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(55565) 2002 AW197, provisional designation 2002 AW197, is a classical, non-resonant trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt in the outermost region of the Solar System, also known as cubewano. With a diameter of at least 700 kilometers (430 miles), Brown considers it a highly likely dwarf planet candidate.[5] Tancredi notes that photometric observations suggest that it is a spheroid with a high albedo and small albedo spots.[22] However, its low albedo suggests it does not have planetary geology. It was discovered at Palomar Observatory in 2002 and has a rotation period of 8.8 hours and a moderately red color.[14]

(55565) 2002 AW197
2002 AW197 imaged by Spitzer on 13 April 2004
Discovery [1][2]
Discovered byPalomar Obs. (team)
Discovery sitePalomar Obs.
Discovery date10 January 2002
MPC designation(55565) 2002 AW197
2002 AW197
TNO[3] · cubewano[4]
p-DP[5] · extended[6]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 3
Observation arc19.18 yr (7,004 d)
Earliest precovery date29 December 1997
Aphelion53.613 AU
Perihelion41.080 AU
47.347 AU
325.79 yr (118,996 d)
0° 0m 10.8s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
768±39 km[7]
734±116 km[8]
700±50 km[9][10]
886 km[11]
8.78±0.05 h[12]
8.86±0.01 h[13]
0.134 (taken)[14]
IR [14][15] · (moderately red)
B–V = 0.920±0.020[16]
V–R = 0.560±0.020[16]
V–I = 1.170±0.010[15]
20.0 (opposition)[17][18]
3.05±0.02 (R)[19]
3.156±0.059 (R)[20]
3.3[3] · 3.57[14]
3.57±0.03 (V)[21]



The orbit is outside of pluto, with a higher inclination and very different orbital plane


2002 AW197 was discovered on 10 January 2002, by astronomers at the Palomar Observatory in California.[1] Astronomers involved in the discovery were Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, Eleanor Helin, Michael Hicks, Kenneth Lawrence and Steven H. Pravdo.[2] It is located near the Kuiper cliff.

Orbit and classificationEdit

It orbits the Sun at a distance of 41.1–53.6 AU once every 325 years and 9 months (118,996 days; semi-major axis of 47.35 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.13 and an inclination of 24° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at Haleakala-NEAT/GEODSS (566) in December 1997, more than 4 years prior to its official discovery observation at Palomar.[1] At 45.4 AU from the Sun,[17] it continues to slowly approach the Sun until its perihelion passage at 41.1 AU in May 2077.[3]

Physical characteristicsEdit

Combined observations of thermal emissions by the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope give a diameter of 768+39
and a geometric albedo of 0.112+0.012


ESO analysis of spectra reveals a strong red slope and no presence of water ice[23] (in contrast to Quaoar, also red) suggesting organic material (see comparison of colours and typical composition inferred from spectra of the TNOs).


  1. ^ a b c d "55565 (2002 AW197)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G. (20 July 2002). "MPEC 2002-O30 : 2002 AW197". IAU Minor Planet Center. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 55565 (2002 AW197)" (2017-03-03 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  4. ^ "MPEC 2009-R09 :Distant Minor Planets (2009 SEPT. 16.0 TT)". IAU Minor Planet Center. 4 September 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  5. ^ a b Michael E. Brown. "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  6. ^ Marc W. Buie. "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 55565" (2009-03-23 using 112 observations). SwRI (Space Science Department). Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  7. ^ a b c Vilenius, E.; Kiss, C.; Müller, T.; Mommert, M.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Pál, A.; et al. (April 2014). ""TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. X. Analysis of classical Kuiper belt objects from Herschel and Spitzer observations" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 564: 18. arXiv:1403.6309v1. Bibcode:2014A&A...564A..35V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322416. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b Stansberry, J.; Grundy, W.; Brown, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Spencer, J.; Trilling, D.; et al. (December 2007). "Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from the Spitzer Space Telescope" (PDF). The Solar System Beyond Neptune: 161–179. arXiv:astro-ph/0702538. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b Stansberry, J. A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Grundy, W. G.; Margot, J. L.; Emery, J. P.; Fernandez, Y. R.; et al. (August 2005). "Albedos, Diameters (and a Density) of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects". American Astronomical Society. 37: 737. Bibcode:2005DPS....37.5205S. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b Cruikshank, Dale P.; Stansberry, John A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Werner, Michael W.; Trilling, David E.; et al. (May 2005). "The High-Albedo Kuiper Belt Object (55565) 2002 AW197". The Astrophysical Journal. 624 (1): L53–L56. Bibcode:2005ApJ...624L..53C. doi:10.1086/430420. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  11. ^ a b Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Stephens, D. C. (July 2005). "Diverse albedos of small trans-neptunian objects" (PDF). Icarus. 176 (1): 184–191. arXiv:astro-ph/0502229. Bibcode:2005Icar..176..184G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.01.007. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  12. ^ Thirouin, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Aceituno, F. J.; Morales, N. (November 2010). "Short-term variability of a sample of 29 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 522: 43. arXiv:1004.4841. Bibcode:2010A&A...522A..93T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912340. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  13. ^ Ortiz, J. L.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A. (March 2006). "Short-term rotational variability of eight KBOs from Sierra Nevada Observatory". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 447 (3): 1131–1144. Bibcode:2006A&A...447.1131O. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053572. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (55565)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  15. ^ a b Belskaya, Irina N.; Barucci, Maria A.; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Dovgopol, Anatolij N. (April 2015). "Updated taxonomy of trans-neptunian objects and centaurs: Influence of albedo". Icarus. 250: 482–491. Bibcode:2015Icar..250..482B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.12.004. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  16. ^ a b c Tegler, S. C.; Romanishin, W.; Consolmagno, G. J.; J., S. (December 2016). "Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects and the Smaller Orbital Inclinations of Red Centaur Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (6): 13. Bibcode:2016AJ....152..210T. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/210. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  17. ^ a b "AstDys (55565) 2002AW197 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  18. ^ "HORIZONS Web-Interface". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  19. ^ Jewitt, David; Peixinho, Nuno; Hsieh, Henry H. (November 2007). "U-Band Photometry of Kuiper Belt Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (5): 2046–2053. Bibcode:2007AJ....134.2046J. doi:10.1086/522787. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  20. ^ Peixinho, N.; Delsanti, A.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Gafeira, R.; Lacerda, P. (October 2012). "The bimodal colors of Centaurs and small Kuiper belt objects". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 546: 12. arXiv:1206.3153. Bibcode:2012A&A...546A..86P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219057. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  21. ^ Rabinowitz, David L.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Tourtellotte, Suzanne W. (January 2007). "The Diverse Solar Phase Curves of Distant Icy Bodies. I. Photometric Observations of 18 Trans-Neptunian Objects, 7 Centaurs, and Nereid" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 133 (1): 26–43. arXiv:astro-ph/0605745. Bibcode:2007AJ....133...26R. doi:10.1086/508931. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  22. ^ Tancredi, G., & Favre, S. (2008) Which are the dwarfs in the Solar System?. Depto. Astronomía, Fac. Ciencias, Montevideo, Uruguay; Observatorio Astronómico Los Molinos, MEC, Uruguay. Retrieved 10-08-2011
  23. ^ D. Ragozzine; M. E. Brown (2007). "Candidate Members and Age Estimate of the Family of Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (6): 2160–2167. arXiv:0709.0328. Bibcode:2007AJ....134.2160R. doi:10.1086/522334. Retrieved 5 December 2009.

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