Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī[note 1] (Arabic: أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875 CE / 206 - 261 AH) or Muslim Nayshāpūrī (Persian: مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was an Islamic scholar from the city of Nishapur, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith). His hadith collection, known as Sahih Muslim, is one of the six major hadith collections in Sunni Islam and is regarded as one of the two most authentic (sahih) collections, alongside Sahih al-Bukhari.

Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj
مسلم بن الحجاج
Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj's name in Islamic calligraphy
TitleImām Muslim
Bornafter c. 815
DiedMay c. 875
Nasarabad, Abbasid Caliphate (present-day Iran)
Resting placeNasarabad
EraIslamic Golden Age
(Abbasid era)
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
Main interest(s)Hadith Aqidah
Notable work(s)Sahih Muslim
OccupationIslamic scholar, Muhaddith
Muslim leader


Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj was born in the town of Nishapur[5] in the Abbasid province of Khorasan, in present-day northeastern Iran. Historians differ as to his date of birth, though it is usually given as 202 AH (817/818),[6][7] 204 AH (819/820),[3][8] or 206 AH (821/822).[6][7][9]

Al-Dhahabi said, "It is said that he was born in the year 204 AH," though he also said, "But I think he was born before that."[3]

Ibn Khallikan could find no report of Muslim's date of birth, or age at death, by any of the ḥuffāẓ (hadith masters), except their agreement that he was born after 200 AH (815/816). Ibn Khallikan cites Ibn al-Salah, who cites Ibn al-Bayyiʿ's Kitab ʿUlama al-Amsar, in the claim that Muslim was 55 years old when he died on 25 Rajab, 261 AH (May 875)[9] and therefore his year of birth must have been 206 AH (821/822).

Ibn al-Bayyiʿ reports that he was buried in Nasarabad, a suburb of Nishapur.

According to scholars, he was of Arab or Persian origin.[10][11] The nisbah of "al-Qushayri" signifies Muslim's belonging to the Arab tribe of Banu Qushayr, members of which migrated to the newly conquered Persian territory during the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate.[8] The 14th-century Arab scholar Al-Dhahabi stated that he may have been a mawla of Persian descent, attributed to the Qushayr tribe by way of wala' (alliance). An ancestor of Muslim may have been a freed slave of a Qushayri, or may have accepted Islam at the hands of a Qushayri. According to two other scholars, Ibn al-Athīr and Ibn al-Salāh, he was actually an Arab member of that tribe of which his family had migrated to Iran nearly two centuries earlier following the conquest.[3] The majority of Scholars including the Brillant Spaniard muslim scientist (Ibn Al Hazm) considered him as an Actual member of Arab tribe.

Estimates on the number of hadiths in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or only the text (isnad) is. His Sahih ("authentic") is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukhari's Sahih.[12]

The author's teachers included Harmala ibn Yahya, Sa'id ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qa'nabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Ma'in, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishaburi al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of whom also wrote works on hadith. After his studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled in his hometown of Nishapur, where he met, and became a lifelong friend of al-Bukhari.


The Sunni scholar, Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh was first to recommend Muslim's work.[13]

Ishaq's contemporaries did not at first accept this; Abu Zur‘a al-Razi objected that Muslim had omitted too much material which Muslim himself recognised as authentic and that he included transmitters who were weak.[14]

Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327/938) later accepted Muslim as "trustworthy, one of the hadith masters with knowledge of hadith"; but this contrasts with much more fulsome praise of Abu Zur‘a and also his father Abu Hatim. It is similar with Ibn al-Nadim.[15]

Muslim's book gradually increased in stature such that it is considered among Sunni Muslims the most authentic collections of hadith, second only to Sahih Bukhari.



  1. ^ The name of his father has sometimes been given as حجاج (Ḥajjāj) instead of الحجاج (al-Ḥajjāj). The name of his great-great-grandfather has variously been given as كوشاذ (Kūshādh[3] or Kawshādh), كرشان[4] (Kirshān, Kurshān, or Karshān), or كوشان (Kūshān or Kawshān).


  1. ^ Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1990). ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn Balūshī (ed.). Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.). Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān. pp. 150–165.
  2. ^ "منهج الإمام مسلم بن الحجاج". Archived from the original on 2018-10-30. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  3. ^ a b c d Salahuddin ʿAli Abdul Mawjood (2007). The Biography of Imam Muslim bin al-Hajjaj. Translated by Abu Bakr Ibn Nasir. Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 978-9960988191.
  4. ^ 'Awālī Muslim: arba'ūna ḥadīthan muntaqātun min Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (عوالي مسلم: أربعون حديثا منتقاتا من صحيح مسلم) (in Arabic). Beirut: Mu’assasat al-kutub ath-Thaqāfīyah (مؤسسة الكتب الثقافية). 1985. Archived from the original on 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  5. ^ Oriental Scholars. Encyclopaedia Dictionary Islam Muslim World, etc, Gibb, Kramer volume 7. 1960-2004.1875.2009. p. 691.
  6. ^ a b Abdul Hamid Siddiqui. "Imam Muslim". Archived from the original on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  7. ^ a b K. J. Ahmad (1987). Hundred Great Muslims. Des Plaines, Illinois: Library of Islam. ISBN 0933511167.
  8. ^ a b Syed Bashir Ali (2003). Scholars of Hadith. The Makers of Islamic Civilization Series. Malaysia: IQRAʼ International Educational Foundation. ISBN 1563162040. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  9. ^ a b Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khallikan (1868) [Corrected reprint]. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary. Vol. III. Translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental translation fund of Great Britain and Ireland. p. 349. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  10. ^ R.N. Frye, ed. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
  11. ^ al-Qushayrī, Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj; Shahryar, Aftab (2004-01-01). صحيح مسلم. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 9788172315924. Archived from the original on 2021-09-30. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  12. ^ Lu'lu wal Marjan says 1900; Abi Bakr Muhammad b. 'Abdallah al-Jawzaqi apud Brown, 84 counted 2326.
  13. ^ mardi keh in bud; al-Hakim, Ma‘rifat ‘ulum al-hadith, 98 apud Jonathan Brown, The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim (Brill, 2007), p. 86
  14. ^ Brown, 91-2, 155
  15. ^ Brown, p. 88–89

External linksEdit

  1. Interactive diagram of teachers and students of Imam Muslim by Happy Books
Muhammad (570–632 the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
Abdullah ibn Masud (died 653) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksDawud al-Zahiri (815–883/4) founded the Zahiri schoolMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Persia