Bachelor of Engineering
The Bachelor of Engineering, abbreviated as B.E., B.Eng. or B.A.I. (in Latin form) is a first professional undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after four to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university. In the UK, a B.Eng. degree will be accredited by one of the Engineering Council's professional engineering institutions as suitable for registration as a incorporated engineer or chartered engineer with further study to masters level. In Canada the degree from a Canadian university can be accredited by the CEAB. Alternatively, it might be accredited directly by another professional engineering institution, such as the US-based Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The B.Eng. contributes to the route to chartered engineer (UK), registered engineer or licensed professional engineer and has been approved by representatives of the profession.
A B.E. has a greater emphasis on math and science, to allow the engineers to move from one discipline to another. Multi-discipline is required in certain fields, like Marine Engineering. The marine engineer is required to know mechanical, chemical and electric engineering. If an engineer is strictly staying in a single discipline, he/she would probably be better served with a B.Sc. A typical B.Sc. is 128 credits. SUNY Maritime B.E. is 172 credits.
Most universities in the United States and Europe award the Bachelor of Science Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.), Bachelor of Engineering Science (B.Eng.Sc.), Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.) or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) degree to undergraduate students of engineering study. For example, Canada is the only country that awards the B.A.Sc. degree for graduating engineers. Other institutions award engineering degrees specific to the area of study, such as B.S.E.E. (Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering) and BSME (Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering).
A less common and possibly the oldest variety of the degree in the English-speaking world, is Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria (B.A.I.), a Latin name meaning Bachelor in the Art of Engineering. Here Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria implies an excellence in carrying out the 'art' or 'function' of an engineer. The degree is awarded by the University of Dublin (its Trinity College Dublin has had a School of Engineering since 1841) and also by the constituent universities of the National University of Ireland (N.U.I.), but in everyday speech it is more commonly referred to as Bachelor of Engineering and the N.U.I. graduates also use the post-nomials translated into English, B.E., even though the actual degree and its parchment is in Latin.
Some South African Universities refer to their engineering degrees as B.Ing. (Baccalaureus Ingenieurswese - Afrikaans).
A Bachelor of Engineering degree will usually be undertaken in one field of engineering, which is sometimes noted in the degree postnominals, as in BE (Aero) or BEng (Elec). Common fields for the Bachelor of Engineering degree include the following fields:
- Aerospace Engineering
- Agricultural Engineering
- Automotive engineering
- Biological/Chemical Engineering — including Biochemical, Biomedical, Biosystems, Biomolecular and Chemical engineering
- Chemical Engineering — deals with the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms
- Clean Technology — use energy, water and raw materials and other inputs more efficiently and productively. Create less waste or toxicity and deliver equal or superior performance.
- Computer Engineering
- Civil Engineering — a wide-ranging field, including building engineering, civil engineering, construction engineering, industrial, manufacturing, mechanical, materials and control engineering
- Electrical and Computer Engineering/Electronic Engineering — very diverse field, including Computer Engineering, Communication/Communication systems engineering, Information Technology, Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Microelectronic Engineering, Microelectronics, Nanotechnology, Mechatronics, Software Engineering, Systems, Wireless and Telecommunications, Photovoltaic and Power Engineering
- Electrical Controls Engineering — a relatively new and more specialized subdiscipline of Electrical Engineering that focuses on integrating Electrical Controls and their programming.
- Engineering Management — the application of engineering principles to the planning and operational management of industrial and manufacturing operations
- Environmental Engineering — includes fields such as Environmental, Geological, Geomatic, Mining, Marine and Ocean engineering
- Fire Protection Engineering — the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke.
- Geological Engineering — a hybrid discipline that comprises elements of civil engineering, mining engineering, petroleum engineering and earth sciences. 
- Geomatics Engineering — acquisition, modeling analysis and management of spatial data. Focuses on satellite positioning, remote sensing, land surveying, wireless location and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
- Geotechnical Engineering — a combination of civil and mining engineering and involves the analysis of earth materials.
- Information Science and Engineering — same as Information Technology.
- Industrial Engineering — studies facilities planning, plant layout, work measurement, job design, methods engineering, human factors, manufacturing processes, operations management, statistical quality control, systems, psychology and basic operations management
- Instrumentation Engineering — a branch of engineering dealing with measurement
- Integrated Engineering — a multi-disciplinary, design-project-based engineering degree program.
- Manufacturing Engineering: Includes methods engineering, manufacturing process planning, tool design, metrology, Robotics, Computer integrated manufacturing, operations management and manufacturing management
- Materials Engineering — includes metallurgy, polymer and ceramic engineering
- Marine Engineering — includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering. Specifically, marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering and computer science, to the development, design, operation and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology. It includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, machinery, piping, automation and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines.
- Mechanical Engineering — includes engineering of total systems where mechanical science principles apply to objects in motion including transportation, energy, buildings, aerospace and machine design. Explores the applications of the theoretical fields of Mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, manufacturing and electricity
- Mechatronics Engineering - includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, telecommunications engineering, control engineering and computer engineering
- Mining Engineering — deals with discovering, extracting, beneficiating, marketing and utilizing mineral deposits.
- Nuclear Engineering — customarily includes nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and related topics such as heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel or other related technology (e.g., radioactive waste disposal) and the problems of nuclear proliferation. May also include radiation protection, particle detectors and medical physics.
- Plastics Engineering — A vast field which includes plastic processing, Mold designing .....
- Production Engineering — term used in the UK and Europe similar to Industrial Engineering in N America - it includes engineering of machines, people, process and management. Explores the applications of the theoretical field of Mechanics.
- Textile Engineering — based on the conversion of three types of fiber into yarn, then fabric, then textiles
- Robotics and Automation Engineering — relates all engineering fields for implementing in robotics and automation
- Structural Engineering — analyze, design, plan and research structural components, systems and loads, in order to achieve design goals including high risk structures ensuring the safety and comfort of users or occupants in a wide range of specialties.
- Software Engineering -systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, methods and experience to the design, implementation, testing and documentation of software
- Systems Science — focuses on the analysis, design, development and organization of complex systems
In Australia, the Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) is a four-year undergraduate degree course and a professional qualification. It is also available as a six-year sandwich course (where students are required to undertake a period of professional placement as part of the degree) or an eight-year part-time course through some universities. The Institution of Engineers, Australia (Engineers Australia) accredits degree courses and graduates of accredited courses are eligible for membership of the Institution. Bachelor of Engineering graduates may commence work as a graduate professional engineer upon graduation, although some may elect to undertake further study such as a Master's or Doctoral degree. Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng) status or the various State registration requirements are usually obtained in later years. Graduates with formal engineering qualifications in Australia are often referred to as Professional Engineers to distinguish them from other professions where the term "Engineer" is used loosely.
In Bangladesh, Bachelor of Science in Engineering B.Sc. (Engineering) is a four year under-graduate university degree. Eligibility for entry is 12 years of school education under science background. Generally the first year (first two semesters) is common to all branches and has the same subjects of study. Courses divert after first year. The medium of instruction and examination is English. Generally, universities in Bangladesh offer engineering degree in the following branches: Computer Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Industrial and Production Engineering, Information and Communication Engineering, Material Science and Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Textile Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Food engineering and Agricultural Engineering. The Ministry of Education (Bangladesh), UGC and Government of Bangladesh are responsible for approving engineering colleges and branches/courses. Only those universities which have been approved by these bodies can award degrees which are legally valid and are accepted as qualifiers for jobs in the government and private sector.
In Canada, degrees awarded for undergraduate engineering studies include: the Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E., depending on the institution); the Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.); and the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.).
The Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB), a division of the Engineers Canada, sets out and maintains the standards of accreditation among Canadian undergraduate engineering programs. Graduates of those programs are deemed by the profession to have the required academic qualifications to be licensed as professional engineers in Canada. This practice is intended to maintain standards of education and allow mobility of engineers in different provinces of Canada.
A CEAB-accredited degree is the minimum academic requirement for registration as a professional engineer anywhere in the country and the standard against which all other engineering academic qualifications are measured. Graduation from an accredited program, which normally involves four years of study, is a required first step to becoming a Professional Engineer. Regulation and accreditation are accomplished through a self-governing body (the name of which varies from province to province), which is given the power by statute to register and discipline engineers, as well as regulate the field of engineering in the individual provinces.
Graduates of non-CEAB-accredited programs must demonstrate that their education is at least equivalent to that of a graduate of a CEAB-accredited program.
In Germany, the Bachelor of Engineering was introduced as part of implementation of the Bologna process. However, this degree is in fact mostly offered by German Fachhochschule-institutions Universities of Applied Sciences. German technical universities award a Bachelor of Science in engineering rather than the BEng degree.
The situation is similar in Finland as in Germany. Universities of applied sciences (ammattikorkeakoulu) grant professional bachelor's degrees (insinööri (amk)). The degree does not traditionally prepare for further study, but due to the Bologna process, a completely new degree of ylempi insinööri (yamk) has been introduced for engineers who wish to continue studying after some work experience. Before 2005, academic universities (see Education in Finland) did not make an administrative distinction between studies on the Bachelor's and Master's level and the Master's level diplomi-insinööri was the first degree to be received. Due to the Bologna process an intermediate "Bachelor of Science in Engineering" (tekniikan kandidaatti) has been introduced.
In Pakistan, Bachelor of Engineering (BE) or Bachelor of science in Engineering (BS/BSc Engineering) is a four years undergraduate professional university degree. The prerequisite for this program is a two years FSc pre-engineering or a three years Diploma of Associate Engineer (DAE) in specific fields e.g. Chemical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering etc. Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) is the responsible government body for accreditation of undergraduate engineering degrees, registration of engineers and regulation of engineering profession in Pakistan. PEC is a full signatory of Washington Accord and International Professional Engineer (IntPE) Agreement (IPEA).
In Nepal, the Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) is a four-year undergraduate course. The pre-requisite for this course is either Higher Secondary Level (10+2 Science) with Physics Major or Proficiency Certificate Level (PCL) in Engineering or Science. Institute of Engineering under the umbrella of Tribhuvan University offers B.E. degree in several disciplines such as Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Automobile Engineering, Geomatics Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Agricultural Engineering etc. Likewise other universities in Nepal such as Kathmandu University, Pokhara University and Purbanchal University, Mid Western University offers B.E. degree in most of aforementioned engineering disciplines. The normal duration for the completion of the course is 4 years. However, the maximum time to complete the course is 8 years from the time of registration or 4 years after the normal duration. Graduates of B.E. degrees can apply for the Engineer title (Er.) or certification as registered engineer to a governing body called Nepal Engineering Council (NEC). After the scrutiny examination of the application/applicants, Nepal Engineering Council provides the Certificate of Registration as a General Engineer which is a must for practicing engineering profession in Nepal. For example: If a student called XYZ graduate with B.E. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from one of the accredited universities, he/she is registered as a General Electronics and Communication Engineer with Er. title written in front of name as Er. XYZ
In the Netherlands the Bachelor of Engineering was also introduced as part of implementation of the Bologna Process, the same as in Germany. The degree is only offered by Dutch Hogeschool-institutions and is equivalent to the Dutch engineer's degree "ingenieur" (ing.). A Dutch BEng involves a rigorous study of four years and is only awarded in the field of aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, software engineering, industrial engineering or electrical engineering. Completion of a Dutch engineer's study in the field biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, material engineering is however awarded with a Bachelor of Applied Science degree. Dutch technical universities award a Bachelor of Science in engineering (BSc) instead of the BEng degree.
In India, Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree is a professional undergraduate degree awarded after completion of four years of engineering study. Institute of national importance, like Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and National Institute of Technology (NIT) offer Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) degree instead of BE in engineering disciplines. Some Indian universities offer engineering degree under the name of Bachelor of Engineering (BE) and some universities offer engineering degree under the name of B.Tech but whichever name is used, the degree course follows the standard curriculum laid down by the University Grants Commission of India (UGC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA). There is no difference in the program objectives and learning outcomes of BE and B.Tech. except nomenclature. Eligibility for entry is 12 years of school education. Generally the first year (first two semesters) is common to all branches and has the same subjects of study. Courses divert after first year. The medium of instruction and examination is English. Generally, universities in India offer engineering degree in the following branches: Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Information Technology, Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Metallurgical Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Production Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering and Agricultural Engineering. The University Grants Commission of India (UGC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) are responsible government authorities for approving engineering colleges and branches/courses. Only those universities which have been approved by these bodies can award degrees which are legally valid and are accepted as qualifiers for jobs in the central/state government and private sector.
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