Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy:

Mauna Kea in Hawaii is one of the world's premier observatory sites. Pictured is the W. M. Keck Observatory, an optical interferometer.

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation). Astronomy also intersect with biology, as astrobiology, studying potential life throughout the universe.

Nature of astronomyEdit

Astronomy can be described as all the following:

Branches of astronomyEdit


History of astronomyEdit

Basic astronomical phenomenaEdit

Astronomical objectsEdit

Astronomical object

Solar SystemEdit

The SunMercuryVenusThe MoonEarthMarsPhobos and DeimosCeresThe main asteroid beltJupiterMoons of JupiterRings of JupiterSaturnMoons of SaturnRings of SaturnUranusMoons of UranusRings of UranusNeptuneMoons of NeptuneRings of NeptunePlutoMoons of PlutoHaumeaMoons of HaumeaMakemakeS/2015 (136472) 1The Kuiper BeltErisDysnomiaThe Scattered DiscThe Hills CloudThe Oort Cloud 

SunEdit

PlanetsEdit

Small Solar System bodiesEdit

ExoplanetsEdit

  • Exoplanet (also known as extrasolar planets) – planet outside the Solar System. A total of 4,341 such planets have been identified as of 28 Jan 2021.
    • Super-Earth – exoplanet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below those of the Solar System's ice giants.
    • Mini-Neptune – also known as a gas dwarf or transitional planet. A planet up to 10 Earth masses, but less massive than Uranus and Neptune.
    • Super-Jupiter – an exoplanet more massive than Jupiter.
    • Sub-Earth – an exoplanet "substantially less massive" than Earth and Venus.
    • Circumbinary planet – an exoplanet that orbits two stars.
    • Hot Jupiter – an exoplanet whose characteristics are similar to Jupiter, but that have high surface temperatures because they orbit very close to their parent stars, whereas Jupiter orbits its parent star (the Sun) at 5.2 AU (780×106 km), causing low surface temperatures.
    • Hot Neptune – an exoplanet in an orbit close to its star (normally less than one astronomical unit away), with a mass similar to that of Uranus or Neptune.
    • Pulsar planet – a planet that orbits a pulsar or a rapidly rotating neutron star.
    • Rogue planet (also known as an interstellar planet) – a planetary-mass object that orbits the galaxy directly.


Stars and stellar objectsEdit

StarsEdit

Variable starsEdit

SupernovaeEdit

Black holesEdit

 
Artist's representation of a black hole.

ConstellationsEdit

The 88 modern constellationsEdit

Constellation historyEdit

The 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy after 150 ADEdit
The 41 additional constellations added in the 16th and 17th centuriesEdit
Obsolete constellations including Ptolemy's Argo NavisEdit

Clusters and nebulaeEdit

GalaxiesEdit

CosmologyEdit

Space explorationEdit

See: Outline of space exploration

OrganizationsEdit

Public sector space agenciesEdit

Space agencies

AfricaEdit
North AfricaEdit
Sub-SaharanEdit
North AmericaEdit
South AmericaEdit
AsiaEdit
East AsiaEdit
Southeast AsiaEdit
South AsiaEdit
Southwest AsiaEdit
Central AsiaEdit
EuropeEdit
OceaniaEdit
WorldEdit

1 Preceded by the Soviet space program

Books and publicationsEdit

AstronomersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "astrophysics". Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 2011-05-22.

External linksEdit