Hafsa bint Umar

Ḥafṣa bint ʿUmar (Arabic: حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665), was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and daughter of ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, the second caliph of Islam. In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين, romanized: ʾumm al-muʾminīn).

حفصة بنت عمر
تخطيط كلمة حفصة بنت عمر.png
Bornc. 605 CE
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
(present-day KSA)
DiedSha'ban 45 AH; October/November, c. 665(665-00-00) (aged 59–60)
Medina, Hejaz, Umayyad Caliphate
(present-day KSA)
Resting placeAl-Baqi Cemetery, Medina
Known forWife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Mother of the Believers
Spouses
Parents
Relatives
List
Family

Early lifeEdit

Hafsa was the daughter and eldest child of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Maz'un. She was born "when Quraysh were building the House Kaʿbah, five years before the Prophet was sent," i.e., in 605.[1]

MarriageEdit

She was married to Khunays ibn Hudhafa but became a widow in August 624.[2]

As soon as Hafsa had completed her waiting period, her father Umar offered her hand to Uthman ibn 'Affan, and thereafter to Abu Bakr; but they both refused her. When Umar went to Muhammad to complain about this, Muhammad replied, "Hafsa will marry one better than Uthman and Uthman will marry one better than Hafsa."[3]

Muhammad married Hafsa in Sha'ban AH 3 (late January or early February 625).[4] This marriage "gave the Prophet the chance of allying himself with this faithful follower,"[5] i.e., Umar, who now became his father-in-law.

Notable workEdit

Uthman, when he became Caliph, used Hafsa's copy when he standardized the text of Qur'an.[6] She is also said to have narrated sixty hadiths from Muhammad.[7]

DeathEdit

She died in Sha'ban AH 45, i.e., in October or November 665. She is buried in Al-Baqi Cemetery next to the other Mothers of the Faithful.[8][9]

Contrasting ViewsEdit

Sunni ViewEdit

Hafsa is seen as scholarly and inquisitive by the Sunnis. She is also respected as a Mother of The Believers.

Shi'a ViewEdit

Due to certain actions of disobedience to the Prophet,[10][11] Shi'as have a negative view of Hafsa.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina p. 56. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr, p. 307. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 pp. 56-58. The story is told in five separate traditions.
  4. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 58.
  5. ^ Margoliouth, D. S. (1905). Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, p. 307. New York & London: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
  6. ^ Bukhari 6:60:201.
  7. ^ Siddiqi, M. Z. (2006). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism, p. 25. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.
  8. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 60.
  9. ^ Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Sayyari (2009). Kohlberg, Etan; Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali (eds.). "Revelation and Falsification: The Kitab al-qira'at of Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyari: Critical Edition with an Introduction and Notes by Etan Kohlberg and Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi". Texts and studies on the Qurʼān. BRILL. 4: 103. ISSN 1567-2808.
  10. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 6691 - Oaths and Vows - كتاب الأيمان والنذور - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-01-08.
  11. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 2468 - Oppressions - كتاب المظالم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-01-08.