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Petra (Arabic: ٱلْبَتْرَاء‎, romanizedAl-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα, "Stone"), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu,[citation needed] is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan. Petra lies on the slope of Jabal Al-Madbah in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of the Arabah valley that runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba.[3] Petra is believed to have been settled as early as 9,000 BC, and it was possibly established in the 4th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataean Kingdom. The Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who invested in Petra's proximity to the trade routes by establishing it as a major regional trading hub.[4]

Petra
Raqmu
Petra Jordan BW 21.JPG
Tourists in front of Al Khazneh (The Treasury) at Petra
LocationMa'an Governorate, Jordan
Coordinates30°19′43″N 35°26′31″E / 30.32861°N 35.44194°E / 30.32861; 35.44194Coordinates: 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″E / 30.32861°N 35.44194°E / 30.32861; 35.44194
Area264 square kilometres (102 sq mi)[1]
Elevation810 m (2,657 ft)
Builtpossibly as early as 5th century BC [2]
Visitors918,000 (in 2010)
Governing bodyPetra Region Authority
Websitewww.visitpetra.jo
Petra is located in Jordan
Petra
Location of Petra
Raqmu in Jordan
CriteriaCultural: i, iii, iv
Reference326
Inscription1985 (9th Session)

The trading business gained the Nabataeans considerable revenue and Petra became the focus of their wealth. The earliest historical reference to Petra was an unsuccessful attack on the city ordered by Antigonus I in 312 BC and recorded by various Greek historians. The Nabataeans were, unlike their enemies, accustomed to living in the barren deserts, and were able to repel attacks by taking advantage of the area's mountainous terrain. They were particularly skillful in harvesting rainwater, agriculture and stone carving. Petra flourished in the 1st century AD, when its famous Khazneh structure – believed to be the mausoleum of Nabataean king Aretas IV – was constructed, and its population peaked at an estimated 20,000 inhabitants.[5]

Although the Nabataean kingdom became a client state of the Roman Empire in the first century BC, it was only in 106 AD that it lost its independence. Petra fell to the Romans, who annexed Nabataea and renamed it as Arabia Petraea. Petra's importance declined as sea trade routes emerged, and after an earthquake in 363 destroyed many structures. In the Byzantine era several Christian churches were built, but the city continued to decline, and by the early Islamic era it was abandoned except for a handful of nomads. It remained unknown to the world until it was rediscovered in 1812 by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.[6]

The city is accessed through a 1.2-kilometre-long (0.75 mi) gorge called the Siq, which leads directly to the Khazneh. Famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system, Petra is also called the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.[7] It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".[8] In 2007, Al-Khazneh was voted as one of the New7Wonders of the World. Petra is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan's most-visited tourist attraction. Tourist numbers peaked at 1 million in 2010; but there followed a slump due to the political instability generated by the Arab Spring affecting countries surrounding Jordan.[9] However, tourist numbers increased subsequently. About 800,000 tourists visited the site in 2018.

GeographyEdit

 
Map of Petra

Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataean Kingdom and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.[3]

Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis. The area is visited by flash floods, but archaeological evidence shows that the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams, cisterns and water conduits. These innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought and enabled the city to prosper from its sale.[10][11]

 
The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra

In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun ("Aaron's Mountain"), the location of the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial place of Aaron, brother of Moses. Another approach was possibly from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east. The impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge, in places only 3–4 m (10–13 ft) wide, called the Siq ("shaft"), a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra's most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh (popularly known as and meaning "the Treasury"), hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.[12]

A little further from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect. The theatre has been cut into the hillside and into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers.[3]

ClimateEdit

In Petra, there is a semi-arid climate. Most rain falls in the winter. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BSk. The average annual temperature in Petra is 15.5 °C (59.9 °F). About 193 mm (7.60 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Petra
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
20.9
(69.6)
25.1
(77.2)
28.6
(83.5)
29.8
(85.6)
30.0
(86.0)
28.1
(82.6)
24.6
(76.3)
18.2
(64.8)
13.4
(56.1)
21.6
(70.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
2.8
(37.0)
5.6
(42.1)
8.7
(47.7)
11.7
(53.1)
14.1
(57.4)
16.1
(61.0)
16.5
(61.7)
14.2
(57.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.1
(44.8)
3.4
(38.1)
9.5
(49.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45
(1.8)
38
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
12
(0.5)
4
(0.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.1)
15
(0.6)
41
(1.6)
193
(7.6)
Source: Climate-Data.org,Climate data

HistoryEdit

Indigenous ruleEdit

By 2010 BCE, some of the earliest recorded farmers had settled in Beidha, a Pre-Pottery Neolithic settlement just north of Petra.[13] Petra is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded relatively late, a sanctuary has existed there since very ancient times. Historian Josephus (ca. 37–100) describes the region as inhabited by the Midianite nation as early as 1340 BC, and that the nation was governed by five kings, whom he names: "Rekem; the city which bears his name ranks highest in the land of the Arabs and to this day is called by the whole Arabian nation, after the name of its royal founder, Rekeme: called Petra by the Greeks."[14] The famed architecture of Petra, and other Nabataean sites were built during indigenous rule in early antiquity.

The Nabataeans were one among several nomadic Bedouin tribes that roamed the Arabian Desert and moved with their herds to wherever they could find pasture and water.[15] They became familiar with their area as seasons passed, and they struggled to survive during bad years when seasonal rainfall diminished.[15] Although the Nabataeans were initially embedded in Aramaic culture, theories about them having Aramean roots are rejected by modern scholars. Instead, archaeological, religious and linguistic evidence confirm that they are a northern Arabian tribe.[16]

The Semitic name of the city, if not Sela, remains unknown. The passage in Diodorus Siculus (xix. 94–97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 BC is understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, but the "petra" (rock) referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name and the description implies that the metropolis was not yet in existence,[3] although its place was used by Arabians.[17]

 
The Rekem Inscription before it was buried by the bridge abutments

The name "Rekem" was inscribed in the rock wall of the Wadi Musa opposite the entrance to the Siq.[18] However, Jordan built a bridge over the wadi and this inscription was buried beneath tons of concrete.[19]

Mid-AntiquityEdit

 
General view
 
Ancient columns of the Great Temple

In AD 106, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, the part of Arabia under the rule of Petra was absorbed into the Roman Empire as part of Arabia Petraea, and Petra became its capital. The native dynasty came to an end but the city continued to flourish under Roman rule. It was around this time that the Petra Roman Road was built. A century later, in the time of Alexander Severus, when the city was at the height of its splendor, the issue of coinage comes to an end. There is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid Empire. Meanwhile, as Palmyra (fl. 130–270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined. It appears, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre. Another Roman road was constructed at the site. Epiphanius of Salamis (c.315–403) writes that in his time a feast was held there on December 25 in honor of the virgin Khaabou (Chaabou) and her offspring Dushara.[3] Dushara and al-Uzza were two of the main deities of the city, which otherwise included many idols from other Nabatean deities such as Allat and Manat.[20]

Late Antiquity to Early Middle AgesEdit

Petra declined rapidly under Roman rule, in large part from the revision of sea-based trade routes. In 363 an earthquake destroyed many buildings, and crippled the vital water management system.[21] The old city of Petra was the capital of the Byzantine province of Palaestina III and many churches were excavated in and around Petra from the Byzantine era. In one of them 140 papyri were discovered which contained mainly contracts, dated from 537 to 593, establishing that the city was still flourishing in the sixth century.[22] In the 12th century, the Crusaders built fortresses but left this place after a while. As a result, Petra was forgotten for the Western world until the 19th century.[23][24] The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity during the Middle Ages and were visited by Sultan Baibars of Egypt towards the end of the 13th century.[3]

19th centuryEdit

 
View of the Royal Tombs in Petra

The first European to describe them was Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt during his travels in 1812.[3][25] At that time, the Greek Church of Jerusalem operated a diocese in Al Karak named Battra (باطره in Arabic, and Πέτρας in Greek) and it was the opinion among the clergy of Jerusalem that Kerak was the ancient city of Petra.[25]

The Scottish painter David Roberts visited Petra in 1839 and returned to England with sketches and stories of the encounter with local tribes. The archaeologist Philip Hammond from the University of Utah, USA, has visited Petra for nearly 40 years. He explains that the local folklore says it was created by the wand of Moses, when he struck the rock to bring forth water for the Israelites. Hammond believes the carved channels deep within the walls and ground were made from ceramic pipes that once fed water for the city, from rock-cut systems on the canyon rim.[26]

Because the structures weakened with age, many of the tombs became vulnerable to thieves, and many treasures were stolen. In 1929, a four-person team, consisting of British archaeologists Agnes Conway and George Horsfield, Palestinian physician and folklore expert Dr Tawfiq Canaan and Dr Ditlef Nielsen, a Danish scholar, excavated and surveyed Petra.[27]

Numerous scrolls in Greek and dating to the Byzantine period were discovered in an excavated church near the Winged Lion Temple in Petra in December 1993.[28]

 
Petra siq in 1947 (left) compared with the same location in 2013

Late 20th century: World Heritage Site designationEdit

 
Petra at night
 
Tourist attraction

The Bidoul/Bidul or Petra Bedouin were forcibly resettled from their cave dwellings in Petra to Umm Sayhoun/ Um Seihun by the Jordanian government in 1985, prior to the UNESCO designation process. Here, they were provided with block-built housing with some infrastructure including in particular a sewage and drainage system. Among the six communities in the Petra Region, Umm Sayhoun is one of the smaller communities. The village of Wadi Musa is the largest in the area, inhabited largely by the Layathnah Bedouin, and is now the closest settlement to the visitor centre, the main entrance via the Siq and the archaeological site generally. Umm Sayhoun gives access to the 'back route' into the site, the Wadi Turkmaniyeh pedestrian route.[29]

On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. In a popular poll in 2007, it was also named one of the New7Wonders of the World. The  PAP (Petra Archaeological Park) became an autonomous legal entity over the management of this site in August 2007.[30]

The Bidouls belong to one of the Bedu tribes whose cultural heritage and traditional skills were proclaimed by UNESCO on the Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2005 and inscribed[31] in 2008.

In 2011, following an 11-month project planning phase, the Petra Development and Tourism Region Authority in Association with DesignWorkshop and JCP s.r.l published a Strategic Master Plan that guides planned development of the Petra Region. This is intended to guide planned development of the Petra Region in an efficient, balanced and sustainable way over the next 20 years for the benefit of the local population and of Jordan in general. As part of this, a Strategic Plan was developed for Umm Sayhoun and surrounding areas.[32]

The process of developing the Strategic Plan considered the area's needs from five points of view:

  • a socio-economic perspective
  • the perspective of Petra Archaeological Park
  • the perspective of Petra's tourism product
  • a land use perspective
  • an environmental perspective

Discovery of buried structures in 2016Edit

In 2016, archaeologists discovered a large, previously unknown monumental structure buried beneath the sands of Petra using satellite imagery.[33][34][35]

3D documentationEdit

The non-profit Zamani Project specialises in 3D digital documentation of tangible cultural heritage. The data generated by the Zamani Project creates a permanent record that can be used for research, education, restoration, and conservation.[36][37][38][39] Following structures where documented in 3D includes the Siq, the Treasury (Al Khazneh), the Monastery (Ad Deir), the Urn Tomb; the Palace Tomb; the Corinthian Tomb; the Silk Tomb; the Theater; Qasr al-Bint; the Great Temple; the Temenos Gate; the Street of Facade (Facade Tombs); the Winged Lion Temple; Turkmeniyeh Tomb; the Soldier Tomb (Wadi Farasa); the Garden Tomb (Wadi Farasa); the Renaissance Tomb (Wadi Farasa); the Triclinium; the Djinn Blocks (before Siq entrance); the Obelisk Tomb (before Siq entrance) as well as the landscape of Wadi Musa and the landscape of Wadi Farasa.[40][41][42][43][44] Some of the 3D output can be seen here.

IssuesEdit

The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion from flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling,[45] improper restoration of ancient structures and unsustainable tourism.[46] The last has increased substantially, especially since the site received widespread media coverage in 2007 during the New Seven Wonders of the World Internet and cellphone campaign.[47]

In an attempt to reduce the impact of these threats, the Petra National Trust (PNT) was established in 1989. It has worked with numerous local and international organizations on projects that promote the protection, conservation, and preservation of the Petra site.[48] Moreover, UNESCO and ICOMOS recently collaborated to publish their first book on human and natural threats to the sensitive World Heritage sites. They chose Petra as its first and the most important example of threatened landscapes. A book released in 2012, Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra: Driver to Development or Destruction?, was the first in a series of important books to address the very nature of these deteriorating buildings, cities, sites, and regions.[49] The next books in the series of deteriorating UNESCO World Heritage Sites will include Machu Picchu, Angkor Wat, and Pompeii.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) released a video in 2018 highlighting abuse against working animals in Petra. PETA claimed that animals are forced to carry tourists or pull carriages every day. The video showed handlers beating and whipping working animals, with beatings intensifying when animals faltered. PETA also revealed some wounded animals, including camels with fly-infested, open wounds.[50] The Jordanian authority running the site responded by opening up a veterinarian clinic, and by spreading awareness among animal handlers.[51]

Tombs in the southern part of the city

ReligionEdit

The Theatre
El Deir ("The Monastery")
The Great Temple of Petra

The Nabataeans worshipped Arab gods and goddesses during the pre-Islamic era as well as a few of their deified kings. One, Obodas I, was deified after his death. Dushara was the primary male god accompanied by his three female deities: Al-‘Uzzá, Allat and Manāt. Many statues carved in the rock depict these gods and goddesses. New evidence indicates that broader Edomite, and Nabataean theology had strong links to Earth-Sun relationships, often manifested in the orientation of prominent Petra structures to equinox and solstice sunrises and sunsets.[52]

A stele dedicated to Qos-Allah 'Qos is Allah' or 'Qos the god', by Qosmilk (melech – king) is found at Petra (Glueck 516). Qos is identifiable with Kaush (Qaush) the God of the older Edomites. The stele is horned and the seal from the Edomite Tawilan near Petra identified with Kaush displays a star and crescent (Browning 28), both consistent with a moon deity. It is conceivable that the latter could have resulted from trade with Harran (Bartlett 194). There is continuing debate about the nature of Qos (qaus – bow) who has been identified both with a hunting bow (hunting god) and a rainbow (weather god) although the crescent above the stele is also a bow.[citation needed]

Nabatean inscriptions in Sinai and other places display widespread references to names including Allah, El and Allat (god and goddess), with regional references to al-Uzza, Baal and Manutu (Manat) (Negev 11). Allat is also found in Sinai in South Arabian language. Allah occurs particularly as Garm-'allahi – god decided (Greek Garamelos) and Aush-allahi – 'gods covenant' (Greek Ausallos). We find both Shalm-lahi 'Allah is peace' and Shalm-allat, 'the peace of the goddess'. We also find Amat-allahi 'she-servant of god' and Halaf-llahi 'the successor of Allah'.[53]

Recently, Petra has been put forward as the original 'Mecca' by some in the revisionist school of Islamic studies, owing to many claimed independent pieces of evidence, namely that the early original mosques faced Petra, not Jerusalem or Mecca, as the direction of Muslim prayer, the Qibla.[54] However, others have challenged the notion of comparing modern readings of Qiblah directions to early mosques’ Qiblahs as early Muslims could not accurately calculate the direction of the Qiblah to Mecca and so the apparent pinpointing of Petra by some early mosques may well be coincidental.[55]

The Monastery, Petra's largest monument, dates from the 1st century BC. It was dedicated to Obodas I and is believed to be the symposium of Obodas the god. This information is inscribed on the ruins of the Monastery (the name is the translation of the Arabic "Ad Deir").[citation needed]

Christianity found its way to Petra in the 4th century AD, nearly 500 years after the establishment of Petra as a trade center. Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (Anhioch. 10) named Asterius. At least one of the tombs (the "tomb with the urn"?) was used as a church. An inscription in red paint records its consecration "in the time of the most holy bishop Jason" (447). After the Islamic conquest of 629–632, Christianity in Petra, as of most of Arabia, gave way to Islam. During the First Crusade Petra was occupied by Baldwin I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and formed the second fief of the barony of Al Karak (in the lordship of Oultrejordain) with the title Château de la Valée de Moyse or Sela. It remained in the hands of the Franks until 1189.[3] It is still a titular see of the Catholic Church.[56]

Two Crusader-period castles are known in and around Petra. The first is al-Wu'ayra and is situated just north of Wadi Musa. It can be viewed from the road to "Little Petra". It is the castle of Valle Moise which was seized by a band of Turks with the help of local Muslims and only recovered by the Crusaders after they began to destroy the olive trees of Wadi Musa. The potential loss of livelihood led the locals to negotiate surrender. The second is on the summit of el-Habis in the heart of Petra and can be accessed from the West side of the Qasr al-Bint.

According to Arab tradition, Petra is the spot where Musa (Moses) struck a rock with his staff and water came forth, and where Moses' brother, Harun (Aaron), is buried, at Mount Hor, known today as Jabal Haroun or Mount Aaron. The Wadi Musa or "Wadi of Moses" is the Arab name for the narrow valley at the head of which Petra is sited. A mountaintop shrine of Moses' sister Miriam was still shown to pilgrims at the time of Jerome in the 4th century, but its location has not been identified since.[57]

In popular cultureEdit

 
The Hadrian Gate also known as the Temenos Gate and the Decumanus Maximus in Petra[58]

LiteratureEdit

PlaysEdit

  • Playwright John Yarbrough's tragicomedy, Petra,[62] debuted at the Manhattan Repertory Theatre in 2014[63] and was followed by award-winning performances at the Hudson Guild in New York in 2015.[64] It was selected for the Best American Short Plays 2014-2015 anthology.[65]

FilmsEdit

TelevisionEdit

  • Petra appeared in episode 20 of Misaeng.[67][68]
  • Petra appeared in an episode of Time Scanners, made for National Geographic, where six ancient structures were laser scanned, with the results built into 3D models.[69] Examining the model of Petra revealed insights into how the structure was built.[70]
  • Petra was the focus of an American PBS Nova special, "Petra: Lost City of Stone",[71] which premiered in the US and Europe in February 2015.

Music and musical videosEdit

  • Six months after a deadly hike by two Israelis in 1958, Haim Hefer wrote the lyrics for a ballad called Ha-Sela ha-Adom (“The Red Rock”)[72][73]
  • In 1977, the Lebanese Rahbani brothers wrote the musical Petra as a response to the Lebanese Civil War.[74]
  • The Sisters of Mercy filmed their music video for "Dominion/Mother Russia" in and around Al-Khazneh ("The Treasury") in February 1988.[75]
  • In 1994 Petra appeared in the video to the Urban Species single "Spiritual Love".[76][77]

VideogamesEdit

  • Petra is featured in Sid Meier's Civilization V and Sid Meier's Civilization VI as a buildable Wonder in a player's cities and as an illustration for Civilization V's loading screens. In Civilization V, the in-game encyclopedia, the Civilopedia, erroneously states that Petra was constructed in 1000 BC. This error was corrected in the Civilopedia for Civilization VI.
  • Petra is featured as a location in the online multiplayer game Overwatch.
  • The stage Shamar in the game Sonic Unleashed is heavily inspired by Petra.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ "Management of Petra". Petra National Trust. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  2. ^ Browning, Iain (1973, 1982), Petra, Chatto & Windus, London, p. 15, ISBN 0-7011-2622-1
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCooke, George Albert (1911). "Petra". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–310.
  4. ^ Seeger, Josh; Gus W. van Beek (1996). Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodolog. Eisenbrauns. p. 56. ISBN 978-1575060125.
  5. ^ "Petra Lost and Found". National Geographic. 2 January 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  6. ^ Glueck, Grace (17 October 2003). "ART REVIEW; Rose-Red City Carved From the Rock" – via NYTimes.com.
  7. ^ Major Attractions: Petra, Jordan tourism board
  8. ^ "UNESCO advisory body evaluation" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  9. ^ Thousands protest in Jordan, January 28, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  10. ^ "Petra: Water Works". Nabataea.net. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  11. ^ Lisa Pinsker (2001-09-11). "Geotimes – June 2004 – Petra: An Eroding Ancient City". Agiweb.org. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  12. ^ "Robert Fulford's column about Petra, Jordan". Robertfulford.com. 1997-06-18. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
  13. ^ "A Short History". Petra National Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  14. ^ Josephus, Flavius (1930). "Jewish Antiquities (iv.vii.§1) Translated by H. St. J. Thackeray". Harvard University Press. doi:10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_antiquities.1930. Retrieved 6 August 2016. – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required)
  15. ^ a b Jane, Taylor (2001). Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. London, United Kingdom: I.B.Tauris. pp. 14, 17, 30, 31. ISBN 9781860645082. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  16. ^ Maalouf, Tony (2003). Arabs in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line. Kregel Academic. ISBN 9780825493638. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  17. ^ Diodorus Siculus' account of Antigonus' expedition to Arabia, xix, section 95 (note 79).
  18. ^ Iain Browning (1974), Petra, Chatto & Windus, p. 109
  19. ^ "History of Petra". Terhaal Adventures. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
  20. ^ The Religious Life of Nabataea, Chapter Two, 2013, Peter Alpass
  21. ^ Glueck, Grace (2003-10-17). "ART REVIEW; Rose-Red City Carved From the Rock". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  22. ^ Frösén, Jaakko (2012). "Petra papyri". The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1002/9781444338386.wbeah06244. ISBN 9781444338386.
  23. ^ "Nabataea: The Crusades". nabataea.net. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  24. ^ Lawler, Andrew. "Reconstructing Petra". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  25. ^ a b John Lewis Burckhardt (1822). Travels in Syria and the Holy Land. J. Murray.
  26. ^ National Geographic documentary : Forbidden Archaeology of Petra and Nazca, 2018.
  27. ^ Conway, A.; Horsfield, G. (1930), Historical and Topographical Notes on Edom: with an account of the first excavations at Petra, 76, The Geographical Journal, pp. 369–390
  28. ^ Petra-National Geographic
  29. ^ "Map of the area from the go2petra website". Archived from the original on 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  30. ^ "Archeological Park - Visit Petra". visitpetra.jo. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  31. ^ "The Cultural Space of the Bedu in Petra and Wadi Rum". UNESCO Culture Sector. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
  32. ^ "Strategic Plan for Umm Sayhoun and surrounding areas" (PDF), Petra Development and Tourism Region Authority in Association with DesignWorkshop and JCP s.r.l., retrieved 8 April 2017[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ Parcak, Sarah; Tuttle, Christopher A. (May 2016). "Hiding in Plain Sight: The Discovery of a New Monumental Structure at Petra, Jordan, Using WorldView-1 and WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 375 (375): 35–51. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.375.0035. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 10.5615/bullamerschoorie.375.0035.
  34. ^ "Archaeologists discover massive Petra monument that could be 2,150 years old". The Guardian. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  35. ^ "Massive New Monument Found in Petra". National Geographic. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  36. ^ Rüther, Heinz. "An African heritage database, the virtual preservation of Africa's past" (PDF). www.isprs.org.
  37. ^ Rajan, Rahim S.; Rüther, Heinz (2007-05-30). "Building a Digital Library of Scholarly Resources from the Developing World: An Introduction to Aluka". African Arts. 40 (2): 1–7. doi:10.1162/afar.2007.40.2.1. ISSN 0001-9933.
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Bibliography

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