Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Ibrāhīm al-Juʿfī al-Bukhārī (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن إسماعيل بن إبرهيم الجعفي البخاري; 21 July 810 – 1 September 870) was a 9th-century Muslim muhaddith who is widely regarded as the most important hadith scholar in the history of Sunni Islam. Al-Bukhari's extant works include the hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari, al-Tarikh al-Kabir, and al-Adab al-Mufrad.

Al-Bukhari
البخاري
Al-Bukhari's mausoleum
TitleAmir al-Mu'minin fi al-Hadith
Personal
Born21 July 810
13 Shawwal 194 AH
Died1 September 870(870-09-01) (aged 60)
1 Shawwal 256 AH
Khartank, Samarkand, Abbasid Caliphate
Resting placeImam Bukhari Mosque near Samarkand, Uzbekistan
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic Golden Age
(Abbasid era)
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
DenominationSunni
SchoolShafi'i/Mujtahid
CreedSee School of Law and Theology
Main interest(s)Hadith, Aqidah
Notable work(s)Sahih al-Bukhari
al-Adab al-Mufrad
OccupationMuhaddith
Muslim leader
Influenced by

Born in Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan, Al-Bukhari began learning hadith at a young age. He travelled across the Abbasid Caliphate and learned under several influential contemporary scholars. Bukhari memorized thousands of hadith narrations, compiling the Sahih al-Bukhari in 846. He spent the rest of his life teaching the hadith he had collected. Towards the end of his life, Bukhari faced claims the Quran was created, and was exiled from Nishapur. Subsequently, he moved to Khartank, near Samarkand.

Sahih al-Bukhari is revered as the most important hadith collection in Sunni Islam. Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, the hadith collection of Al-Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, are together known as the Sahihayn (Arabic: صحيحين, romanizedSaḥiḥayn) and are regarded by Sunnis as the most authentic books after the Quran. It is part of the Kutub al-Sittah, the six most highly regarded collections of hadith in Sunni Islam.

Life edit

Ancestry and early life edit

Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari al-Ju'fi was born after the Friday prayer on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of Bukhara in Greater Khorasan in present-day Uzbekistan.[2][3][4][5] He has been described as Persian [6][7][8] and his father was Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith and a student of Malik ibn Anas, Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak, and Hammad ibn Salamah.[6][9] Ismail died while Al-Bukhari was an infant. Al-Bukhari's great-grandfather, Al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Ju'fi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisba "al-Ju'fi."[10]

Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah (Persian: بردزبه), is the earliest known ancestor of Al-Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a Zoroastrian Magi. Taqi al-Din al-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (Persian: بذذبه). Little is known of both of them except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people.[6][11][12] Historians have also not come across any information on Al-Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah (Arabic: إبراهيم ابن المغيرة, romanizedIbrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrā).[6]

Travels and education edit

According to contemporary hadith scholar and historian Al-Dhahabi, al-Bukhari began studying hadith in the Hijri year 821 CE. He memorized the works of Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak while still a child and began writing and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. In the Hijri year 826 CE, at the age of sixteen, Al-Bukhari performed the Hajj with his elder brother and widowed mother.[9][13] Al-Bukhari stayed in Mecca for two years, before moving to Medina where he wrote Qadhāyas-Sahābah wa at-Tābi'īn, a book about the companions of Muhammad and the tabi'un. He also wrote Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr during his time in Medina.[9]

Al-Bukhari is known to have travelled to most of the important Islamic learning centres of his time, including Syria, Kufa, Basra, Egypt, Yemen, and Baghdad. He studied under prominent Islamic scholars including Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ali ibn al-Madini, Yahya ibn Ma'in and Ishaq ibn Rahwayh. Al-Bukhari is known to have memorized over 600,000 hadith narrations.[9][14]

Mihna, later years and death edit

“The Qur'an is God’s speech, uncreated, and the acts of men are created."

Al-Bukhari[15]

According to Jonathan Brown, following Ibn Hanbal, Al-Bukhari had reportedly declared that 'reciting the Quran is an element of createdness’. Through this assertion, Al-Bukhari had sought an alternative response to the doctrines of Mu'tazilites and declared that the element of creation is applied only to humans, not the Word of God. His statements were received negatively by prominent hadith scholars and he was driven out of Nishapur.[16][17][18] Al-Bukhari, however, had only referred to the human action of reading the Qur’an, when he reportedly stated "My recitation of the Quran is created" (Arabic: لفظي بالقرآن مخلوق, romanizedLafẓī bil-Qur'āni Makhlūq).[19][20] Al-Dhahabi and al-Subki asserted that Al-Bukhari was expelled due to the jealousy of certain scholars of Nishapur.[21] Al-Bukhari spent the last twenty-four years of his life teaching the hadith he had collected. During the mihna, he fled to Khartank, a village near Samarkand, where he then also died on Friday, 1 September 870.[9][22] Today his tomb lies within the Imam Bukhari Mausoleum[23] in Hartang, Uzbekistan, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrasa, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground-level mausoleum tombstone of Al-Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small crypt below the structure.[24]

Works edit

 
Al-Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.

Sahih al-Bukhari is considered Al-Bukhari's magnum opus. It is a collection of approximately 7,563 hadith narrations across 97 chapters creating a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law. The book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. It is considered one of the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim. Alongside the latter, Sahih al-Bukhari is known as one of the 'Sahihayn (Two Sahihs)' and they are together part of the Kutub al-Sittah.[25]One of the most famous stories from the Sahih al-Bukhari is the story of Muhammad's first revelation.

Al-Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material. These are Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr, Al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ, and Al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr. Of these, Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr is published and well-known, while Al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr is lost.[26] Al-Dhahabi quotes Al-Bukhari as having said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the companions and the tabi'un and their statements. [...] At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon."[13] The books being referred to here were Qadhāyas-Sahābah wa at-Tābi'īn and Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr. Al-Bukhari also wrote al-Kunā on patronymics, and Al-Ḍu'afā al-Ṣaghīr on weak narrators of hadith.[27] Al-Adab al-Mufrad is a collection of hadith narrations on ethics and manners.[25][28]

In response to the accusations levied against him during his mihna, Al-Bukhari compiled the treatise Khalq Af'āl al-'Ibād, the earliest traditionalist representation of the position taken by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in which Al-Bukhari explains that the Quran is God's uncreated speech, while maintaining that God creates human actions, as the Sunnis had insisted in their attacks on the free-will position of Qadariyah. The first section of the book reports narrations from earlier scholars such as Sufyan al-Thawri that affirmed the Sunni doctrine of the uncreated nature of the Quran and condemned anyone who held the contrary position as a Jahmi or Kāfir. The second section asserts that the acts of men are created, relying on Qur'anic verses and reports from earlier traditionalist scholars like Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qatlan. In the last part of his treatise, Al-Bukhari harshly condemned the Mutazilites, defending the belief that sound of the Qur'an being recited is created.[29] Al-Bukhari cited Ahmad Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position, re-affirming the latter's legacy and the former's allegiance to the Ahl al-Hadith.[30][31]

List of works edit

Historical and biographical works[32]

  • Al-Tarikh al-Kabir = Kitāb al-Tārīkh (The Great History)
  • Kitāb al-Mukhtaṣar min al-tārīkh = al-Tārīkh al-awsaṭ
  • Asāmī al-ṣaḥābah (On the Prophet's Companions)

Hadith collections and sciences[32]

  • Sahih al-Bukhari
  • Al-Duʿafāʾ = al-Duʿafāʾ al-kabīr = al-Duʿafāʾ al-ṣaghīr
  • Kitāb al-wuḥdān (On the Companions from whom only one hadith is transmitted) (lost)
  • Kitāb al-ʿilal (lost)
  • Birr al-wālidayn (hadith collection on filial piety)
  • Al-Adab al-Mufrad
  • Kitāb al-hiba

Fiqh and theological works[32]

  • Al-Sunan fī al-fiqh = al-Fawāʾid = al-Mabṣūṭ (lost)
  • Al-Jāmiʾ al-Ṣaḥīḥ = al-Jāmiʿ al-kabīr = al-Musnad al-kabīr
  • Rafʿ al-yadayn fī al-ṣalāh
  • Al-Qirāʾa khalfa al-imām
  • Kitāb Khalq afʿal al-ʿibād

Speculation edit

School of Law and Theology edit

In terms of law, scholars like Jonathan Brown assert that Al-Bukhari was of the Ahl al-Hadith, an adherent of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal's traditionalist school in law (fiqh), but fell victim to its most radical wing due to misunderstandings.[33] This claim is supported by Hanbalis, although members of the Shafi'i and Ẓāhirī schools levy this claim as well.[34][35] Scott Lucas argues that Al-Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the Ẓāhirīs and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Al-Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely.[36][37] Many are of the opinion that Al-Bukhari was a mujtahid with his own madhhab.[38][39][40][41] Munir Ahmad asserts that historically most jurists considered him to be a muhaddith (scholar of hadith) and not a faqīh (jurist), and that as a muhaddith, he followed the Shafi'i school.[33] The Harvard historian Ahmed El-Shamsy also asserts this, as he states that he was a student of the Shafite scholar Al-Karabisi (d. 245/859).[42]

According to some scholars, such as Christopher Melchert, and also Ash'ari theologians, including Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani and Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Bukhari was a follower of the Kullabi school of Sunni theology due to his position on the utterance of the Quran being created.[43][44][16] Open Kullabis, such as the rationalist Harith al-Muhasibi, were harassed and made to relocate, a similar situation Bukhari found himself towards the latter years of his life by other Hanbalis.[18][45] He was also known to be a student of Husayn Al-Karabisi (d. 245/859), who was a direct student of Imam Shafi'i from his period in Iraq.[46] [42] Al-Karabisi was also known to have associated himself directly with Ibn Kullab and the Kullabi school of thought.[47][43]

Views on predestination edit

Al-Bukhari also rebuked those who rejected of qadar (predestination) in Sahih al-Bukhari by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had precisely determined all human acts.[17] According to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a Mushrik, similar to the later Ashari view of kasb.[17] In another chapter, Al-Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites. According to Al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but any who held similar beliefs.[17]

See also edit

Notes and references edit

Notes edit


Citations edit

  1. ^ Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn (ed.), Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165
  2. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Archived from the original on 8 March 2021.
  3. ^ Melchert, Christopher. "al-Bukhārī". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112. ISBN 9780787625436. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  5. ^ Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukhārī". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33. ISBN 9780297002741. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d Salaahud-Deen ibn ʿAlee ibn ʿAbdul-Maujood (December 2005). The Biography of Imam Bukhaaree. Translated by Faisal Shafeeq (1st ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 9960969053. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  7. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112. ISBN 9780787625436.
  8. ^ Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukhārī". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33. ISBN 9780297002741.
  9. ^ a b c d e "About - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  10. ^ Robson, J. (24 April 2012). "al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  11. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112. ISBN 9780787625436.
  12. ^ Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukhārī". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33. ISBN 9780297002741.
  13. ^ a b Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 104-5, al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah edition
  14. ^ al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. Hady al-Sari, the introduction to Fath al-Bari. Darussalam Publications. pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  16. ^ a b Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "The Level of Imam al-Ash'ari's Thought in Aqidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013), p58-70: "Because of that, al-Bukhari in most matters related to the question of aqidah is said to take the opinion of Ibn Kullab and al-Karabisi (al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
  17. ^ a b c d Azmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26. "Supporting his master, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241/855), al-Bukhari is reported to declare that ‘reciting the Qur’an is an element of createdness’. This statement presumably proclaimed by al-Bukhari as an explanatory assertion intended to provide an alternative source of thought or reasoning for Muslims. Instead of accepting the doctrine of the Mu’tazilites (the group that champions the concept of the creation of the Qur’an), al-Bukhari appears to suggest that the element of creation is only applied to humans, not to the words of God, namely the Qur’an. The statement did, however, receive a negative response from the Muslim community, including some prominent scholars (especially Hanbalites)."
  18. ^ a b Melchert, Christopher. "The Piety of the Hadith folk." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 425-439. "Hadith folk in Baghdad warned those of Nishapur against the famous traditionist Bukhari, whom they then drove from the city for suggesting one's pronunciation of the Qur'an was created"
  19. ^ al-Lalaka'i, Abi al-Qāsim. Sharh Usul I'tiqād Ahl as-Sunnah wa al-Jamā'ah (in Arabic). Vol. 2. Cairo: Dar al-Hadith. p. 396.
  20. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  21. ^ Sanusi Azmi, Ahmad (April 2017). "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari". Online Journal Research in Islamic Studies. 4 (1): 23 – via Research Gate. At the crux of the disagreement regarding the meaning of apparently ambiguous terms of 'lafz al-Qur'an' (word of the Qur'an), in which al-Bukhari was reported to have uttered 'lafzi bi al-Qur'an makhluq' (my recitation of the Qur'an is created), where he is actually referring to the human action of reading the Qur'an, he was immediately at risk... . Al-Dhahabi and al-Subki related that it is due to the jealousy of some scholars of Naisabur (Nishapur)..
  22. ^ Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing. Signal Books. pp. 393–. ISBN 978-1-904955-11-5. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  23. ^ Pasha, Muhammad Ali (28 February 2023). "Mausoleum of Imam Bukhari, Samarkand". The Gulf Observer. Retrieved 11 May 2023.
  24. ^ "Tomb of Imam al-Bukhari". Madain Project. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  25. ^ a b Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021
  26. ^ Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30.
  27. ^ Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 9-61, Dār al-'Āṣimah, Riyaḍ: 1410.
  28. ^ "AdabMufrad". bewley.virtualave.net. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  29. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  30. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9. Al-Bukhari's allegiance to the ahl al-hadith camp and to Ibn Hanbal himself is thus obvious. Indeed, he quotes Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position on the lafz.
  31. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 79. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  32. ^ a b c Abu-Alabbas, Belal (2018). Between scripture and human reason: an intellectual biography of Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī (d.256/870). pp. 38–39.
  33. ^ a b Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  34. ^ Imam al-Bukhari. (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafi'iya, 2.212-14 [6])
  35. ^ Falih al-Dhibyani, Al-zahiriyya hiya al-madhhab al-awwal, wa al-mutakallimun 'anha yahrifun bima la ya'rifun Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Abdul Aziz al-Harbi for Okaz. 15 July 2006, Iss. #1824. Photography by Salih Ba Habri.
  36. ^ Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Ismāʿīl Al-Bukhārī and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290, 312. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.
  37. ^ Sattar, Abdul. "Konstruksi Fiqh Bukhari dalam Kitab al-Jami’al-Shahih." De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah 3.1 (2011).
  38. ^ Masrur, Ali, and Imam Zainuddin Az-Zubaidi. "Imam Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari (194-256 H): Kolektor Hadis Nabi Saw. paling unggul di Dunia Islam." (2018): 1-16.
  39. ^ Hasyim, Muh Fathoni. "FIKIH IMAM AL-BUKHAR1." (2009).
  40. ^ Mughal, Justice R. Dr, and Munir Ahmad. "Imam Bukhari (رحمۃ اللہ علیہ) Was a Mujtahid Mutlaq." Available at SSRN 2049357 (2012).
  41. ^ a b The Canonization of Islamic Law: A Social and Intellectual History Reprint by El Shamsy, Ahmed (ISBN: 9781107546073). Page 70,165,170,197&217
  42. ^ a b "The Adversaries of Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal", 1997 Christopher Melchert. "Al-Karabisi's (And Ibn Kullabs) doctrine of the pronunciation was taken up after him by Ahmad al-Sarrak (fl. ca. 240/854-855), Abu Thawr (d. 240/854), Ibn Kullab (d. ca. 240/854-855), al-Harit al-Muhasibi (d. 243/857-858), Dawud al-Zahiri (d. 270/884), and even al-Bukhari (d. 256/870). Indeed, most of the known semi-rationalist Kullabi school were loosely associated with Al-Shafi'i."
  43. ^ Al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (2001). Fath al-bari sharh Sahih al-Bukhari. Vol. 1. Maktabah Misr. p. 293.
  44. ^ Shakir, Zaid. "Treatise for the Seekers of Guidance." NID Publishers, 2008.
  45. ^ The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Jonathon AC Brown. Page 71
  46. ^ The Formative Period Of Islamic Thought by Watt, W. Montomery

Sources edit

  • Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) اللإمام البُخاري; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer
  • Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021

External links edit

Studies edit

  • Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, Bukhari, London, 2007
  • Jonathan Brown, The canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim, Leiden 2007
  • Eerik Dickinson, The development of early Sunnite hadith criticism, Leiden 2001
  • Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ILS 13 (2006), 289–324
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and early hadith criticism," JAOS 121 (2001), 7–19
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and his Ṣaḥīḥ," Le Muséon 123 (2010), 425–54
  • Alphonse Mingana, An important manuscript of the traditions of Bukhārī, Cambridge 1936
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Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa, Sunni Sufi and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni sufi and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni sufi and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksDawud al-Zahiri (815–883/4) founded the Zahiri schoolMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Persia