Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy. In the West, the term natural philosophy encompassed fields of study that are currently associated with disciplines such as classical physics, astronomy and medicine and was a precursor of modern natural sciences (life science and physical science). In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the centuries, the term science became associated with the scientific method, a systematic way of studying the natural world and particularly in the 19th century, multiple distinguishing characteristics of contemporary modern science began to take shape.
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, economics), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, logic, theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on the formal sciences being a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.
Science is related to research and is commonly organized by academic and research institutions as well as government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.
(A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS
) is one of the five particle detector
, ATLAS, CMS
, and LHCb
) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider
, a new particle accelerator
. It will be 45 metres long and 25 metres in diameter, and will weigh about 7,000 tonnes. The project involves roughly 2,000 scientists
at 151 institutions in 34 countries. The construction was completed in 2008. The experiment is expected to measure phenomena that involve highly massive particles
which were not measurable using earlier lower-energy
accelerators and might shed light on new theories
of particle physics
beyond the Standard Model
The ATLAS collaboration, the group of physicists building the detector, was formed in 1992 when the proposed EAGLE (Experiment for Accurate Gamma, Lepton and Energy Measurements) and ASCOT (Apparatus with Super COnducting Toroids) collaborations merged their efforts into building a single, general-purpose particle detector for the Large Hadron Collider. The design was a combination of those two previous designs, as well as the detector research and development that had been done for the Superconducting Supercollider.
(February 15, 1564 – January 8, 1642) was an Italian physicist
, and philosopher
who is closely associated with the scientific revolution
. His achievements include improvements to the telescope
, a variety of astronomical observations, the first
laws of motion, and effective support for Copernicanism
. According to Stephen Hawking
, Galileo has contributed more to the creation of the modern natural sciences than anybody else. He is the "father of modern astronomy
," the "father of modern physics
," and the "father of science
." The work of Galilei is considered to be a significant break from that of Aristotle
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