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(; Israel Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل), also known as the State of Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.
Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of
hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from to Iudaea . Syria Palaestina Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later Mandatory Palestine.
In 1947, the
United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country has a liberal democracy (one of only two in the Middle East and North Africa region, the other being Tunisia), with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, has the 31st or 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and is the richest ( nominal GDP) and the most developed country currently in conflict (100–999 deaths per year). It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness.
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Female infantry instructors prepare for a combat exercise
are women in the Israel Defense Forces female soldiers who serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Israel is one of only a few countries in the world with a mandatory military service requirement for women.
According to the IDF, 535 female Israeli soldiers had been killed in combat operations between the period 1962-2016 (this figure does not include the dozens of female soldiers killed in Israeli service prior to 1962). Women have taken part in Israel’s military before and since the founding of the state in 1948, with women comprising over 20% of Israeli forces in 1948, and 33% of all IDF soldiers and 51% of its officers, in 2011, fulfilling various roles within the
Ground, Navy and Air Forces. The 2000 Equality amendment to the Military Service law states that "The right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men." As of now, 88% to 92% of all roles in the IDF are open to female candidates, while women can be found in 69% of all positions.
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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards. ( Angel Bakeries Hebrew: מאפיות אנג'ל Ma'afiyot Anjel), also known as Angel's Bakery, is the largest commercial bakery in Israel, producing 275,000 loaves of bread and 275,000 rolls daily and controlling 30 percent of the country's bread market. With a product line of 100 different types of bread products and 250 different types of cakes and cookies, Angel sells its goods in 32 company-owned outlets nationwide and distributes to 6,000 stores and hundreds of hotels and army bases. It also exports to the United States, United Kingdom, France, Belgium and Denmark.
Founded in 1927 in
Jerusalem by Salomon Angel, Angel Bakeries introduced to the Israeli market the first sliced bread, plant-based emulsifiers, and new baking technologies. It has always been family-run, at first by Salomon with his brothers and sons, then by Salomon's grandsons, and today by Salomon's great-grandsons. The company, Salomon A. Angel Ltd., is publicly traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, with a turnover of $180 million in 2008.
Read more... Selected cuisine -
Peanut butter-flavored Bamba
( Bamba Hebrew: במבה) is a peanut butter-flavored snack manufactured by the Osem corporation in Holon, Israel.
Bamba is one of the leading snack foods produced and sold in Israel. It has been marketed since 1964 with no decline in sales. Bamba makes up 25% of the Israeli snack market. Similar products from other domestic manufacturers include "Parpar" (
Telma, since 2000 a subsidiary of Unilever) and "Shush" ( Strauss-Elite).
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The following are images from various Israel-related articles on Wikipedia.
Shrine of the Báb, built between 1949 and 1953, is an example of the architecture in Israel
The Bahri Mamluk dynasty 1250–1382
Gal Fridman, winner of Israel's first Olympic gold medal
A portion of the
Isaiah scroll. One of the earliest known manuscripts of biblical literature
Illustration for the
Song of Songs. Along with the Book of Esther, the ancient poem is an example of an ancient Israeli literature with no mention of God, and is traditionally read as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel
Bookplate done for Martin Buber; The plate is adorned with the walls of Jerusalem in the shape of a Shield of David, viewed from above
Tzofim Israeli scout movement fire ceremony in Tel Aviv
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, 15 July 1945
Heraclius returning the True Cross to Jerusalem, 15th-century painting by Miguel Ximénez
Habimah Theater in Tel Aviv
Patriot missiles launched to intercept an Iraqi Scud over Tel Aviv during the Gulf War
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the
Mitla Pass, 31 October 1956
. The practice of psalms is referred to as a philosophical and theological problem
David dictating the Psalms
The route of the exiles to Babylon
Jewish workers in
Kerem Avraham neighbourhood of Jerusalem (c. 1850s)
Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Intel core i7-940. Intel developed its
dual-core Core Duo processor at its Israel Development Center in Haifa.
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Associated Wikimedia External media
Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs Newsline
Ynet • ידיעות אחרונות – Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel's largest newspaper, centrist
מעריב – Maariv, second largest Israeli newspaper, liberal
JPost – The Jerusalem Post, Israel's oldest English language newspaper, centrist
Haaretz • הארץ – Haaretz, leading liberal Israeli newspaper
Globes – business daily
Jewish Telegraph Agency – worldwide Jewish news, centrist
Israel21c – the focus beyond the conflict
Israel Broadcasting Authority
Kol Israel – Live Radio - News - Sports
Israel National News • ערוץ 7 – Arutz Sheva (Channel 7), representing mostly right-wing, religious and settler communities
אינדימדיה – Indymedia Israel, primarily left-wing
Independent Media Review Analysis
Yahoo News full coverage Israel
Google News results for • Israel Alerts
Access Middle East – Accessible, attributable news
Isracast – Multimedia broadcast network
The Jerusalem Report – newsmagazine, liberal
Wikinews Cat:Israel Mid-East and Current events – free news you can write CAMERA – Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America