Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد الاسلمي) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: الواقدي). His surname is derived from his grandfather's name Waqid and thus he became famous as al-Imam al-Waqidi. Al-Waqidi was an early Muslim historian and biographer of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, specializing in his military campaigns. He served as a judge (qadi) for the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Several of al-Waqidi's works are known through his scribe and student (in the field of the al-maghazi genre), Ibn Sa'd.
Abu `Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al al-Aslami
|Born||ca. 130AH / AD 747 in Medina|
|Died||207AH / AD 823|
|Era||Islamic golden age|
|Main interest(s)||History of Islam|
|Notable work(s)||Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi ("Book of History and Campaigns")|
Al-Waqidi was born in Medina around 748 AD (130 AH). He was the mawla (client) of ‘Abd Allah ibn Burayda of the Banu Aslam of Medina. According to Abu Faraj al-Isfahani, al-Waqidi’s mother was the daughter of ‘Isa ibn Ja‘far ibn Sa’ib Khathir, a Persian, and the great-granddaughter of Sa’ib, who introduced music to Medina. Amongst his prominent teachers were Ibn Abi Thahab Ma'mar bin Rashid, Malik ibn Anas and Sufyan al-Thawri. He lived in Medina at the time of Abu Hanifa and Ja'far al-Sadiq and studied in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi as a student of Malik ibn Anas. Al-Waqidi also had access to the grandchildren of Muhammad's companions. Al-Waqidi originally earned a living as a wheat trader, but when a calamity struck at the age of 50, he migrated to Iraq during the reign of Harun ar-Rashid. He was appointed a judge of eastern Baghdad, and Harun ar-Rashid's heir al-Ma'mun later appointed him the qadi of a military camp at Resafa.
Al-Waqidi concentrated on history, and was acknowledged as a master of the genre by his many of his peers. His books on the early Islamic expeditions and conquests predate much of the Sunni and Shia literature of the later Abbasid period. His works regarding the battles of Muhammad and his companions were considered reliable by most early Islamic scholars. While still regarded as an important source for early Islamic history, later authors debated the reliability of his works. Western orientalists who enjoyed his writings include Martin Lings.
Al-Waqidi is primarily known for his Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi (Arabic: كتاب التاريخ والمغازي, "Book of History and Campaigns"), which is the only part of his corpus that has been fully preserved. It describes the battles fought by Muhammad, as well as Muhammad's life in the city of Medina. The work draws upon the earlier sira of Ibn Ishaq, though it includes details not found in Ibn Ishaq's text.
A number of works chronicling the Islamic conquests have been attributed to al-Waqidi, though most of these attributions are now believed to be mistaken. Futuh al-Sham (Arabic: كتاب فتوح الشام, "Book of the Conquests of Syria"), a novelization of the Islamic army's conquests of Byzantine Syria, has traditionally been ascribed to al-Waqidi. Modern scholars generally classify Futuh al-Sham as a falsely-attributed later work, dating it to around the time of the Crusades, though some scholars believe a small portion of the text may be traced back to al-Waqidi. In addition to depicting the battles of the Islamic armies, the work also details the valor of various Muslim women, including Hind bint Utbah, Khawlah bint al-Azwar, and Asma bint Abi Bakr.
According to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Waqidi authored a book detailing the death of Husayn ibn Ali, though this work has not survived. Other lost texts attributed to al-Waqidi include a book chronicling the last days of Muhammad's life. The works of al-Waqidi's student Ibn Sa'd may contain some excerpts from these texts.
Comparison with earlier commentariesEdit
Historian Patricia Crone gives al-Waqidi as an example of the phenomenon whereby the farther an Islamic commentary on Muhammad's life was removed in time from his life and the events in the Quran, the more information it provided.
If one storyteller should happen to mention a raid, the next storyteller would know the date of this raid, while the third would know everything that an audience might wish to hear about.
This was despite the fact later commentaries depended on the earlier sources for their content, which suggested that if later commentaries differed in length from earlier work they should be briefer as some facts about the early days were lost or forgotten. (Crone attributed the phenomenon to storytellers' embellishment.) Commentary works of Al-Waqidi were much larger than those of the oldest prophetic biography Ibn Ishaq (died 767) despite the fact that al-Waqidi's later works covered a shorter period of time (only Muhammad's period in Medina).
Waqidi will always give precise dates, locations, names, where Ibn Ishaq has none, accounts of what triggered the expedition, miscellaneous information to lend color to the event ... But given that this information was all unknown to Ibn Ishaq, its value is doubtful in the extreme. And if spurious information accumulated at this rate in the two generations between Ibn Ishaq and al-Waqidi, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that even more must have accumulated in the three generations between the Prophet and Ibn Ishaq.
Historian Michael Cook gives an example of the difference in accounts of the death of Muhammad's father Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. Ibn Ishaq relates that some say he died while Muhammad's mother was pregnant with Muhammad was born and some while Muhammad was 28 months old; another commentator (Ma'mar ibn Rashid) says that he died in Yathrib after being sent there to lay stores of dates. About a half a century later al-Waqidi relates that
'Abdallah had gone to Gaza on business, had fallen ill on the way back, and died in Yathrib after leaving the caravan he was with to be nursed by relations there. Waqidi was further able to specify Abdallah's age at death and the exact place of his burial. ...[that the death] took place ... while Muhammad was still in the womb,
and that while there were "other accounts of the matter" his was the best.
Waqidi has faced criticism regarding his scholarly reliability from many Sunni Islamic scholars, including:
- al-Shafi’i (d. 204 A.H.) said "All the books of al-Waqidi are lies. In Medina there were seven men who used to fabricate authorities, one of which was al-Waqidi."
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 A.H.) said "He is a liar, makes alternations in the traditions"[additional citation(s) needed]
- Al-Nasa’i (d. 303 A.H.) said "The liars known for fabricating the hadith of the Messenger of Allah are four. They are: Arba’ah b. Abi Yahya in Medina, al-Waqidi in Baghdad, Muqatil b. Sulayman in Khurasan and Muhammad bin Sa’id in Syria."[additional citation(s) needed]
- Al-Bukhari (d. 256 A.H.) said "al-Waqidi has been abandoned in hadith. He fabricates hadith"[additional citation(s) needed]
- Al-Dhahabi (d. 748 A.H.) said "Consensus has taken place on the weakness of al-Waqidi"[additional citation(s) needed]
- Yahya ibn Ma'in (d. 233 A.H.) said "He is weak. He is nothing. Not reliable!"
- Ishaq ibn Rahwayh (d. 238 A.H.) said "According to my view, he is one of those who fabricate Hadith"
- Abu Dawood (d. 275 A.H.) said "I do not write his hadith and I do not report (hadith) on his authority. I have no doubt that he used to make up hadith"
- Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi (d. 277 A.H.) said "He fabricates hadith. We have abandoned his hadith"
- Al-Daraqutni (d. 385 A.H.) said "There is weakness in him (in his reporting)"
- Ali ibn al-Madini (d. 241 A.H.)said "He fabricates Hadith"
- Ibn ‘Adi (d. 365 A.H.) said "His traditions are not safe and there is danger from him (in accepting his traditions)"
- Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852 A.H.)said "He has been abandoned in spite of vastness of his knowledge"
- Abu Zur’a al-Razi (d. 264 A.H.) said "(Waqidi's writing) Abandoned, Weak"
- Al-Nawawi (d. 676 A.H.): said "Their (muhaddithin scholars) consensus is that al-Waqidi is weak"
- Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (d. 1999 C.E.) said that al-Waqidi is a liar.
Although Al-Waqidi had many detractors he also had many supporters amongst the early Muslims, including but not limited to:
- Al-Darawardi (d. 186 A.H): "Al-Waqidi is a master of traditions."
- Yazid ibn Harun (2d. 206 A.H.): "Al-Waqidi is reliable."
- Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qasim ibn Salam (d. 224 A.H.): "He is reliable."
- Al-Musayyibi (d. 236 A.H.): "Al-Waqidi is Reliable."
- ‘Abbas al-Anbari (d. 246 A.H.) I like him more than al-Razzaq.
- Ya’qub ibn Shaybah (d. 264 A.H.) Some of our people have told me that he was reliable.
- Mus’ab al-Zubayri (d. 236 A.H.)
- Ibrahim al-Harbi (d. 280 A.H.): "Al-Waqidi is a trustee of the people of Islam."
- Muhammad bin Salam Al-Jumahi said: "al-Waqidi is the scholar of his time."
Even among those who questioned his authenticity many still considered him a pillar in history and accepted his narrations in this regard. Ibn Hajar Asqalani records: "He is acceptable in the narrations of the battles according to our companions and Allah knows the best."
Early Islamic scholarsEdit
- Islamic Conquest of Syria A Translation of Futuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, pgs. x-xi. Trans. Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi.
- Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, 2014-04-25, p. 278, ISBN 9781610691789
- The Literature of Islam, The Scarecrow Press, 2006-09-20, p. 107, ISBN 9781461673149
- Faizer, Rizwi (2018). "Waqidi, al-". In Josef Meri (ed.). Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006): An Encyclopedia - Volume 2. Routledge. ISBN 9781351668132.
- Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A'lam al-Nubala, vol. 9, pg. 462.
- Muhammad ibn Umar Waqidi at Let Me Turn the Tables.
- al-Khalidi, Tarif (1994). Arabic Historical Thought in the Classical Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780521465540.
- al-Waqidi (2013). "Introduction". The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi's Kitab Al-Maghazi. Translated by Rizwi Faizer. Routledge. ISBN 9781136921148.
- Little, Donald P. (2005). "Narrative Themes and Devices in al-Waqidi's Kitab al-maghazi". In Hermann Landolt (ed.). Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781850434702.
- Faizer, Rizwi S. (November 1996). "Muhammad and the Medinan Jews: a comparison of the texts of Ibn Ishaq's Kitab Sirat Raul allah with Al-Qaqidid's Kitab al-Maghazi". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 28 (4): 463–489. doi:10.1017/S0020743800063790. JSTOR 176149.
- Bevilacqua, Alexander (2018). The Republic of Arabic Letters: Islam and the European Enlightenment. Harvard University. p. xv. ISBN 9780674975927.
- Rihan, Mohammed (2014). The Politics and Culture of an Umayyad Tribe: Conflict and Factionalism in the Early Islamic Period. IB Tauris. p. 176. ISBN 9781780765648.
- Landau-Tasseron, Ella (2000). "New data on an old manuscript: An Andalusian version of the work entitled Futuh al-Sham". Al-Qantara. 21 (2): 361. doi:10.3989/alqantara.2000.v21.i2.431.
- Merlet, Shukrieh R. "Arab historiography". Islamic Quarterly. 34 (1): 22.
- Schneiner, Jens (2012). Paul Cobb (ed.). The Lineaments of Islam: Studies in Honor of Fred McGraw Donner. Brill. p. 166. ISBN 9789004231948.
- Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of "Futuh al-Sham" by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 325-332 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-09-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam at War, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0, p. 30
- Holmes Katz, Marion (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 9781135983949.
- Shoemaker, Stephen J. (2011). The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780812205138.
- Crone, Patricia (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 223.
- Pickard, John (2013). Behind the Myths: The Foundations of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. AuthorHouse. p. 352. ISBN 9781481783637. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Cook, Michael (1983). Muhammad. Oxford University Press. pp. 63–64. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- Ibn Abi Hatim, vol.4 pt.1 p.21
- Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Dhahabi,Mizan al-I`tidal fi Naqd al-Rijal, vol. 3 page 110
- Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, volume 9 page 366 No.604, [Hyderabad, 1326 A.H.cf. Yusuf ‘Abbas Hashmi, Zaynab bint Jahash, ‘Islamic Culture’ vol.XLI, No.1, Hyderabad (India), 1967]
- Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, volume 2 page 194, [Cairo, 1960]
- al-Albani, Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Da'ifa, number 6013
- Talkhis al-Habir, Volume 7 page 57