʿaskariya عَسْكَرِيَّة noun military gaysā ܓܝܣܐ
ʾalasás عَلَى الأَسَاس adverb as if; basically; allegedly Some speakers.
bas بس conjunction; adverb but; only Persian loanword. Some speakers. ʾellā ܐܠܐ
buri بُورِي noun water pipe Colloquial Iraqi Arabic.
dunye, dunya دُنْيَا noun world ʿālmā ܥܠܡܐ
fundiq فُنْدُق noun hotel Ancient Greek loanword. puttəqā ܦܘܬܩܐ
ġarī́b غريب adjective strange Some speakers. nūḵrāyā ܢܘܟܪܝܐ
ġassala غَسَّالَة noun washing machine
ḥukma, xukma حُكُومَة noun government məḏabbərānūṯā ܡܕܒܪܢܘܬܐ
ʾishā́l إِسْهَال noun diarrhea Some speakers.
jizdán(a) جزدان noun wallet tarmālā ܬܪܡܠܐ
majbur مُجْبَر adjective forced, obliged
maymun مَيْمُون noun monkey qōp̄ā ܩܘܦܐ
mŭḥami مُحَامِي noun lawyer Some speakers.
mustašfa مُسْتَشْفًى noun hospital bêṯ kərīhē ܒܝܬ ܟܪ̈ܝܗܐ
qăṣit قَصْد noun story, tale Cf. Kurdish qesd. tūnnāyā ܬܘܢܝܐ
qiṣṣa noun forehead bêṯ gəḇīnē ܒܝܬ ܓܒܝܢ̈ܐ
ṣādra صَدْر noun chest (anatomy) ḥaḏyā ܚܕܝܐ
ṣāḥ, ṣāx صِحَّة noun health ḥūlmānā ܚܘܠܡܢܐ
ṣāḥḥi صِحِّيّ adjective healthy ḥūlmānāyā ܚܘܠܡܢܝܐ
sijin سِجْن noun jail; prison Some speakers. bêṯ ʾăsīrē ܒܝܬ ܐܣܝܪ̈ܐ
ṯallaja ثَلَّاجَة noun refrigerator Some speakers.
ṭiyara طَيَّارَة noun aeroplane
ʾuti noun clothes iron Turkic loanword.
yālla ياالله interjection hurry up; let's go, come on Some speakers.

PersianEdit

Assyrian Word Original Word Part of Speech Meaning Notes Classical Syriac equivalent
Transliteration Spelling
biš, buš بیش adverb more yattīr ܝܬܝܪ
čamča چمچه noun spoon
čangal چنگال noun fork
čanta, janta چنته noun purse; backpack kīsā ܟܝܣܐ
čarikk چارک noun quarter, fourth rūḇʿā ܪܘܒܥܐ
darde درد noun sorrow, pain kēḇā ܟܐܒܐ
darmana درمان noun medicine, drug Also borrowed into Classical Syriac. sammā, darmānā ܕܪܡܢܐ, ܣܡܐ
ʾerzan ارزان adjective cheap, inexpensive
gĕran, gran, ʾagran گران adjective expensive
halbatte, halbat البته interjection; adverb of course; naturally
ham هم adverb also ʾāp̄ ܐܦ
hič هیچ determiner no, none; nothing lā; lā meddem ܠܐ; ܠܐ ܡܕܡ
mēs میز noun table pāṯūrā ܦܬܘܪܐ
parda پرده noun curtain
penjar(a) پنجره noun window kawwəṯā ܟܘܬܐ
rang(a) رنگ noun colour ṣeḇʿā ܨܒܥܐ
razi راضی adjective satisfied, content Arabic loanword. raʿyā ܪܥܝܐ
sabab سبب noun; conjunction reason; because Arabic loanword. ʿelləṯā ܥܠܬܐ
sanā́y, ʾasanā́y, hasanā́y آسان adjective easy pəšīqā ܦܫܝܩܐ
tambal تنبل adjective lazy ḥəḇannānā ܚܒܢܢܐ
xyara خیار noun cucumber Also borrowed into Classical Syriac. ḵəyārā ܟܝܪܐ
zahmat, zamit زحمت noun; adjective trouble, difficulty; troublesome, difficult Arabic loanword. qašyā ܩܫܝܐ
zarda زرد noun; adjective yellow; yellowish Some speakers. šāʿūṯā; šāʿūṯānāyā ܫܥܘܬܐ; ܫܥܘܬܢܝܐ

KurdishEdit

Assyrian Word Original Word Part of Speech Meaning Notes Classical Syriac equivalent
Transliteration Spelling
č̣aṗṗe, č̣aṗle çep noun left semmālā ܣܡܠܐ
čŭ çuh determiner no; not Some speakers. ܠܐ
č̣yama verb closing, shutting səḵar ܣܟܪ
hawar hewar noun aid ʿūḏrānā ܥܘܕܪܢܐ
hiwi hêvî noun hope saḇrā ܣܒܪܐ
jamikka cêmik noun twin Cognate with Latin geminus, French jumeau, Portuguese gêmeo. tāmā ܬܐܡܐ
ḳuṗṗala kopal noun staff, cane Cf. Persian کوپال. šaḇṭā ܫܒܛܐ
mra(z)zole verb lecturing, scolding Arabic loanword. gəʿar ܓܥܪ
qonya noun drain; well bālōʿtā; bērā ܒܠܘܥܬܐ; ܒܐܪܐ
ṣola sol noun shoe Cognate with English sole, Latin solea. məsānā ܡܣܐܢܐ
zăra zer noun; adjective yellow; yellowish Some speakers. šāʿūṯā; šāʿūṯānāyā ܫܥܘܬܐ; ܫܥܘܬܢܝܐ

TurkishEdit

Assyrian Word Original Word Part of Speech Meaning Notes Classical Syriac equivalent
Modern Ottoman Transliteration Spelling
belki, balkit belki بلکه adverb maybe From Persian balke (بلکه, "but"). kəbar ܟܒܪ
čakuč çekiç چكیچ noun hammer marzap̄tā, ʾarzap̄tā ܡܪܙܦܬܐ, ܐܪܙܦܬܐ
dabanja tabanca طبانجه noun pistol, gun
dūs, dus düz دوز adjective straight, flat; correct tərīṣā ܬܪܝܨܐ
gami gemi noun boat, ship ʾelpā, səp̄ī[n]tā ܐܠܦܐ, ܣܦܝܢܬܐ
hazir hazır حاضر adjective ready From Arabic ḥāḍir (حَاضِر, "present"). ʿəṯīḏā ܥܬܝܕܐ
kismet kısmet قسمت noun fate From Arabic qisma (قِسْمَة, "division").
pežgir peşkir پیشگیر noun towel From Persian pišgir (پیشگیر).
rahat rahat راحت adjective comfortable From Arabic rāḥa (رَاحَة, "relaxation").
saʾatt saat ساعت noun hour; clock From Arabic sāʿa (سَاعَة), itself probably borrowed from Aramaic. šāʿṯā ܫܥܬܐ
tammiz, tammis temiz تمیز adjective clean, tidy From Arabic tamyīz (تَمْيِيز, "refinement"). daḵyā ܕܟܝܐ
tōs, taws toz توز noun dust ʾaḇqā ܐܒܩܐ
zengin zengin زنگين adjective rich, wealthy From Persian sangin (سنگين, "heavy"). ʿattīrā ܥܬܝܪܐ

OtherEdit

These foreign words are borrowed from European languages:

Assyrian Word Original Word Part of Speech Meaning Notes Classical Syriac equivalent
Transliteration Spelling
ʾatmabel, ʾatnabel English, French: automobile noun automobile, car
benzin, benzil German: Benzin noun petrol/gasoline
batri French: batterie, English: battery noun battery
bāy English: bye interjection bye pōš ba-šəlāmā ܦܘܫ ܒܫܠܡܐ
bira Italian: birra, from Latin: bibere noun beer pezzā ܦܙܐ
bomba English: bomb, French: bombe noun bomb From Ancient Greek bómbos (βόμβος).
glās English: glass noun cup (not necessarily made of glass) kāsā ܟܣܐ
ha(l)lo English: hello interjection hello, greetings šəlāmā ܫܠܡܐ
lori English: lorry noun lorry/truck
mašina Russian: mašína (маши́на) noun train; automobile Meaning differs depending on the speaker, dialect and/or context. Ultimately from Ancient Greek mēkhanḗ (μηχανή).
mčayyoke English: check verb checking, inspecting The noun Old French eschec, from medieval Latin scaccus, via Arabic from Persian šāh (شاه, "king").
pakit(a) English: packet noun packet
stōp English: stove noun stove; heater
stumka, ʾisṭumka Ancient Greek: stómakhos (στόμαχος) noun stomach Also borrowed into Classical Syriac. Cognate with English stomach. karsā, ʾesṭōmka ܟܪܣܐ, ܐܣܛܘܡܟܐ
tĭlifón English: telephone noun telephone Coined from Ancient Greek têle (τῆλε, “afar”) and phōnḗ (φωνή, “voice, sound”).
tilvizyón English: television noun television Coined from Ancient Greek têle (τῆλε, “afar”) and Latin vīsiō ("vision, seeing").

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Yohannan, A. (1900). A Modern Syriac-English dictionary, Part 1, New York.
  2. ^ Yildiz, Efrem, The Aramaic Language and Its Classification, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 14:1 (2000)
  3. ^ Odisho, Edward Y. (2002). „The role of aspiration in the translation of loanwords in Aramaic and Arabic“, W. Arnold and H. Bobzin (ed.): Sprich doch mit deinen Knechten aramäisch, wir verstehen es! 60 Beiträge zur Semitistik. Festschrift für Otto Jastrow zum 60 Geburtstag, Wiesbaden, 489-502.
  4. ^ Younansardaroud, Helen, Synharmonism in the Särdä:rïd Dialect, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 12:1 (1998): 77-82.
  5. ^ The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar, Geoffrey Khan, Boston, 2008
  6. ^ Yamauchi, Edwin M., Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic or Syriac? A Critique of the Claims of G.M. Lamsa for the Syriac Peshitta, Bibliotheca Sacra 131 (1974): 320-331.
  7. ^ Yohannan, Abraham, Some Remarks Regarding the Pronunciation of Modern Syriac, Journal of the American Oriental Society 25 (1904)
  8. ^ Younansardaroud, Helen (1999). „The influence of Modern Persian on the Särdä:rïd dialect“, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, XIII:65-68.