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Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop information to predict and perhaps explain—thus somehow understand—phenomena in the natural world. Applied science is the use of scientific processes and knowledge as the means to achieve a particular practical or useful result. This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from Engineering, Business, Medicine to Early Childhood Education.
Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology. Genetic epidemiology is an applied science applying both biological and statistical methods.
Branches of applied scienceEdit
Engineering fields include thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, statics, dynamics, mechanics of materials, kinematics, electromagnetism, materials science, earth sciences, engineering physics.
Medical sciences, for instance medical microbiology and clinical virology, are applied sciences that apply biology toward medical knowledge and inventions, but not necessarily medical technology, whose development is more specifically biomedicine or biomedical engineering.
In Canada, the Netherlands and other places the Bachelor of Applied Science (BASc) is equivalent to the Bachelor of Engineering, and is classified as a professional degree. The BASc tends to focus more on the application of the engineering sciences. In Australia and New Zealand this degree is awarded in various fields of study and is considered a highly specialized professional degree.
In the United Kingdom's educational system, Applied Science refers to a suite of "vocational" science qualifications that run alongside "traditional" General Certificate of Secondary Education or A-Level Sciences. Applied Science courses generally contain more coursework (also known as portfolio or internally assessed work) compared to their traditional counterparts. These are an evolution of the GNVQ qualifications that were offered up to 2005. These courses regularly come under scrutiny and are due for review following the Wolf Report 2011; however, their merits are argued elsewhere.
In the United States, The College of William & Mary offers an undergraduate minor as well as Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in "applied science." Courses and research cover varied fields including neuroscience, optics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive testing, and nuclear magnetic resonance. In New York City, the Bloomberg administration awarded the consortium of Cornell-Technion $100 million in City capital to construct the universities' proposed Applied Sciences campus on Roosevelt Island.
- Donnelly, Jim. "Applied Science - an invisible revolution?" (pdf). Nuffield Foundation. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Wolf, Alison (March 2011). Review of Vocational Education - The Wolf Report (Report). Department for Education and Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. DFE-00031-2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Bell, Jacqueline; Donnelly, Jim (2007). Positioning Applied Science In Schools: Uncertainty, Opportunity and Risk in Curriculum Reform (PDF) (Report). University of Leeds. Centre for Studies in Science & Mathematics Education. Archived from the original (pdf) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Applied Science". William & Mary. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Mayor Bloomberg, Cornell President Skorton and Technion President Lavie announce historic partnership to build a new applied sciences campus on Roosevelt Island" (Press release). The City of New York. Office of the Mayor. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.