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(; Israel Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل), formally known as the State of Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, ), is a country in Medinat Yisra'el Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.
Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of
hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from to Iudaea . Syria Palaestina Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later Mandatory Palestine.
In 1947, the
United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 has held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank, though the United Nations Security Council rejected those actions as illegal and without international legal effect. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Israel's actions in the occupied territories such as the establishment of Israeli settlements have drawn international scrutiny and sustained condemnation by the United Nations and by human rights organization. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.
Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country has a liberal democracy (one of only two in the Middle East and North Africa region, the other being Tunisia), with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness.
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(; Amir Shmuel Blumenfeld Hebrew: אמיר שמואל בלומנפלד; born January 18, 1983) is an Israeli-American comedian, actor, writer, television host, and member of the American comedy duo, Jake and Amir. Born in Israel, he moved to Los Angeles when he was two, and was hired by the New York City-based CollegeHumor in 2005. As well as contributing to its books and articles, he has written and starred in original videos for the comedy website—appearing in series such as Hardly Working and —and was a cast member on its short-lived Very Mary-Kate MTV program .
The CollegeHumor Show
Amir first came to national prominence in 2004 when he was a semi-finalist during Yahoo's inaugural national IM Live contest, losing to the eventual champions. Now, he is best known for appearing in the
web series Jake and Amir
, in which he plays an annoying and exaggerated version of himself. Originally made by Hurwitz and Blumenfeld in their spare time, the series was then produced by CollegeHumor. Blumenfeld's acting in the series gained him a
for Best Individual Performance in 2010.
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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards. (also Kashrut or kashruth , kashrus כַּשְׁרוּת) is a set of dietary laws dealing with the foods that Jews are permitted to eat and how those foods must be prepared according to Jewish law. Food that may be consumed is deemed kosher ( in English, Yiddish: כּשר), from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér ( כָּשֵׁר), meaning "fit" (in this context: "fit for consumption").
Although the details of the laws of
kashrut are numerous and complex, they rest on a few basic principles:
Only certain types of mammals, birds and fish
meeting specific criteria are kosher; the consumption of the flesh of any animals that do not meet these criteria, such as pork and shellfish, is forbidden Kosher mammals and birds must be slaughtered according to a process known as
; blood may never be consumed and must be removed from meat by a process of salting and soaking in water for the meat to be permissible for use shechita Meat and meat derivatives may never be mixed with milk and milk derivatives: separate equipment for the storage and preparation of meat-based and dairy-based foods must be used Read more...
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The following are images from various Israel-related articles on Wikipedia.
Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Gal Fridman, winner of Israel's first Olympic gold medal
Bookplate done for Martin Buber; The plate is adorned with the walls of Jerusalem in the shape of a Shield of David, viewed from above
Heraclius returning the True Cross to Jerusalem, 15th-century painting by Miguel Ximénez
The Bahri Mamluk dynasty 1250–1382
Intel core i7-940. Intel developed its
dual-core Core Duo processor at its Israel Development Center in Haifa.
Habimah Theater in Tel Aviv
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, 15 July 1945
The route of the exiles to Babylon
Tzofim Israeli scout movement fire ceremony in Tel Aviv
Patriot missiles launched to intercept an Iraqi Scud over Tel Aviv during the Gulf War
. The practice of psalms is referred to as a philosophical and theological problem
David dictating the Psalms
Jewish workers in
Kerem Avraham neighbourhood of Jerusalem (c. 1850s)
Shrine of the Báb, built between 1949 and 1953, is an example of the architecture in Israel
A portion of the
Isaiah scroll. One of the earliest known manuscripts of biblical literature
Illustration for the
Song of Songs. Along with the Book of Esther, the ancient poem is an example of an ancient Israeli literature with no mention of God, and is traditionally read as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the
Mitla Pass, 31 October 1956
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