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Francis I of the Two Sicilies (Italian: Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe; 19 August 1777 – 8 November 1830)[1] was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830 and a member of the Spanish royal family.

Francis I
Francis1januarius.jpg
Portrait by Vicente López y Portaña, 1829
King of the Two Sicilies
Reign4 January 1825 – 8 November 1830
PredecessorFerdinand I
SuccessorFerdinand II
Born(1777-08-19)19 August 1777
Naples, Kingdom of Naples
Died8 November 1830(1830-11-08) (aged 53)
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Burial
Spouse
Issue
see details...
Full name
Italian: Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe
HouseBourbon-Two Sicilies
FatherFerdinand I of the Two Sicilies
MotherMaria Carolina of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Royal styles of
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Escudo de España (mazonado).svg
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty

Contents

BiographyEdit

Francis was born the son of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria in Naples. He was also the nephew of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, the last King and Queen of France before the first French Republic.

At the death of his older brother Carlo, Duke of Calabria, Francis became the heir to the throne and Duke of Calabria, the traditional title of the heir apparent to the Neapolitan throne.

In 1796 Francis married his double first cousin Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria, daughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. When she died, he married his first cousin María Isabel, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain.

After the Bourbon family fled from Naples to Sicily in 1806, and Lord William Bentinck, the British resident, had established a constitution and deprived Ferdinand of all power, Francis was appointed regent (1812).[2]

On the fall of Napoleon I, his father returned to Naples and suppressed the Sicilian constitution, incorporating his two kingdoms into that of the Two Sicilies (1816); Francis then assumed the revived title of duke of Calabria. While still heir apparent he professed liberal ideas, and on the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 he accepted the regency, apparently in a friendly spirit towards the new constitution.

On succeeding to the throne in 1825, however, he pursued a conservative course.[3] He took little part in the government, which he left in the hands of favourites and police officials, and lived with his mistresses, surrounded by soldiers, ever in dread of assassination. During his reign the only revolutionary movement was the outbreak on the Cilento (1828), repressed by the Marquis Delcarretto, an ex-Liberal. He was, however, successful in having the Austrian occupation force withdrawn (1827), thereby relieving a large financial burden on the treasury.

During his reign, the Royal Order of Francis I was founded to reward civil merit.

IssueEdit

With Maria Clementina of Austria:

With Isabella of Spain:

AncestryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Majo, Silvio. "FRANCESCO I di Borbone, re delle Due Sicilie". Retrieved 2014-08-14.
  2. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-I-king-of-the-Two-Sicilies
  3. ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-I-king-of-the-Two-Sicilies
  4. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. pp. 1, 9.

  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Francis I. of the Two Sicilies". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 936.

Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 19 August 1777 Died: 8 November 1830
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ferdinand I
King of the Two Sicilies
4 January 1825 – 8 November 1830
Succeeded by
Ferdinand II