Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī[note 1] (Arabic: أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875 CE / 206 - 261 AH) or Muslim Nayshāpūrī (Persian: مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was an Islamic scholar from the city of Nishapur, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith). His hadith collection, known as Sahih Muslim, is one of the six major hadith collections in Sunni Islam and is regarded as one of the two most authentic (sahih) collections, alongside Sahih al-Bukhari.
Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj
مسلم بن الحجاج
|Born||after c. 815|
|Died||May c. 875|
Nasarabad, Abbasid Caliphate (present-day Iran)
|Era||Islamic Golden Age |
|Main interest(s)||Hadith Aqidah|
|Notable work(s)||Sahih Muslim|
|Occupation||Islamic scholar, Muhaddith|
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj was born in the town of Nishapur in the Abbasid province of Khorasan, in present-day northeastern Iran. Historians differ as to his date of birth, though it is usually given as 202 AH (817/818), 204 AH (819/820), or 206 AH (821/822).
Ibn Khallikan could find no report of Muslim's date of birth, or age at death, by any of the ḥuffāẓ (hadith masters), except their agreement that he was born after 200 AH (815/816). Ibn Khallikan cites Ibn al-Salah, who cites Ibn al-Bayyiʿ's Kitab ʿUlama al-Amsar, in the claim that Muslim was 55 years old when he died on 25 Rajab, 261 AH (May 875) and therefore his year of birth must have been 206 AH (821/822).
Ibn al-Bayyiʿ reports that he was buried in Nasarabad, a suburb of Nishapur.
According to scholars, he was of Arab or Persian origin. The nisbah of "al-Qushayri" signifies Muslim's belonging to the Arab tribe of Banu Qushayr, members of which migrated to the newly conquered Persian territory during the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate. The 14th-century Arab scholar Al-Dhahabi stated that he may have been a mawla of Persian descent, attributed to the Qushayr tribe by way of wala' (alliance). An ancestor of Muslim may have been a freed slave of a Qushayri, or may have accepted Islam at the hands of a Qushayri. According to two other scholars, Ibn al-Athīr and Ibn al-Salāh, he was actually an Arab member of that tribe of which his family had migrated to Iran nearly two centuries earlier following the conquest. The majority of Scholars including the Brillant Spaniard muslim scientist (Ibn Al Hazm) considered him as an Actual member of Arab tribe.
Estimates on the number of hadiths in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or only the text (isnad) is. His Sahih ("authentic") is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukhari's Sahih.
The author's teachers included Harmala ibn Yahya, Sa'id ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qa'nabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Ma'in, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishaburi al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of whom also wrote works on hadith. After his studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled in his hometown of Nishapur, where he met, and became a lifelong friend of al-Bukhari.
Ishaq's contemporaries did not at first accept this; Abu Zur‘a al-Razi objected that Muslim had omitted too much material which Muslim himself recognised as authentic and that he included transmitters who were weak.
Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327/938) later accepted Muslim as "trustworthy, one of the hadith masters with knowledge of hadith"; but this contrasts with much more fulsome praise of Abu Zur‘a and also his father Abu Hatim. It is similar with Ibn al-Nadim.
- Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1990). ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn Balūshī (ed.). Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.). Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān. pp. 150–165.
- "منهج الإمام مسلم بن الحجاج". www.ibnamin.com. Archived from the original on 2018-10-30. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Salahuddin ʿAli Abdul Mawjood (2007). The Biography of Imam Muslim bin al-Hajjaj. Translated by Abu Bakr Ibn Nasir. Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 978-9960988191.
- 'Awālī Muslim: arba'ūna ḥadīthan muntaqātun min Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (عوالي مسلم: أربعون حديثا منتقاتا من صحيح مسلم) (in Arabic). Beirut: Mu’assasat al-kutub ath-Thaqāfīyah (مؤسسة الكتب الثقافية). 1985. Archived from the original on 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Oriental Scholars. Encyclopaedia Dictionary Islam Muslim World, etc, Gibb, Kramer volume 7. 1960-2004.1875.2009. p. 691.
- Abdul Hamid Siddiqui. "Imam Muslim". Archived from the original on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- K. J. Ahmad (1987). Hundred Great Muslims. Des Plaines, Illinois: Library of Islam. ISBN 0933511167.
- Syed Bashir Ali (2003). Scholars of Hadith. The Makers of Islamic Civilization Series. Malaysia: IQRAʼ International Educational Foundation. ISBN 1563162040. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khallikan (1868) [Corrected reprint]. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary. Vol. III. Translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental translation fund of Great Britain and Ireland. p. 349. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- R.N. Frye, ed. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
- al-Qushayrī, Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj; Shahryar, Aftab (2004-01-01). صحيح مسلم. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 9788172315924. Archived from the original on 2021-09-30. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
- Lu'lu wal Marjan says 1900; Abi Bakr Muhammad b. 'Abdallah al-Jawzaqi apud Brown, 84 counted 2326.
- mardi keh in bud; al-Hakim, Ma‘rifat ‘ulum al-hadith, 98 apud Jonathan Brown, The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim (Brill, 2007), p. 86
- Brown, 91-2, 155
- Brown, p. 88–89
- Biodata at MuslimScholars.info
- Biography at Sunnah.com
- Short Bio of Imam Muslim
- Biography of Imam Muslim
- English translation of Sahih Muslim
- Interactive Family tree of Imam Muslim by Happy Books