Abū Dā’ūd Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath ibn Isḥāq al-Azdī al-Sijistānī (Arabic: أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was an Arab scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath ibn Isḥāq al-Azdī, Abū Dā’ūd al-Sijistānī
Abu Dawud's name in the style of Arabic calligraphy
|Born||817–18 CE / 202 AH|
|Died||889 CE / 275 AH|
|Era||Islamic golden age|
|Main interest(s)||ḥadīth and fiqh|
|Notable work(s)||Sunan Abī Dāwūd|
Student of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
Abū Dā’ūd was born in Sijistān and died in 889 in Basra, Iraq. He traveled widely collecting ḥadīth (traditions) from scholars in Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Tihamah, Nishapur, and Merv among other places. His focus on legal ḥadīth arose from a particular interest in fiqh (law). His collection included 4,800 ḥadīth, selected from some 500,000. His son, Abū Bakr ‘Abd Allāh ibn Abī Dā’ūd (d. 928/929), was a well known ḥāfiẓ and author of Kitāb al-Masābīh, whose famous pupil was Abū 'Abd Allāh al-Marzubānī.
School of thought and QuotesEdit
- Deeds are to be judged only by intentions.
- Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.
- None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself.
- The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion."
Principal among his twenty-one works:
- Sunan Abu Dāwūd; contains 4,800 hadith – mostly sahih (authenticated), some marked ḍaʿīf (unauthenticated) – usually numbered after the edition of Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid (Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa Muhammad, 1354/1935), where 5,274 are distinguished. Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani), and some others, believe a number of the unmarked hadith are ḍaʿīf.
- Kitab al-Marāsīl, lists 600 extensively investigated sahih mursal hadith.
- Risālat Abu Dāwūd ilā Ahli Makkah; letter to the people of Makkah describing his Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
- Kitāb al-Masāhif, catalogs non-Uthmanic variants of the Qur'an text
Early Islam scholarsEdit
- Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9.
- Frye, R. N.; Fisher, William Bayne; Frye, Richard Nelson; Avery, Peter; Boyle, John Andrew; Gershevitch, Ilya; Jackson, Peter (1975-06-26). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
- Nadīm (al-) 1970, pp. 164-6. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNadīm_(al-)1970 (help)
- Khallikān (Ibn) 1843, p. 590, I.
- "Imam Abu Dawud". www.sunnah.org. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- Shahih Al Bukhari, Imam Al Bukthari, Vol.1 Book 1 Hadith 1
- Translation of the Risālah by Abū Dāwūd Archived August 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Baghdādī (al-), Al-Khaṭīb Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ‘Alī (2001). Ta'rīkh Madīnat al-Salām (Ta'rīkh Baghdād) (PDF) (in Arabic). X, §4591. Beirut: Dār al-Gharib al-Islāmī. p. 75.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Khallikān (Ibn), Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad (1843). Wafayāt al-A'yān wa-Anbā' Abnā' al-Zamān (The Obituaries of Eminent Men}. I. Translated by McGuckin de Slane, William. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. pp. 590–91.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Nadīm (al), Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq Abū Ya’qūb al-Warrāq (1970). Dodge, Bayard (ed.). The Fihrist of al-Nadim; a tenth-century survey of Muslim culture. New York & London: Columbia University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Nawawī (al-), Abū Zakarīyā’ Yaḥyā (1847) . Wüstenfeld, Ferdinand (ed.). Kitāb Tahdhīb al-Asmā' (Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men) (in Arabic). Göttingen: London Society for the Publication of the Oriental Texts. p. 708 Arabic.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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