Al-Mustansir I

Al-Mustansir Bi'llah (full name:Abû Ja`far al-Mustansir bi-llah al-Mansûr ben az-Zâhir[3] Surname Al-Mustansir),[4] (17 February 1192 – 2 December 1242) was the Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty from 1226 to 1242. He succeeded Caliph Az-Zahir in the year 1226 and was the penultimate caliph to rule from Baghdad.

Abû Ja`far Al-Mustansir bi-llah al-Mansûr ben az-Zâhir
ابو جعفر المستنصر باللہ المنصور بن الظاھر
Khalīfah
Amir al-Mu'minin
Dirham of Al-Mustansir, AH 623-640.jpg
Dirham of al-Mustansir
36th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad
Reign10 July 1226 – 5 December 1242
Predecessoral-Zahir
Successoral-Musta'sim
Born17 February 1192 [1]
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate, (now Iraq)
Died5 December 1242 (aged 50)
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate
Burial
Baghdad
Consort
  • Shahan,
  • Hajir[2]
IssueAl-Musta'sim
DynastyAbbasid
Fatheral-Zahir
MotherZahra
ReligionSunni Islam

BiographyEdit

Al-Mustansir was born in Baghdad on 1192. He was the son of Abu Nasr Muhammad (future caliph Al-Zahir). His mother was a Turkish Umm walad.[5][6] called Zahra. His full name was Mansur ibn Muhammad al-Zahir and his Kunya was Abu Jaʿfar. At the time of his birth, his father was a prince. When his father ascended to the throne in 1225. His father, lowered the taxes of Iraq, and built a strong army to resist invasions. He died on 10 July 1226, nine months after his accession.

On his father's death in 1226 he has succeeded his father Az-Zahir as the thirty-sixth Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. Al-Mustansir is particularly known for establishing Mustansiriya Madrasah (currently a part of the Al-Mustansiriya University) in 1227/32/34. The Madrasah, at the time, taught many subjects including medicine, mathematics, literature, grammar and Islamic religious studies, becoming a prominent and high-ranking center for Islamic studies in Baghdad.[7]

 
The Courtyard of Mustansiriya Medical College

The Madrasas during the Abbasid period were used as the predominant instrument to foster the spread of Islamic thought as well as a way to extend the founder's pious ideals.[8]

The ruler of Erbil, Muzaffar ad-Din Gökböri was being without a male heir, Gökböri willed Erbil to the Abbasid caliph al-Mustansir.[9] After the death of Gökböri in 1233, the Erbil city came under Abbasid control.

Al-Mustansir died on 5 December 1242.[10] His son Al-Musta'sim succeeded him as the thirty-seventh and last Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate.

FamilyEdit

One of Al-Mustansir's concubines was Shahan. She was a Greek, and had been formerly a slave of Khata Khatun, the daughter of the commander Sunqur al-Nasiri the Tall and the wife of the commander Jamal al-Din Baklak al-Nasiri. After Al-Mustansir's accession to the throne, Khata presented Shahan to him as a gift, as part of a group of slaves. Shahan alone among them became his concubine and favourite.[11] Another of his concubines was Hajir. She was the mother of the future Caliph Al-Musta'sim.[12]

See alsoEdit

  • Sixth Crusade (1228–1229), a military expedition to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Muslims.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ibn Kathir: Albidayah Wa-Nahaya, V. XIII. p. 147
  2. ^ Al-Hawadith al-Jami'a . Ibn al-Fuwaṭi
  3. ^ Arabic : abū jaʿfar al-mustanṣir bi-llāh al-manṣūr ben aẓ-ẓāhir,
    أبو جعفر المسنتصر بالله المنصور بن محمد الظاهر
  4. ^ Arabic : Al-Mustanṣir, المسنتصر بالله
  5. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar; Shou, Salman (2005). Utumwa: Mtazamo wa Kiislamu na wa Nchi za Magharibi. Al-Itrah Foundation. p. 64. ISBN 978-9987-9022-4-8.
  6. ^ Hasan, M. (1998). History of Islam: Classical period, 571-1258 C.E. History of Islam. Islamic Publications. p. 304.
  7. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert (1994). Islamic architecture : form, function, and meaning (Casebound ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231101325. OCLC 30319450.
  8. ^ Bloom, Jonathan M. (1997). Islamic arts. Blair, Sheila. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 9780714831763. OCLC 37265778.
  9. ^ Morray, p. 85
  10. ^ 10 Jumada ath-thani 640 A.H.
  11. ^ al-Sāʿī, Ibn; Toorawa, Shawkat M.; Bray, Julia (2017). كتاب جهات الأئمة الخلفاء من الحرائر والإماء المسمى نساء الخلفاء: Women and the Court of Baghdad. Library of Arabic Literature. NYU Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4798-6679-3.
  12. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar; Shou, Salman (2005). Utumwa: Mtazamo wa Kiislamu na wa Nchi za Magharibi. Al-Itrah Foundation. p. 64. ISBN 978-9987-9022-4-8.

SourcesEdit

  • This text is adapted from William Muir's public domain, The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall.
  • Hasan, M. (1998). History of Islam: Classical period, 571-1258 C.E. History of Islam. Islamic Publications. p. 304
  • Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997.
  • Morray D.W. (1994) An Ayyubid Notable and His World: Ibn Al-ʻAdīm and Aleppo as Portrayed in His Biographical Dictionary of People Associated with the City, Brill. Leiden. ISBN 9004099565
  • Al-Sāʿī, Ibn; Toorawa, Shawkat M.; Bray, Julia (2017). كتاب جهات الأئمة الخلفاء من الحرائر والإماء المسمى نساء الخلفاء: Women and the Court of Baghdad. Library of Arabic Literature.
Al-Mustansir I
Cadet branch of the Banu Hashim
Born: 17 February 1192 Died: 5 December 1242
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by Caliph of Islam
Abbasid Caliph

10 July 1226 – 5 December 1242
Succeeded by