In the far-infrared, stars are not especially bright, but emission from very cold matter (140 Kelvin or less) can be observed that is not seen at shorter wavelengths. This is due to thermal radiation of interstellar dust contained in molecular clouds.
On 22 January 2014, European Space Agency scientists reported the detection, for the first definitive time, of water vapor on the dwarf planet, Ceres, largest object in the asteroid belt. The detection was made by using the far-infrared abilities of the Herschel Space Observatory. The finding is unexpected because comets, not asteroids, are typically considered to "sprout jets and plumes". According to one of the scientists, "The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids."
The Earth's atmosphere is opaque over most of the far-infrared, so most far-infrared astronomy is performed by satellites such as the Herschel Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, IRAS, and Infrared Space Observatory. Upper-atmosphere observations are also possible, as conducted by the airborne SOFIA telescope.
Ground-based observations are limited to submillimetre wavelengths using high-altitude telescopes such as the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz Telescope and the Submillimeter Array.
- A. Mampaso; M. Prieto; F. Sánchez (2003). Infrared Astronomy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-521-54810-6.
- "Near, Mid and Far-Infrared". Caltech Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
- Küppers, Michael; O’Rourke, Laurence; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Zakharov, Vladimir; Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Carry, Benoît; Teyssier, David; Marston, Anthony; Müller, Thomas; Crovisier, Jacques; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Moreno, Raphael (2014). "Localized sources of water vapour on the dwarf planet (1) Ceres". Nature. 505 (7484): 525–527. Bibcode:2014Natur.505..525K. doi:10.1038/nature12918. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 24451541.
- Harrington, J.D. (22 January 2014). "Herschel Telescope Detects Water on Dwarf Planet - Release 14-021". NASA. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Pilbratt, G. L.; Riedinger, J. R.; Passvogel, T.; Crone, G.; Doyle, D.; Gageur, U.; Heras, A. M.; Jewell, C.; Metcalfe, L.; Ott, S.; Schmidt, M. (2010). "HerschelSpace Observatory". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 518: L1. arXiv:1005.5331. Bibcode:2010A&A...518L...1P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014759. ISSN 0004-6361.