Zoroaster (/ /; from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (//; Avestan: 𐬀𐬭𐬙𐬱𐬎𐬚𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬰 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism. He inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.
|Born||c. 1200 – c. 900 BC
Airyanem Vaejah (present-day Greater Iran)
|Died||c. 1200 – c. 900 BC (aged 77)
Airyanem Vaejah (present-day Greater Iran)
|Attributes||Founder of Zoroastrianism|
Dating is uncertain as there is no scholarly consensus, but on linguistic and socio-cultural evidence Zoroaster is dated around 1000 BCE and earlier i.e. somewhere in the 2nd millennium BCE, however, other scholars still put him in the 7th and 6th century BCE as a contemporary or near-contemporary of Cyrus the Great and Darius I. Zoroastrianism was already an old religion when first recorded, and it was the official religion of Ancient Persia and its distant subdivisions from the 6th century BCE to the 7th century CE. He is credited with the authorship of the Gathas as well as the Yasna Haptanghaiti, hymns composed in Zoroaster's native dialect, Old Avestan, and which comprise the core of Zoroastrian thinking. Most of his life is known from the Zoroastrian texts. By any modern standard of historiography, no strictly historical evidence can place him into a fixed period, and the historicization surrounding him may be a part of a trend from before the 10th century that historicizes legends and myths.
Name and etymologyEdit
Zoroaster's name in his native language, Avestan, was probably Zaraϑuštra. His English name, "Zoroaster", derives from a later (5th century BC) Greek transcription, Zōroastrēs (Ζωροάστρης), as used in Xanthus's Lydiaca (Fragment 32) and in Plato's First Alcibiades (122a1). This form appears subsequently in the Latin Zōroastrēs and, in later Greek orthographies, as Ζωροάστρις Zōroastris. The Greek form of the name appears to be based on a phonetic transliteration or semantic substitution of Avestan zaraϑ- with the Greek ζωρός zōros (literally "undiluted") and the Avestan -uštra with ἄστρον astron ("star").
In Avestan, Zaraϑuštra is generally accepted to derive from an Old Iranian *Zaratuštra-; The element half of the name (-uštra-) is thought to be the Indo-Iranian root for "camel", with the entire name meaning "he who can manage camels".[a] Reconstructions from later Iranian languages—particularly from the Middle Persian (300 BC) Zardusht,[further explanation needed] which is the form that the name took in the 9th- to 12th-century Zoroastrian texts—suggest that *Zaratuštra- might be a zero-grade form of *Zarantuštra-. Subject then to whether Zaraϑuštra derives from *Zarantuštra- or from *Zaratuštra-, several interpretations have been proposed.[b]
- "with angry/furious camels": from Avestan *zarant-, "angry, furious".
- "who is driving camels" or "who is fostering/cherishing camels": related to Avestan zarš-, "to drag".
- Mayrhofer (1977) proposed an etymology of "who is desiring camels" or "longing for camels" and related to Vedic Sanskrit har-, "to like", and perhaps (though ambiguous) also to Avestan zara-.
- "with yellow camels": parallel to younger Avestan zairi-.
The interpretation of the -ϑ- (/θ/) in Avestan zaraϑuštra was for a time itself subjected to heated debate because the -ϑ- is an irregular development: As a rule, *zarat- (a first element that ends in a dental consonant) should have Avestan zarat- or zarat̰- as a development from it. Why this is not so for zaraϑuštra has not yet been determined. Notwithstanding the phonetic irregularity, that Avestan zaraϑuštra with its -ϑ- was linguistically an actual form is shown by later attestations reflecting the same basis. All present-day, Iranian-language variants of his name derive from the Middle Iranian variants of Zarϑošt, which, in turn, all reflect Avestan's fricative -ϑ-.
In Middle Persian, the name is Zardu(x)št, in Parthian Zarhušt, in Manichaean Middle Persian Zrdrwšt, in Early New Persian Zardušt, and in modern (New Persian), the name is زرتشت Zartosht.
There is no consensus on the dating of Zoroaster, the Avesta gives no direct information about it, while historical sources are conflicting. Some scholars base their date reconstruction on the Proto-Indo-Iranian language and Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, and thus it is considered to have been some place in northeastern Iran and some time between 1500 and 500 BCE.
Some scholars such as Mary Boyce (who dated Zoroaster to somewhere between 1700–1000 BCE) used linguistic and socio-cultural evidence to place Zoroaster between 1500 and 1000 BCE (or 1200 and 900 BCE). The basis of this theory is primarily proposed on linguistic similarities between the Old Avestan language of the Zoroastrian Gathas and the Sanskrit of the Rigveda (c. 1700–1100 BCE), a collection of early Vedic hymns. Both texts are considered to have a common archaic Indo-Iranian origin. The Gathas portray an ancient Stone-Bronze Age bipartite society of warrior-herdsmen and priests (compared to Bronze tripartite society; some conjecture that it depicts the Yaz culture), and thus it is implausible that the Gathas and Rigveda could have been composed more than a few centuries apart. These scholars suggest that Zoroaster lived in an isolated tribe or composed the Gathas before the 1200–1000 BCE migration by the Iranians from the steppe to the Iranian Plateau. The shortfall of the argument is the vague comparison, and the archaic language of Gathas does not necessarily indicate time difference.
Other scholars propose a period between 7th and 6th century, for example, c. 650–600 BCE or 559–522 BCE. The latest possible date is the mid 6th century, at the time of Achaemenid Empire's Darius I, or his predecessor Cyrus the Great. This date gains credence mainly on the thesis that certain figures must be based on historical facts, thus some have related the mythical Vishtaspa with Darius I's father Vishtaspa (or Hystaspes in Greek) with the account on Zoroasters life. However, in the Avesta it should not be ignored that Vishtaspa's son became the ruler of the Persian Empire, Darius I would not ignore to include his patron-father in the Behistun Inscription. A different proposed conclusion is that Darius I's father was named in honor of the Zoroastrian patron, indicating possible Zoroastrian faith by Arsames.
Classical scholarship in the 6th to 4th century BCE believed he existed six thousand years before Xerxes I invasion of Greece in 480 BCE (Xanthus, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Hermippus), which is a possible misunderstanding of the Zoroastrian four cycles of 3000 years i.e. 12,000 years. This belief is recorded by Diogenes Laërtius, and variant readings could place it six hundred years before Xerxes I, somewhere before 1000 BCE. However, Diogenes also mentions Hermodorus's belief that Zoroaster lived five thousand years before the Trojan War, which would mean he lived around 6200 BCE. The 10th-century Suda, provides a date of "500 years before Plato" in the late 10th century BC. Pliny the Elder cited Eudoxus who also placed his death six thousand years before Plato, c. 6300 BCE. Other pseudo-historical constructions are those of Aristoxenus who recorded certain Zaratas the Chaldeaean to have taught Pythagoras in Babylon, or lived at the time of mythological Ninus and Semiramis. According to Pliny the Elder, there were two Zoroasters. The first lived thousands of years ago, while the second accompanied Xerxes I in the invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. Some scholars propose that the chronological calculation for Zoroaster was developed by Persian magi in the 4th century BCE, and as the early Greeks learned about him from the Achaemenids, this indicates they did not regard him as a contemporary of Cyrus the Great, but as a remote figure.
Some later pseudo-historical and Zoroastrian sources (the Bundahishn, which references a date "258 years before Alexander") place Zoroaster in the 6th century BC,[d] which coincided with the accounts by Ammianus Marcellinus from 4th century CE. The traditional Zoroastrian date originates in the period immediately following Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC. The Seleucid rulers who gained power following Alexander's death instituted an "Age of Alexander" as the new calendrical epoch. This did not appeal to the Zoroastrian priesthood who then attempted to establish an "Age of Zoroaster". To do so, they needed to establish when Zoroaster had lived, which they accomplished by (erroneous, some even identified Cyrus with Vishtaspa) counting back the length of successive generations, until they concluded that Zoroaster must have lived "258 years before Alexander". This estimate then re-appeared in the 9th- to 12th-century Arabic and Pahlavi texts of Zoroastrian tradition,[c] like the 10th century Al-Masudi who cited a prophecy from a lost Avestan book in which Zoroaster foretold the Empire's destruction in three hundred years, but the religion would last for a thousand years.
The birthplace of Zoroaster is also unknown, and the language of the Gathas is not similar to the proposed north-western and north-eastern regional dialects of Persia. It is also suggested that he was born in one of the two areas and later lived in the other area.
Yasna 9 and 17 cite the Ditya River in Airyanem Vaējah (Middle Persian Ērān Wēj) as Zoroaster's home and the scene of his first appearance. The Avesta (both Old and Younger portions) does not mention the Achaemenids or of any West Iranian tribes such as the Medes, Persians, or even Parthians. The Farvardin Yasht refers to some Iranian peoples are unknown in the Greek and Achaemenid sources about the 6th and 5th century BCE Eastern Iran. The Vendidad contain seventeen regional names, most of which are located in north-eastern and eastern Iran.
However, in Yasna 59.18, the zaraϑuštrotema, or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood, is said to reside in 'Ragha' (Badakhshan). In the 9th- to 12th-century Middle Persian texts of Zoroastrian tradition, this 'Ragha' and with many other places appear as locations in Western Iran. While the land of Media does not figure at all in the Avesta (the westernmost location noted in scripture is Arachosia), the Būndahišn, or "Primordial Creation," (20.32 and 24.15) puts Ragha in Media (medieval Rai). However, in Avestan, Ragha is simply a toponym meaning "plain, hillside."
Apart from these indications in Middle Persian sources that are open to interpretations, there are a number of other sources. The Greek and Latin sources are divided on the birthplace of Zarathustra. There are many Greek accounts of Zarathustra, referred usually as Persian or Perso-Median Zoroaster; Ctesias located him in Bactria, Diodorus Siculus placed him among Ariaspai (in Sistan), Cephalion and Justin suggest east of greater Iran whereas Pliny and Origen suggest west of Iran as his birthplace. Moreover, they have the suggestion that there has been more than one Zoroaster.
On the other hand, in post-Islamic sources Shahrastani (1086–1153) an Iranian writer originally from Shahristān, present-day Turkmenistan, proposed that Zoroaster's father was from Atropatene (also in Medea) and his mother was from Rey. Coming from a reputed scholar of religions, this was a serious blow for the various regions who all claimed that Zoroaster originated from their homelands, some of which then decided that Zoroaster must then have then been buried in their regions or composed his Gathas there or preached there. Also Arabic sources of the same period and the same region of historical Persia consider Azerbaijan as the birthplace of Zarathustra.
By the late 20th century, most scholars had settled on an origin in eastern Greater Iran. Gnoli proposed Sistan, Baluchistan (though in a much wider scope than the present-day province) as the homeland of Zoroastrianism; Frye voted for Bactria and Chorasmia; Khlopin suggests the Tedzen Delta in present-day Turkmenistan. Sarianidi considered the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex region as "the native land of the Zoroastrians and, probably, of Zoroaster himself." Boyce includes the steppes to the west from the Volga. The medieval "from Media" hypothesis is no longer taken seriously, and Zaehner has even suggested that this was a Magi-mediated issue to garner legitimacy, but this has been likewise rejected by Gershevitch and others.
The 2005 Encyclopedia Iranica article on the history of Zoroastrianism summarizes the issue with "while there is general agreement that he did not live in western Iran, attempts to locate him in specific regions of eastern Iran, including Central Asia, remain tentative".
Zoroaster is recorded as the son of Pourušaspa of the Spitaman or Spitamids (Avestan spit mean "brilliant" or "white"; some argue that Spitama was a remote progenitor) family, and Dugdōw, while his great-grandfather was Haēčataspa. All the names appear appropriate of the nomadic tradition, as his father's means "possessing gray horses" (with the word aspa meaning horse), while his mother's is "milkmaid". According to the tradition, he had four brothers, two older and two younger, whose names are given in much later Pahlavi work.
The training for priesthood probably started very early around seven years of age. He became a priest probably around the age of fifteen, and according to Gathas, he gained knowledge from other teachers and personal experience from traveling when left his parents at twenty years old. By the age of thirty, he experienced a revelation during a spring festival; on the river bank he saw a shining Being, who revealed himself as Vohu Manah (Good Purpose) and taught him about Ahura Mazda (Wise Spirit) and five other radiant figures. Zoroaster soon became aware of the existence of two primal Spirits, the second being Angra Mainyu (Hostile Spirit), with opposing concepts of Asha (truth) and Druj (lie). Thus he decided to spend his life teaching people to seek Asha. He received further revelations and saw a vision of the seven Amesha Spenta, and his teachings were collected in the Gathas and the Avesta.
He taught about free will, and opposed the use of the hallucinogenic Haoma plant in rituals, polytheism, over-ritualising religious ceremonies and animal sacrifices, as well an oppressive class system in Persia which earned him strong opposition among local authorities. Eventually, at the age of about forty-two, he received the patronage of queen Hutaosa and a ruler named Vishtaspa, an early adherent of Zoroastrianism (possibly from Bactria according to the Shahnameh). Zoroaster's teaching about individual judgment, Heaven and Hell, the resurrection of the body, the Last Judgment, and everlasting life for the reunited soul and body, among other things, became borrowings in the Abrahamic religions, but they lost the context of the original teaching.
According to the tradition, he lived for many years after the Vishtaspa conversion, managed to establish a faithful community, and married three times. His first two wives bore him three sons and three daughters. His third wife, Hvōvi, was childless. Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days old. The later Pahlavi sources like Shahnameh, instead claim that an obscure conflict with Tuiryas people led to his death, murdered by a karapan (a priest of the old religion) named Brādrēs.
A number of parallels have been drawn between Zoroastrian teachings and Islam. Such parallels include the evident similarities between Amesha Spenta and the archangel Gabriel, and the mention of Thamud and the Iram of the Pillars in the Quran. These may also indicate the vast influence of the Achaemenid Empire on the development of either religion.
Muslim scholastic viewsEdit
Like the Greeks of classical antiquity, Islamic tradition understands Zoroaster to be the founding prophet of the Magians (via Aramaic, Arabic Majus, collective Majusya). The 11th-century Cordoban Ibn Hazm (Zahiri school) contends that Kitabi "of the Book" cannot apply in light of the Zoroastrian assertion that their books were destroyed by Alexander. Citing the authority of the 8th-century al-Kalbi, the 9th- and 10th-century Sunni historian al-Tabari (i.648) reports that Zaradusht bin Isfiman (an Arabic adaptation of "Zarathustra Spitama") was an inhabitant of Israel and a servant of one of the disciples of the prophet Jeremiah. According to this tale, Zaradusht defrauded his master, who cursed him, causing him to become leprous (cf. Elisha's servant Gehazi in Jewish Scripture).
The apostate Zaradusht then eventually made his way to Balkh (present day Afghanistan) where he converted Bishtasb (i.e. Vishtaspa), who in turn compelled his subjects to adopt the religion of the Magians. Recalling other tradition, al-Tabari (i.681–683) recounts that Zaradusht accompanied a Jewish prophet to Bishtasb/Vishtaspa. Upon their arrival, Zaradusht translated the sage's Hebrew teachings for the king and so convinced him to convert (Tabari also notes that they had previously been Sabis) to the Magian religion.
The 12th-century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster. As regards the recognition of a prophet, Zoroaster has said: "They ask you as to how should they recognize a prophet and believe him to be true in what he says; tell them what he knows the others do not, and he shall tell you even what lies hidden in your nature; he shall be able to tell you whatever you ask him and he shall perform such things which others cannot perform." (Namah Shat Vakhshur Zartust, .5–7. 50–54) When the companions of Muhammad, on invading Persia, came in contact with the Zoroastrian people and learned these teachings, they at once came to the conclusion that Zoroaster was really a Divinely inspired prophet. Thus they accorded the same treatment to the Zoroastrian people which they did to other "People of the Book".
Though the name of Zoroaster is not mentioned in the Qur'an, still he was regarded as one of those prophets whose names have not been mentioned in the Qur'an, for there is a verse in the Qur'an: "And We did send apostles before thee: there are some of them that We have mentioned to thee and there are others whom We have not mentioned to Thee." (40 : 78). Accordingly, the Muslims treated the founder of Zoroastrianism as a true prophet and believed in his religion as they did in other inspired creeds, and thus according to the prophecy, protected the Zoroastrian religion. James Darmesteter remarked in the translation of Zend Avesta: "When Islam assimilated the Zoroastrians to the People of the Book, it evinced a rare historical sense and solved the problem of the origin of the Avesta." (Introduction to Vendidad. p. 69.)
Ahmadi Muslims view Zoroaster as a Prophet of God and describe the expressions of Ahura Mazda, the god of goodness, and Ahraman, the god of evil, as merely referring to the coexistence of forces of good and evil enabling humans to exercise free will. Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, in his book Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth views Zoroaster as Prophet of God and describes such the expressions to be a concept which is similar to the concepts in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure (along with Jesus and the Buddha) in a line of prophets of which Mani (216–276) was the culmination. Zoroaster's ethical dualism is—to an extent—incorporated in Mani's doctrine, which viewed the world as being locked in an epic battle between opposing forces of good and evil. Manicheanism also incorporated other elements of Zoroastrian tradition, particularly the names of supernatural beings; however, many of these other Zoroastrian elements are either not part of Zoroaster's own teachings or are used quite differently from how they are used in Zoroastrianism.
In the Bahá'í FaithEdit
Zoroaster appears in the Bahá'í Faith as a "Manifestation of God", one of a line of prophets who have progressively revealed the Word of God to a gradually maturing humanity. Zoroaster thus shares an exalted station with Abraham, Moses, Krishna, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh. Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, saw Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of a post-Sassanid Zoroastrian prophecy that saw a return of Sassanid emperor Bahram: Shoghi Effendi also stated that Zoroaster lived roughly 1000 years before Jesus.[e]
In the Gathas, Zoroaster sees the human condition as the mental struggle between aša (truth) and druj (lie). The cardinal concept of aša—which is highly nuanced and only vaguely translatable—is at the foundation of all Zoroastrian doctrine, including that of Ahura Mazda (who is aša), creation (that is aša), existence (that is aša) and as the condition for free will.
The purpose of humankind, like that of all other creation, is to sustain aša. For humankind, this occurs through active participation in life and the exercise of constructive thoughts, words and deeds.
Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Middle Platonism and have been identified as one of the key early events in the development of philosophy. Among the classic Greek philosophers, Heraclitus is often referred to as inspired by Zoroaster's thinking.
In 2005, the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ranked Zarathustra as first in the chronology of philosophers. Zarathustra's impact lingers today due in part to the system of rational ethics he founded called Mazda-Yasna. The word Mazda-Yasna is Avestan and is translated as "Worship of Wisdom" in English. The encyclopedia Natural History (Pliny) claims that Zoroastrians later educated the Greeks who, starting with Pythagoras, used a similar term, philosophy, or “love of wisdom” to describe the search for ultimate truth.
Zoroaster emphasized the freedom of the individual to choose right or wrong and individual responsibility for one's deeds. This personal choice to accept aša, or arta (the divine order), and shun druj (ignorance and chaos) is one's own decision and not a dictate of Ahura Mazda. For Zarathustra, by thinking good thoughts, saying good words, and doing good deeds (e.g. assisting the needy or doing good works) we increase this divine force aša or arta in the world and in ourselves, celebrate the divine order, and we come a step closer on the everlasting road to being one with the Creator. Thus, we are not the slaves or servants of Ahura Mazda, but we can make a personal choice to be his co-workers, thereby refreshing the world and ourselves.
Although a few recent depictions of Zoroaster show the prophet performing some deed of legend, in general the portrayals merely present him in white vestments (which are also worn by present-day Zoroastrian priests). He often is seen holding a baresman (Avestan; Middle Persian barsom), which is generally considered to be another symbol of priesthood, or with a book in hand, which may be interpreted to be the Avesta. Alternatively, he appears with a mace, the varza—usually stylized as a steel rod crowned by a bull's head—that priests carry in their installation ceremony. In other depictions he appears with a raised hand and thoughtfully lifted finger, as if to make a point.
Zoroaster is rarely depicted as looking directly at the viewer; instead, he appears to be looking slightly upwards, as if beseeching. Zoroaster is almost always depicted with a beard, this along with other factors bearing similarities to 19th-century portraits of Jesus.
A common variant of the Zoroaster images derives from a Sassanid-era rock-face carving. In this depiction at Taq-e Bostan, a figure is seen to preside over the coronation of Ardashir I or II. The figure is standing on a lotus, with a baresman in hand and with a gloriole around his head. Until the 1920s, this figure was commonly thought to be a depiction of Zoroaster, but in recent years is more commonly interpreted to be a depiction of Mithra. Among the most famous of the European depictions of Zoroaster is that of the figure in Raphael's 1509 The School of Athens. In it, Zoroaster and Ptolemy are having a discussion in the lower right corner. The prophet is holding a star-studded globe.
An image of Zoroaster on mirrored etched glass at the Zoroastrian fire temple in Taft, Iran
In classical antiquityEdit
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Greeks—in the Hellenistic sense of the term—had an understanding of Zoroaster as expressed by Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Agathias that saw him, at the core, to be the "prophet and founder of the religion of the Iranian peoples," Beck notes that "the rest was mostly fantasy". Zoroaster was set in the ancient past, six to seven millennia before the Common Era, and was described as a king of Bactria or a Babylonian (or teacher of Babylonians), and with a biography typical of a Neopythagorean sage, i.e. having a mission preceded by ascetic withdrawal and enlightenment. However, at first mentioned in the context of dualism, in Moralia, Plutarch presents Zoroaster as "Zaratras," not realizing the two to be the same, and he is described as a "teacher of Pythagoras".
Zoroaster has also been described as a sorcerer-astrologer – the creator of both magic and astrology. Deriving from that image, and reinforcing it, was a "mass of literature" attributed to him and that circulated the Mediterranean world from the 3rd century BC to the end of antiquity and beyond.
The language of that literature was predominantly Greek, though at one stage or another various parts of it passed through Aramaic, Syriac, Coptic or Latin. Its ethos and cultural matrix was likewise Hellenistic, and "the ascription of literature to sources beyond that political, cultural and temporal framework represents a bid for authority and a fount of legitimizing "alien wisdom". Zoroaster and the magi did not compose it, but their names sanctioned it." The attributions to "exotic" names (not restricted to magians) conferred an "authority of a remote and revelatory wisdom."
Among the named works attributed to "Zoroaster" is a treatise On Nature (Peri physeos), which appears to have originally constituted four volumes (i.e. papyrus rolls). The framework is a retelling of Plato's Myth of Er, with Zoroaster taking the place of the original hero. While Porphyry imagined Pythagoras listening to Zoroaster's discourse, On Nature has the sun in middle position, which was how it was understood in the 3rd century. In contrast, Plato's 4th-century BC version had the sun in second place above the moon. Ironically, Colotes accused Plato of plagiarizing Zoroaster, and Heraclides Ponticus wrote a text titled Zoroaster based on his perception of "Zoroastrian" philosophy, in order to express his disagreement with Plato on natural philosophy. With respect to substance and content in On Nature only two facts are known: that it was crammed with astrological speculations, and that Necessity (Ananké) was mentioned by name and that she was in the air.
Pliny the Elder names Zoroaster as the inventor of magic (Natural History 30.2.3). "However, a principle of the division of labor appears to have spared Zoroaster most of the responsibility for introducing the dark arts to the Greek and Roman worlds." That "dubious honor" went to the "fabulous magus, Ostanes, to whom most of the pseudepigraphic magical literature was attributed." Although Pliny calls him the inventor of magic, the Roman do not provide a "magician's persona" for him. Moreover, the little "magical" teaching that is ascribed to Zoroaster is actually very late, with the very earliest example being from the 14th century.
Association with astrology according to Roger Beck, were based on his Babylonian origin, and Zoroaster's Greek name was identified at first with star-worshiping (astrothytes "star sacrificer") and, with the Zo-, even as the living star.[verification needed] Later, an even more elaborate mythoetymology evolved: Zoroaster died by the living (zo-) flux (-ro-) of fire from the star (-astr-) which he himself had invoked, and even, that the stars killed him in revenge for having been restrained by him.[verification needed]
The alternate Greek name for Zoroaster was Zaratras. or Zaratas/Zaradas/Zaratos,[non-primary source needed]) Pythagoreans considered the mathematicians to have studied with Zoroaster in Babylonia.[non-primary source needed][original research?] Lydus, in On the Months, attributes the creation of the seven-day week to "the Babylonians in the circle of Zoroaster and Hystaspes," and who did so because there were seven planets.[non-primary source needed][original research?] The Suda's chapter on astronomia notes that the Babylonians learned their astrology from Zoroaster. Lucian of Samosata, in Mennipus 6, reports deciding to journey to Babylon "to ask one of the magi, Zoroaster's disciples and successors," for their opinion.[non-primary source needed][original research?]
While the division along the lines of Zoroaster/astrology and Ostanes/magic is an "oversimplification, the descriptions do at least indicate what the works are not"; they were not expressions of Zoroastrian doctrine, they were not even expressions of what the Greeks and Romans "imagined the doctrines of Zoroastrianism to have been" [emphases per Beck]. The assembled fragments do not even show noticeable commonality of outlook and teaching among the several authors who wrote under each name.
Almost all Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha is now lost, and of the attested texts—with only one exception—only fragments have survived. Pliny's 2nd- or 3rd-century attribution of "two million lines" to Zoroaster suggest that (even if exaggeration and duplicates are taken into consideration) a formidable pseudepigraphic corpus once existed at the Library of Alexandria. This corpus can safely be assumed to be pseudepigrapha because no one before Pliny refers to literature by "Zoroaster", and on the authority of the 2nd-century Galen of Pergamon and from a 6th-century commentator on Aristotle it is known that the acquisition policies of well-endowed royal libraries created a market for fabricating manuscripts of famous and ancient authors.
The exception to the fragmentary evidence (i.e. reiteration of passages in works of other authors) is a complete Coptic tractate titled Zostrianos (after the first-person narrator) discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945. A three-line cryptogram in the colophones following the 131-page treatise identify the work as "words of truth of Zostrianos. God of Truth [logos]. Words of Zoroaster." Invoking a "God of Truth" might seem Zoroastrian, but there is otherwise "nothing noticeably Zoroastrian" about the text and "in content, style, ethos and intention, its affinities are entirely with the congeners among the Gnostic tractates."
Another work circulating under the name of "Zoroaster" was the Asteroskopita (or Apotelesmatika), and which ran to five volumes (i.e. papyrus rolls). The title and fragments suggest that it was an astrological handbook, "albeit a very varied one, for the making of predictions." A third text attributed to Zoroaster is On Virtue of Stones (Peri lithon timion), of which nothing is known other than its extent (one volume) and that pseudo-Zoroaster sang it (from which Cumont and Bidez[who?] conclude that it was in verse).[original research?] Numerous other fragments preserved in the works of other authors are attributed to "Zoroaster," but the titles of those books are not mentioned.[original research?]
These pseudepigraphic texts aside, some authors did draw on a few genuinely Zoroastrian ideas. The Oracles of Hystaspes, by "Hystaspes", another prominent magian pseudo-author, is a set of prophecies distinguished from other Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha in that it draws on real Zoroastrian sources. Some allusions are more difficult to assess:[original research?] in the same text that attributes the invention of magic to Zoroaster,[clarification needed] Pliny states that Zoroaster laughed on the day of his birth, although in an earlier place, Pliny had sworn in the name of Hercules that no child had ever done so before the 40th day from his birth.[non-primary source needed] This notion of Zoroaster's laughter (like that of "two million verses"[this quote needs a citation]) also appears in the 9th– to 11th-century texts of genuine Zoroastrian tradition, and for a time it was assumed[weasel words]} that the origin of those myths lay with indigenous sources.[original research?] Pliny also records that Zoroaster's head had pulsated so strongly that it repelled the hand when laid upon it, a presage of his future wisdom.[non-primary source needed][original research?]} The Iranians were however just as familiar with the Greek writers, and the provenance of other descriptions are clear.[original research?] For instance, Plutarch's description of its dualistic theologies reads thus: "Others call the better of these a god and his rival a daemon, as, for example, Zoroaster the Magus, who lived, so they record, five thousand years before the siege of Troy. He used to call the one Horomazes and the other Areimanius".[original research?]
In the post-classical eraEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician, and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture. Although almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late 18th century, his name was already associated with lost ancient wisdom. Statements by Sir Thomas Browne as early as 1643 are the earliest recorded references to Zoroaster in the English language.
Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism, preferable to Christianity. Zoroaster was the subject of the 1749 opera, Zoroastre, by Jean-Philippe Rameau. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham Anquetil-Duperron, Western scholarship of Zoroastrianism began.[according to whom?]
In his seminal work Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) (1885) the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche uses the native Iranian name Zarathustra which has a significant meaning[f] as he had used the familiar Greek-Latin name in his earlier works. It is believed that Nietzsche invents a characterization of Zarathustra as the mouthpiece for Nietzsche's own ideas against morality.[g] Richard Strauss's Opus 30, inspired by Nietzsche's book, is also called Also sprach Zarathustra.[when?]
A sculpture of Zoroaster by Edward Clarke Potter, representing ancient Persian judicial wisdom and dating to 1896, towers over the Appellate Division Courthouse of New York State at East 25th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. A sculpture of Zoroaster appears with other prominent religious figures on the south side of the exterior of Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on the campus of the University of Chicago.[who?][when?]
The protagonist and narrator of Gore Vidal's 1981 novel Creation is described to be the grandson of Zoroaster. Zarathustra, the mythic hero in Giannina Braschi's 2011 dramatic novel United States of Banana, joins forces with Shakespeare's Hamlet.
- Also sprach Zarathustra, a tone poem composed in 1896 by Richard Strauss
- Cypress of Keshmar
- List of founders of major religions
- Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None, a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885.
- Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo, author of a Persian epic biography on Zoroaster.
- Zoroaster and the Mount Savalan
- Zoroastre, an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau
|a:^||Originally proposed by Burnouf|
|b:^||For refutation of these and other proposals, see Humbach, 1991.|
|c:^||The Bundahishn computes "200 and some years" (GBd xxxvi.9) or "284 years" (IBd xxxiv.9). That '258 years' was the generally accepted figure is however noted by al-Biruni and al-Masudi, with the latter specifically stating (in 943/944 AD) that "the Magians count a period of two hundred and fifty-eight years between their prophet and Alexander."|
|d:^||"258 years before Alexander" is only superficially precise.
It has been suggested that this "traditional date" is an adoption of some date from foreign sources, from the Greeks or the Babylonians for example, which the priesthood then reinterpreted. A simpler explanation is that the priests subtracted 42 (the age at which Zoroaster is said to have converted Vistaspa) from the round figure of 300.
|e:^||From a letter of the Universal House of Justice, Department of the Secretariat, May 13, 1979 to Mrs. Gayle Woolson published in|
|f:^||By choosing the name of 'Zarathustra' as prophet of his philosophy, as he has expressed clearly, he followed the paradoxical aim of paying homage to the original Iranian prophet and reversing his teachings at the same time. The original Zoroastrian world view interprets being essentially on a moralistic basis and depicts the world as an arena for the struggle of the two fundamentals of being, Good and Evil, represented in two antagonistic divine figures.|
|g:^||Ecce Homo quotations are per the Ludovici translation. Paraphrases follow the original passage (Warum ich ein Schicksal bin 3), available in the public domain on page 45 of the Project Gutenberg EBook.|
- West 2010, pp. 4–8
- Shahbazi 1977, pp. 25–35
- Darmesteter, James. Sacred Books of the East (1898). Peterson, Joseph H., Avesta - Zoroastrian Archives: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 1. 
- Nigosian 1993, pp. 17–18
- Boyce 1975, pp. 188
- Darmesteter, James. Sacred Books of the East (1898). Peterson, Joseph H., Avesta - Zoroastrian Archives: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 1. 
- West 2010, p. 4
- Boyce 1975, pp. 3–4
- West 2013, pp. 89–109
- Boyce 1975, p. 3
- Lincoln 1991, pp. 149–150: "At present, the majority opinion among scholars probably inclines toward the end of the second millennium or the beginning of the first, although there are still those who hold for a date in the seventh century."
- Fischer 2004, pp. 58–59
- Candice Goucher; Linda Walton (2013), World History: Journeys from Past to Present, Routledge, p. 100, ISBN 978-1-135-08828-6
- Boyce 2001, pp. 1–3
- Stausberg, Vevaina, Tessmann 2015, pp. 60–61
- Schlerath 1977, pp. 133–135
- Schmitt 2003.
- Paul Horn, Grundriß der neupersischen Etymologie, Strassburg 1893
- Mayrhofer 1977, pp. 43–53.
- Bailey 1953, pp. 40–42.
- Markwart 1930, pp. 7ff.
- p. 98 http://www.rabbinics.org/pahlavi/MacKenzie-PahlDict.pdf
- p.384 https://archive.org/stream/DictionaryOfMMP
- Boyce 1975, pp. 3, 189–191
- Stausberg, Vevaina, Tessmann 2015, p. 61
- Nigosian 1993, pp. 15–16
- J. P. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, pp. 310–311, 653, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
- Boyce 1982, pp. 1–7
- West 2010, p. 18
- Stausberg 2008, p. 572
- West 2010, p. 6
- Stausberg, Vevaina, Tessmann 2015, p. 441
- Boyce 1982, p. 260
- Boyce 1975, pp. 285–292
- Christopher Tuplin (2007). "Persian Responses: Political and Cultural Interaction with(in) the Achaemenid Empire". ISD LLC.
- West 2010, p. 8
- Boyce 1982, p. 261
- Stausberg, Vevaina, Tessmann 2015, p. 9
- Boyce 1982, p. 68
- Shahbazi 1977, pp. 25–26
- Boyce 1975, pp. 190–191
- Gershevitch 1964, pp. 36–37.
- William Enfield, Johann Jakob Brucker, Knud Haakonssen, The History of Philosophy from the Earliest Periods: Drawn Up from Brucker's Historia Critica Philosophia, Published by Thoemmes, 2001, ISBN 1-85506-828-1, pages: 18, 22.
- cf. Boyce 1975, pp. 2–26.
- cf. Gronke 1993, pp. 59–60.
- Frye 1992, p. 8.
- Khlopin 1992, pp. 107–110.
- Sarianidi 1987, p. 54.
- Boyce 1975, p. 1.
- Malandra 2005
- West 2010, p. 17
- Boyce 1975, pp. 182–183
- Boyce 1975, pp. 183
- Boyce 1975, pp. 184
- West 2010, pp. 19–20
- West 2010, p. 24
- Hinnel, J (1997), The Penguin Dictionary of Religion, Penguin Books UK
- "Religions: Zoroaster". BBC. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Boyce 1975, pp. 187
- West 2010, p. 29
- West 2010, p. 9
- West 2010, p. 31
- Boyce 1975, pp. 192
- Lee Lawrence. (3 September 2011). "A Mysterious Stranger in China". The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on 31 August 2016.
- Qtd. in Büchner 1936, p. 105.
- "Zoroastrianism". www.alislam.org.
- Widengren 1961, p. 76.
- Widengren 1961, pp. 43–45.
- Widengren 1961, pp. 44–45.
- Zaehner 1972, p. 21.
- Taherzadeh 1976, p. 3.
- Buck 1998.
- Blackburn, Simon (1994), "Philosophy", The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 405
- August Gladisch (1859), Herakleitos Und Zoroaster: Eine Historische Untersuchung, p. IV
- Blackburn, S. (2005). p 409, The Oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford University Press.
- Frankfort, H., Frankfort, H. A. G., Wilson, J. A., & Jacobsen, T. (1964). Before Philosophy. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
- Jones, W.H.S. (1963). "Pliny Natural History Vol 8; Book XXX". Heinemann. Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Stausberg 2002, p. I.58
- See Plutarch, Isis and Osiris 46-7,[full citation needed] Diogenes Laertius 1.6–9,[full citation needed] and Agathias 2.23-5.[full citation needed]
- Beck 1991, p. 525.
- Brenk, Frederick E. (1977). In Mist Apparelled: Religious Themes in Plutarch's Moralia and Lives, Volumes 48-50. Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava [Vol. 48: Supplementum]. Leiden, NDL: Brill Archive. p. 129. ISBN 9004052410. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- Beck 1991, p. 491.
- Beck 2003, para. 4.
- Beck 1991, p. 493.
- Nock 1929, p. 111.
- Livingston 2002, pp. 144–145.
- Livingston 2002, p. 147.
- Beck 2003, para. 7.
- Beck 1991, p. 522.
- Beck 1991, p. 523.
- Cf. Agathias 2.23-5 and Clement's Stromata I.15.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- See Porphyry's Life of Pythagoras 12,[full citation needed] Alexander Polyhistor apud Clement's Stromata I.15,[full citation needed] Diodorus of Eritrea and Aristoxenus apud Hippolytus VI32.2,[full citation needed] for the primary sources.[non-primary source needed]
- Lydus, On the Months, II.4.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- Lucian of Samosata, Mennipus 6.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- Beck 1991, p. 495.
- Beck 1991, p. 526.
- Sieber 1973, p. 234.
- Pliny, VII, I.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- Pliny, VII, XV.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, 46-7.[full citation needed][non-primary source needed]
- "Klein Zaches Genannt Zinnober". Michaelhaldane.com. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
- Ashouri 2003.
- Watkins 2006, pp. 3–4.
- "Tall Statue of Zoroaster in New York" ایرون دات کام: عکس ها: مجسّمهٔ تمام قّدِ زرتشت در نیویورک (in Persian). Iroon.com. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
- Pages 9–12 of
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- Burnouf 1833, p. 13.
- Humbach 1991, p. I.18.
- Jackson 1899, p. 162.
- Shahbazi 1977, p. 26.
- Kingsley 1990, pp. 245–265.
- Shahbazi 1977, pp. 32–33.
- Nietzsche/Ludovici 1911, p. 133
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Zoroaster|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zoroaster.|
- Ashouri, Daryoush (2003), "Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, and Persia", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online
- Bailey, Harold Walter (1953), "Indo-Iranian Studies", Transactions of the Philological Society, 52: 21–42, doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1953.tb00268.x
- Beck, Roger (1991), "Thus Spake Not Zarathushtra: Zoroastrian Pseudepigrapha of the Greco-Roman World", in Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz, A History of Zoroastrianism, 3, Leiden: Brill Publishers, pp. 491–565.
- Beck, Roger (2003), "Zoroaster, as perceived by the Greeks", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online
- Blackburn, Simon, ed. (2005), The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.), London: OUP
- Boyce, Mary (1996) , A History of Zoroastrianism: Volume I: The Early Period, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-10474-7
- Boyce, Mary (1982), A History of Zoroastrianism: Volume II: Under the Achaemenians, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-06506-7
- Boyce, Mary (2001), Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Psychology Press, ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8
- Buck, Christopher (1998), "Bahá'u'lláh as Zoroastrian saviour" (PDF), Baha'i Studies Review, 8, archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2013
- Burnouf, M. Eugène (1833), Commentaire sur le Yaçna, Vol. I, Paris: Imprimatur Royale
- Effendi, Shoghi (1991), "Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster", The Compilation of Compilations, Volume I, Baha'i Publications Australia
- Effendi, Shoghi (1944), God Passes By, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 0-87743-020-9
- Fischer, Michael M. J. (2004), Mute Dreams, Blind Owls, and Dispersed Knowledges: Persian Poesis in the Transnational Circuitry, Duke University Press, ISBN 0-8223-8551-1
- Foltz, Richard (2013), Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present, London: Oneworld publications, ISBN 978-1-78074-308-0
- Frye, Richard N. (1992), "Zoroastrians in Central Asia in Ancient Times", Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute, 58: 6–10
- Gershevitch, Ilya (1964), "Zoroaster's Own Contribution", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 23 (1): 12–38, doi:10.1086/371754
- Gnoli, Gherardo (2000), "Zoroaster in History", Biennial Yarshater Lecture Series, Vol. 2, New York: Bibliotheca Persica
- Gnoli, Gherardo (2003), "Agathias and the Date of Zoroaster", Eran ud Aneran, Festschrift Marshak, Venice: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina
- Gronke, Monika (1993), "Derwische im Vorhof der Macht. Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte Nordwestirans im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert", Freiburger Islamstudien 15, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag
- Humbach, Helmut (1991), The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan texts, Heidelberg: Winter
- Jackson, A. V. Williams (1896), "On the Date of Zoroaster", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 17, 17: 1–22, doi:10.2307/592499, JSTOR 592499
- Jackson, A. V. Williams (1899), Zoroaster, the prophet of ancient Iran, New York: Columbia University Press
- Kingsley, Peter (1990), "The Greek Origin of the Sixth-Century Dating of Zoroaster", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 53 (2): 245–265, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00026069
- Khlopin, I.N. (1992), "Zoroastrianism – Location and Time of its Origin", Iranica Antiqua, 27: 96–116, doi:10.2143/IA.27.0.2002124
- Kriwaczek, Paul (2002), In Search of Zarathustra – Across Iran and Central Asia to Find the World's First Prophet, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- Lincoln, Bruce (1991), Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology & Practice, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-48200-2
- Livingstone, David N. (2002), The Dying God: The Hidden History of Western Civilization, Writers Club Press, ISBN 0-595-23199-3
- Malandra, William W. (2005), "Zoroastrianism: Historical Review", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online
- Markwart, Joseph (1930), Das erste Kapitel der Gatha Uštavati (Orientalia 50), Rome: Pontificio Instituto Biblico
- Mayrhofer, Manfred (1977), Zum Namengut des Avesta, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
- Moulton, James Hope (1917), The Treasure of the Magi, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Moulton, James Hope (1913), Early Zoroastrianism, London: Williams and Norgate
- Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm; Ludovici, Anthony Mario, trans.; Levy, Oscar, ed. (1911), Ecco Homo, The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Edinburgh: T. N. Foulis
- Solomon Alexander Nigosian (1993), The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, ISBN 978-0-7735-1144-6
- Nock, A. D.; Stuart, Duane Reed; Reitzenstein, R.; Schaeder, H. H.; Saxl, Fr. (1929), "(Book Review) Studien zum antiken Synkretismus aus Iran und Griechenland by R. Reitzenstein & H. H. Schaeder", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 49, 49 (1): 111–116, doi:10.2307/625011, JSTOR 625011
- Sarianidi, V. (1987), "South-West Asia: Migrations, the Aryans and Zoroastrians", International Association for the Study of Cultures of Central Asia Information Bulletin, 13: 44–56
- Shahbazi, A. Shapur (1977), "The 'Traditional Date of Zoroaster' Explained", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 40 (1): 25–35, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00040386
- Schlerath, Bernfried (1977), "Noch einmal Zarathustra", Die Sprache, 23 (2): 127–135
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (2003), "Zoroaster, the name", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online
- Sieber, John (1973), "An Introduction to the Tractate Zostrianos from Nag Hammadi", Novum Testamentum, 15 (3): 233–240, doi:10.1163/156853673X00079.
- Stausberg, Michael (2002), Die Religion Zarathushtras, Vol. I & II, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer
- Stausberg, Michael (2005), "Zoroaster, as perceived in Western Europe after antiquity", Encyclopaedia Iranica, OT9, New York: Encyclopædia Iranica online
- Stausberg, Michael (2008), "On the State and Prospects of the Study of Zoroastrianism", Numen (55): 561–600
- Michael Stausberg; Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina; Anna Tessmann (2015), The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4443-3135-6
- Taherzadeh, Adib (1976), The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63, Oxford: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-270-8
- Watkins, Alison (2006), "Where Got I That Truth? Psychic Junk in a Modernist Landscape", Writing Junk: Culture, Landscape, Body (Conference Proceedings), Worcester: University College, pp. 3–4
- Werba, Chlodwig (1982), Die arischen Personennamen und ihre Träger bei den Alexanderhistorikern (Studien zur iranischen Anthroponomastik), Vienna: n.p. (Institut für Südasien-, Tibet- und Buddhismuskunde der Universität Wien)
- West Litchfield Martin (2010), The Hymns of Zoroaster: A New Translation of the Most Ancient Sacred Texts of Iran, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 978-0-85773-156-2
- West, Martin Litchfield (2013), Hellenica: Volume III: Philosophy, Music and Metre, Literary Byways, Varia, OUP Oxford, ISBN 978-0-19-960503-3
- Widenren, Geo (1961), Mani and Manichaeism, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
- Zaehner, Robert Charles (1972), Zurvan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma, New York: Biblo and Tannen, ISBN 978-0-8196-0280-0
- Zaehner, Robert Charles (1958), A Comparison of Religions, London: Faber and Faber. Cf. especially Chapter IV: Prophets Outside Israel
- Zartusht Bahram (2010), The Book of Zoroaster, or The Zartusht-Nāmah, London: Lulu