Abd Allah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab

ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (Arabic: عبد الله بن عمر ابن الخطاب; c. 610 – 693), commonly known as Ibn Umar, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of the second Caliph Umar. He was a prominent authority in hadith and law. He remained neutral during the events of the first Fitna (656–661).[1]

ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar
عبد الله بن عمر
Bornc. 610 CE
Diedc. 693 (aged 82–83)
Mecca, Umayyad Caliphate (present-day KSA)
SpouseSafiya bint Abu Ubayd
  • Salim
  • Abu Bakr
  • Abu Ubayda
  • Waqid
  • Hafsa
  • Sawda
EraEarly Islamic Period
RegionIslamic scholar
Main interest(s)Hadith and Fiqh
Muslim leader
Influenced by

Muhammad's era — 610 to 632 edit

Abd Allah ibn Umar (kunya Abu Abd al-Rahman[2] : 156 ) was born in 610 in Mecca,[3]: 207  three years after the beginning of Muhammad's message.[2]: 156  He was the son of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Maz'un.[3]: 203–204  His full siblings were Hafsa and Abd al-Rahman. His paternal brothers, born to his stepmother Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, were Zayd and Ubayd Allah. He had another stepmother, Qurayba bint Abi Umayya, but she had no children of her own.[3]: 204 

It was said that the young Abd Allah had vivid memories of his father's conversion to Islam. It is believed he accepted Islam together with his father, although some sources disagree about the year of his acceptance.[4]: 950  He remembered following his father around the town as Umar declared his conversion to the neighbours and on the steps of the Kaaba. Abd Allah asserted, "Although I was very young at the time, I understood everything I saw."[5]: 138  His mother Zaynab also became a Muslim, but his two stepmothers did not.[5]: 510 [6]

His family emigrated to Medina in 622,[5]: 218  although he may have emigrated to Medina before his father.[4]: 950  Before the Battle of Uhud in March 625, Muhammad called Abd Allah Ibn Umar, who was then fourteen years old, to present himself. But when Abd Allah appeared, Muhammad would not allow him to fight in the battle. Two years later, as the Battle of the Trench approached, Muhammad again called Abd Allah, and this time he decreed that he was old enough because he was mature and reached puberty. He was also present at the Battle of Al-Muraysi in 628.[7]

He was enlisted in the last army prepared by Muhammad for the expedition of Usama bin Zayd.[8]: 229 

Family edit

After his father became Caliph in 634, Abd Allah Ibn Umar married Safiya bint Abu Ubayd, and they had six children: Abu Bakr, Abu Ubayda, Waqid, Umar, Hafsa and Sawda.[9]: 305 

"Safiyyah bint Abu Ubayd, the wife of Abdullah bin Umar" (names marked in red) in a hadith manuscript of 866 CE.

Abd Allah Ibn Umar's sister Hafsa married Muhammad in 625.[9]: 152  Muhammad once told her: "Abd Allah is a good man. I wish he prayed the night prayers." After that, it was said that every night Abd Allah would pray much and sleep but a little.[10]

Political interests edit

During his caliphate, Umar created a council and took his son Abd Allah as his advisor, but did not permit him to introduce himself as a caliphate candidate after his father.[8]: 229 

At the Arbitration of Siffin, some sources report that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari nominated Abd Allah Ibn Umar for the caliphate, but Amr ibn al-As objected.[11]: 452 

Ibn Umar participated in battles in Iraq, Persia and Egypt, but he remained neutral throughout the first Fitna.[12]: 30  In 656, he prevented his sister Hafsa from following Aisha to the Battle of the Camel.[13]

While in Medina during the Second Fitna of the 680s, Abd Allah Ibn Umar, together with Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Abd Allah ibn Abbas, advised Husayn ibn Ali to remain at Mecca. Husayn did not take this advice but chose to go to Kufa.[14]

Death edit

Abd Allah ibn Umar died in Mecca in 693 (74 AH).[12]

Legacy edit

Abd Allah ibn Umar was the second most prolific narrator of Hadith, with a total of 2,630 narrations.[12]: 27  It was said that he was extremely careful about what he narrated and that he narrated with his eyes full of tears.[12]: 30–31  He was very cautious in life and thus was also cautious in his judgement. He defeated the mighty army of the pagan tribes of Mecca in various battles such as those of Badr (in 624 CE) and “the Trench” or al-Khandaq (in 627 CE)[4] : 951 

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, al-Imāma wa al-Sīyāsa, vol. 1, p. 73.
  2. ^ a b Ahmad b. Ali ibn Hajar. Al Isaba fi tamyiz al sahaba vol. 4. Edited by Adil Ahmad ʿAbd al-Mawjud & Ali Muhammad Muʿawwad. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya.1415 AH
  3. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  4. ^ a b c Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Yusuf b. Abd Allah.Al-Istiab fi ma'rifat al-ashab vol. 3. Edited by Ali Muhammad al-Bajawi. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa, 1411 AH
  5. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Bukhari 3:50:891.
  7. ^ Muslim 19:4292.
  8. ^ a b Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Tarikh al-umam wa l-muluk. Edited by Muhammad Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim. vol. 4. Second edition. Beirut: Dar al-Turath, 1387 AH.
  9. ^ a b Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  10. ^ Bukhari 2:21:222.
  11. ^ Muzahim, Nasr. Waq'at Siffin. Qom: Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library, 1982.
  12. ^ a b c d Siddiqi, M. Z. (1961, 2006). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.
  13. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Brockett, A. (1997). Volume 16: The Community Divided, pp. 41-42. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  14. ^ Balyuzi, H. M. (1976). Muhammad and the course of Islam, p. 193. Oxford: George Ronald.