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(from Astronomy Ancient Greek ἀστρονομία ( 'science that studies the laws of the stars') is a ) astronomía natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, nebulae, galaxies, and comets. Relevant phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, quasars, blazars, pulsars, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, astronomy studies everything that originates beyond Earth's atmosphere. Cosmology is a branch of astronomy that studies the universe as a whole.
Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. The early civilizations in
recorded history made methodical observations of the night sky. These include the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas. In the past, astronomy included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars. Nowadays, professional astronomy is often said to be the same as astrophysics.
Professional astronomy is split into
observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects. This data is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. These two fields complement each other. Theoretical astronomy seeks to explain observational results and observations are used to confirm theoretical results.
Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs play an
active role. This is especially true for the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have helped with many important discoveries, such as finding new comets. ( )
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The following are images from various astronomy-related articles on Wikipedia.
Cat's Paw Nebula created combining the work of professional and amateur astronomers. The image is the combination of the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope of the La Silla Observatory in Chile and a 0.4-meter amateur telescope. (from )
An image of the
One of the rolls of amateur astronomy groups is outreach programs bringing astronomy to the general public (from
Ferdinand Verbiest who became Head of the Mathematical Board and Director of the Observatory of the Chinese emperor in 1669 (from )
Portrait of the Flemish astronomer
An amateur astrophotography setup with an automated guide system connected to a laptop. (from
ALMA is the world's most powerful telescope for studying the Universe at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths. (from )
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Portrait of Kepler by an unknown artist in 1620.
(; Johannes Kepler German: [joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ, -nɛs -] (; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German ) listen astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books , Astronomia nova , and Harmonice Mundi . These works also provided one of the foundations for Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a
seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He also taught mathematics in Linz, and was an adviser to General Wallenstein.
Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of
, invented an improved version of the
refracting (or Keplerian) telescope
, and was mentioned in the
discoveries of his contemporary
. He was a corresponding member of the
Accademia dei Lincei
in Rome. (
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9 August 2022 – Discoveries of exoplanets Radio astronomers have discovered a newborn,
Jupiter-size exoplanet orbiting the star AS 209, using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array telescope in Chile. (Space.com)
26 April 2022 – In the morning, the
Moon, Jupiter, and Venus are seen aligning with each other. (Space.com)
4 April 2022 – Discoveries of exoplanets Astronomers announce the discovery of
K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb, an exoplanet that is said to resemble Jupiter. The discovery was made using the now-retired Kepler space telescope. (ScienceAlert)
30 March 2022 – The
Hubble Space Telescope observes the most distant single star ever. The star, named Earendel by astronomers, is 28 billion light-years away. It is the farthest detection of a star, dating back 900 million years after the Big Bang. This discovery surpasses Hubble's record from 2018, when it discovered a star that existed when the universe was roughly four billion years old. (CNN)
21 March 2022 – Discoveries of exoplanets NASA announces that they have discovered their 5000th exoplanet since 1992, when astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the discovery of two exoplanets orbiting PSR B1257+12. (Science News)
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