Hafsa bint Umar

Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (Arabic: حفصة بنت عمر‎; c. 605–665), was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.

حفصة بنت عمر
تخطيط كلمة حفصة بنت عمر.png
Born
Hafsa bint Umar

c. 605 CE
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
DiedShaban 45 AH ; October/November c. 665(665-00-00) (aged 59–60)
Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
Resting placeJannat al-Baqi, Medina
Known forWife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Mother of the Believers
Titleʾumm ul-mumineen
Spouse(s)
Parent(s)Umar ibn Al-Khattab (father)
Zaynab bint Madh'uwn (mother)
Relatives
List
Family

Early lifeEdit

Hafsah was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zainab bint Madh'uwn. She was born "when Quraysh were building the House [Ka'abah], five years before the Prophet was sent," i.e., in 605.[1]

MarriageEdit

She was married to Khunais ibn Hudhaifah but became a widow in August 624.[2]

As soon as Hafsah had completed her waiting period, her father Umar offered her hand to Uthman Ibn 'Affan, and thereafter to Abu Bakr; but they both refused her. When Umar went to Muhammad to complain about this, Muhammad replied, "Hafsah will marry one better than Uthman and Uthman will marry one better than Hafsah."[3]

Muhammad married Hafsah in Shaaban AH 3 (late January or early February 625).[4] This marriage "gave the Prophet the chance of allying himself with this faithful follower,"[5] i.e., Umar, who now became his father-in-law. Uthman married Muhammad's daughter, Umm Kulthum.

Notable WorkEdit

Uthman, when he became Caliph, used Hafsah's copy when he standardized the text of the Qur'an.[6] She is also said to have narrated sixty hadith from Muhammad.[7]

DeathEdit

She died in Shaban AH 45, i.e., in October or November 665. She is buried in al-Baqi next to the other Mothers of the Faithful.[8][9]

See alsoEdit

Sunni ViewEdit

In Sunni Islam, Hafsa is seen as scholarly and inquisitive. She is also viewed as a Mother of The Believers.

Shi'a ViewEdit

The Shi'a Muslim view is rather different from the Sunni. Most Twelver Shi'as criticise Hafsah due to her being the daughter of Umar and supporting the Caliphate of Umar

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina p. 56. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr, p. 307. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 pp. 56-58. The story is told in five separate traditions.
  4. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 58.
  5. ^ Margoliouth, D. S. (1905). Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, p. 307. New York & London: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
  6. ^ Bukhari 6:60:201.
  7. ^ Siddiqi, M. Z. (2006). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism, p. 25. Kuala Lumpar: Islamic Book Trust.
  8. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 60.
  9. ^ Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Sayyari (2009). Kohlberg, Etan; Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali (eds.). "Revelation and Falsification: The Kitab al-qira'at of Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyari: Critical Edition with an Introduction and Notes by Etan Kohlberg and Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi". Texts and studies on the Qurʼān. BRILL. 4: 103. ISSN 1567-2808.