Abbasid dynasty

The Abbasid dynasty or Abbasids (Arabic: بنو العباس, romanizedBanu al-ʿAbbās) were an Arab dynasty that ruled the Abbasid Caliphate between 750 and 1258. They were from the Qurayshi Hashimid clan of Banu Abbas, descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. The Abbasid Caliphate is divided into three main periods: Early Abbasid era (750–861), Middle Abbasid era (861–936) and Later Abbasid era (936–1258). A cadet branch of the dynasty also ruled as ceremonial rulers for the Mamluk Sultanate as Caliph (1261–1517), until their conquest by the Ottoman Empire.

Abbasids
بنو العباس‎
العباسيون
Abbasid banner.svg
Flag of Abbasid dynasty
Parent familyBanu Hashim
Country Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258)
Mamluk Sultanate
(1261–1517)
Place of originMecca, Hejaz, Arabia
Founded750
FounderʿAbd Allāh al-Saffāḥ
Historic seat
Titles
Dissolution1517

AncestryEdit

 
Family tree depicting the ancestry of the Abbasid dynasty

The Abbasids descended from Abbas, one of Muhammad's companions (as well as his uncle) and one of the early Qur'an scholars.[1] Therefore, their roots trace back to Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf and also Adnan in the following line: Al-‘Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai[2] ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaima ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'add ibn Adnan.[3]

Genealogical Chart of Abbasid Caliphs
Ibrahim
Banu Isma'il
Isma'il
Banu Adnan
Adnan
Ma'ad
Banu Nizar
Nizar
Banu Mudar
Mudar
Ilyas
Mudrikah
Khuzaymah
Banu Kinana
Kinana
Al-Nadr
Malik
Banu Quraysh
Fihr
Ghalib
Lu'ayy
Ka'b
Murrah
Kilab
Qusayy
Abd Manaf
Banu HashimBanu Abd Shams
HashimAbd Shams
Banu Umayya
Abd al-MuttalibUmayya
Abu TalibAbd AllahAl-AbbasUmayyads
MuhammadAbd Allah
Ali
Caliph
r. 656–661
FatimahAli
AlidsMuhammad
Banu Abbas
Al-Mansur
Caliph
r. 754-775
Al-Saffah
Caliph
r. 750-754
Al-Mahdi
Caliph
r. 775-785
Al-Hadi
Caliph
r. 785-786
Harun al-Rashid
Caliph
r. 786-809
Al-Ma'mun
Caliph
r. 813-833
Al-Amin
Caliph
r. 809-813
Al-Mu'tasim
Caliph
r. 833-842
Al-Wathiq
Caliph
r. 842-847
Al-Mutawakkil
Caliph
r. 847-861
Muhammad
Al-Muhtadi
Caliph
r. 869-870
Al-Muntasir
Caliph
r. 861-862
Al-Muwaffaq
Regent (de facto)
870-891
Al-Mu'tamid
Caliph
r. 870-892
Al-Mu'tazz
Caliph
r. 866-869
Al-Musta'in
Caliph
r. 862-866
Al-Mu'tadid
Caliph
r. 892-902
Al-Muktafi
Caliph
r. 902-908
Al-Muqtadir
Caliph
r. 908-929,
929-932
Al-Qahir
Caliph
929,
932-934
Al-Mustakfi
Caliph
r. 944-946
Al-Radi
Caliph
r. 934-940
Al-Muttaqi
Caliph
940-944
Al-Muti'
Caliph
r. 946-974
Ishaq
At-Ta'i'
Caliph
r. 974-991
Al-Qadir
Caliph
r. 991-1031
Al-Qa'im
Caliph
r. 1031-1075
Muhammad
Dhakirat
Al-Muqtadi
Caliph
r. 1075-1094
Al-Mustazhir
Caliph
r. 1094-1118
Al-Mustarshid
Caliph
r. 1118-1135
Al-Muqtafi
Caliph
r. 1136-1160
Al-Rashid
Caliph
r. 1135-1136
AliAl-Mustanjid
Caliph
r. 1160-1170
HasanAl-Mustadi'
Caliph
r. 1170-1180
Abu BakrAl-Nasir
Caliph
r. 1180-1225
HasanAl-Zahir
Caliph
r. 1225-1226
Al-Hakim I
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1262-1302
Al-Mustansir
Caliph
r. 1226-1242
Al-Mustansir
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1261
AhmadAl-Mustakfi I
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1302-1340
Al-Musta'sim
Caliph
r. 1242-1258
Al-Wathiq I
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1340-1341
Al-Hakim II
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1341-1352
Al-Mu'tadid I
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1352-1362
Al-Musta'sim
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1377,
1386-1389
Al-Wathiq II
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1383-1386
Al-Mutawakkil I
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1362–1377,
1377–1383,
1389–1406
Al-Musta'in
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1406-1414
Al-Mu'tadid II
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1414-1441
Al-Mustakfi II
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1441-1451
Al-Qa'im
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1451-1455
Al-Mustanjid
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1455-1479
Ya'qub
Al-Mutawakkil II
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1479-1497
Al-Mustamsik
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1497-1508,
1516-1517
Al-Mutawakkil III
Caliph of Cairo
r. 1508-1516,
1517

Notable membersEdit

  • Abu'l-Abbas al-Saffah, the first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate
  • Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph[4]
  • Al-Mahdi third Abbasid caliph (r. October 775 – 24 July 785) was the most influential Abbasid Caliph. He also promoted Art and science in the Islamic Caliphate.
  • Al-Hadi, (r. 785–786) was an Abbasid caliph. He very open to the people of his empire and allowed citizens to visit him in the palace at Baghdad to address him. As such, he was considered an enlightened ruler.
  • Harun al-Rashid, fifth Abbasid caliph (r. 786–809) rule is traditionally regarded to be the height of Islamic Golden Age's power. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a world center of knowledge, culture and trade.
  • Al-Amin, (r. 809–813) sixth Abbasid caliph, son of Harun al-Rashid and Zubaidah.
  • Al-Ma'mun, (r. 813–833) was an Abbasid caliph, he was well educated and with a considerable interest in scholarship, al-Ma'mun promoted the Translation Movement, he was also an astronomer.
  • Al-Mu'tasim, (833–842) was an Abbasid caliph, patron of the art and a powerful military leader.
  • Al-Wathiq, (r. 842–847) was an Abbasid caliph, he was well educated and with a considerable interest in scholarship.
  • Al-Mutawakkil, (r. 847–861) was the tenth Abbasid caliph, under his reign the Abbasid Empire reached its territorial height.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2001). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. Phoenix. p. 66. ISBN 0946621330.
  3. ^ Ibn Ishaq; Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq's sīrat. London. p. 3. ISBN 0195778286. The Paternal Ancestral Lineage of Prophet Muhammad
  4. ^ Axworthy, Michael (2008). A History of Iran. Basic Books. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-465-00888-9. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
  • People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII edited by A. Hasan & J. C. Das page 285
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bheesty" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 845.