List of caliphs

This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad. All years are according to the Common Era. Some Muslims believe that, after the death of Muhammad in 632, a succession crisis arose as Muhammad had not left a generally acknowledged heir.

Khalīfah (Caliph)
خَليفة
Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg
Calligraphic of Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq, the first caliph
StyleAmir al-Mu'minin
Residence
AppointerHereditary (since 661)
Formation8 June 632
First holderAbu Bakr
Final holderAbdulmejid II
Abolished3 March 1924

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Calligraphic/Coin Name (and titles) Born Reigned from Reigned until Died Relationship with Muhammad Parents House
  Abū Bakr
(أبو بكر)
Al-Ṣiddīq
573 8 June 632 (03-13-11 AH) 22 August 634
  • Father of Aisha, Muhammad's wife
Banu Taim
  ʿUmar
(عمر بن الخطاب)
Al-Farooq
584 23 August 634 (06-22-13 AH) 3 November 644
(assassinated)
  • Father of Hafsa, Muhammad's wife
Banu Adi
   'Uthman
(عثمان بن عفان)
Dhun Nurayn
Al-Ghani
579 11 November 644 (01-05-24 AH) 20 June 656
(assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house)
Banu Ummaya
   'Ali
(علي بن أبي طالب)
Haydar
Abu Turab
Al-Murtada
15 September 601 20 June 656 (12-21-35 AH) 29 January 661
(assassinated while praying in the Mosque of Kufa)
Banu Hashim

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Image/Coin Name Born Reigned from Reigned until Died Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents
 

 

Mu'awiyah I
(معاوية)
602 661 29 April or 1 May 680
  Yazid I
(يزيد)
647 680 11 November 683
  Mu'awiyah II
(معاوية الثاني)
664 November 683 684
  • Yazid I, Umayyad caliph
  • Umm Muawiya also known as al-Kalbiyya (wife of Yazid I)
  Marwan I
(مروان بن الحکم)
623–626 684 7 May 685
 

 

'Abd al-Malik
(عبد الملك بن مروان)
646 685 8 October 705
  • Marwan I, Umayyad caliph
  • 'Aisha bint Muawiya ibn Al-Mughira
  Al-Walid I
(الوليد الأول)
668 October 705 23 February 715
  Sulayman
(سلیمان بن عبدالملک)
674 February 715 22 September 717
  'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz
(عمر بن عبد العزيز)
2 November 682 September 717 February 720
  • Grandson of Marwan I
  • First cousin of Al-Walid I and Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Great-grandson of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab from female-line
  Yazid II
(يزيد الثاني)
687 10 February 720 26 January 724
  Hisham
(هشام بن عبد الملك)
691 26 January 724 6 February 743
  Al-Walid II
(الوليد الثاني)
709 6 February 743 17 April 744 (assassinated)
  • Son of Yazid II
  • Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Yazid II, Umayyad caliph
  • Umm al-Hajjaj bint Muhammad al-Thaqafi
  Yazid III
(يزيد الثالث)
701 17 April 744 3/4 October 744
  Ibrahim
(ابراهيم ابن الوليد)
744 (few weeks) 25 January 750
(executed)
  • Al-Walid I, Umayyad caliph
  • Budayra (also known as Su'ar)
  Marwan II
(مروان بن محمد)
691 744 6 August 750
(killed)

Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)

Image/Coin Regnal name Personal name Born Reigned from Reigned until Died Parents
  As-Sāffaḥ Abul-'Abbās 'Abdallah 721 25 January 750 10 June 754
  Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far 'Abdallah 714 10 June 754 775
  Al-Mahdi Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad 744/745 775 4 August 785
  Al-Hadi Abu Muhammad Musa 764 August 785 14 September 786
  Al-Rashid Harun 763/766 14 September 786 24 March 809
  Al-Amin Muhammad 787 March 809 24/25 September 813
  Al-Ma'mun Abu al-Abbas 'Abdallah 13/14 September 786 September 813 9 August 833
  Al-Mu'tasim Abū Ishaq Muhammad October 796 9 August 833 5 January 842
 

 

Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 811–813 5 January 842 10 August 847
 

 

Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far February/March 822 10 August 847 11 December 861
(assassinated)
  Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad November 837 861 7 or 8 June 862
  Al-Musta'in Ahmad 836 862 866 (executed)
  Al-Mu'tazz Abū ʿAbd allāh Muhammad 847 866 869
  Al-Muhtadi Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad 869 21 June 870
  • Al-Wathiq, Abbasid Caliph
  • Qurb (greek concubine)
  Al-Mu'tamid Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad 842 21 June 870 15 October 892
  Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad 854/861 October 892 5 April 902
  • Al-Muwaffaq, Abbasid prince and Commander-in-chief
  • Dirar
  Al-Muktafi Abu Muhammad ʿAlî 877/878 5 April 902 13 August 908
  Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 895 13 August 908 929 31 October 932
(killed)
  Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 929 950
  Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 895 929 31 October 932
(killed)
  Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 31 October 932 934 950
  Al-Radi Abu al-'Abbas Muhammad December 909 934 23 December 940
  Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 908 940 944 July 968
  Al-Mustakfi Abu’l-Qasim 'Abdallah 905 September 944 January 946 September/October 949
  Al-Muti Abu al-Qasim al-Faḍl 914 January 946 5 August 974 12 October 974
  At-Ta'i Abd al-Karīm 932 974 991 3 August 1003
  • Al-Muti, Abbasid Caliph
  • Hazar also known as Atab
  Al-Qadir Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn al-Muqtadir 947 1 November 991 29 November 1031
  Al-Qa'im Abu Ja'far 1001 29 November 1031 2 April 1075
  • Al-Qadir, Abbasid Caliph
  • Badr al-Dija also known as Qatr al-Nida
  Al-Muqtadi Abū'l-Qāsim ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qa'im 1056 2 April 1075 February 1094
  Al-Mustazhir Abū l-ʿAbbās Ahmad April/May 1078 February 1094 6 August 1118
  • Al-Muqtadi, Abbasid Caliph
  • Altın (Turkic concubine)
Al-Mustarshid Abū'l-Manṣūr al-Faḍl April/May 1092 6 August 1118 29 August 1135
Al-Rashid Billah Abu Jaʿfar Manṣūr 1109 29 August 1135 1136 6 June 1138
(killed by Hashshashins)
  Al-Muqtafi Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad 9 March 1096 1136 12 March 1160
  Al-Mustanjid Abū'l-Muẓaffar Yūsuf 1124 12 March 1160 20 December 1170
  Al-Mustadi Hassan 1142 20 December 1170 30 March 1180
  Al-Nasir Abu'l-ʿAbbās Ahmad 6 August 1158 2 March 1180 4 October 1225
  Al-Zahir Abu Nasr Muhammad 1176 5 October 1225 11 July 1226
  Al-Mustansir Abû Ja`far al-Manṣūr 17 February 1192 11 July 1226 2 December 1242
  Al-Musta'sim Abu Ahmad Abdallah 1213 2 December 1242 20 February 1258

During the later period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Amir al-umara and Sultan.

Mamluk Abbasid dynasty (1261–1517)

The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.[1][2]

Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents
Al-Mustansir Abu al-Qasim Ahmad 13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261
Al-Hakim I Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad 16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302
  • Abu 'Ali al-Hasan
Al-Mustakfi I Abu ar-Rabi' Sulaiman 20 January 1302 – February 1340
Al-Wathiq I Abu Ishaq Ibrahim February 1340 – 17 June 1341
Al-Hakim II Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad 1341–1352
Al-Mu'tadid I Abu Bakr 1352–1362
Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1362–1377
Al-Musta’sim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1377
Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1377–1383
Al-Wathiq II 'Umar September 1383 – 13 November 1386
Al-Musta'sim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1386–1389
Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1389 – 9 January 1406
Al-Musta'in Abu al-Fadl al-'Abbas 22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414
Al-Mu'tadid II Abu al-Fath Dawud 1414–1441
Al-Mustakfi II Abu ar-Rabi' Sulayman 1441 – 29 January 1451
Al-Qa'im Abu Al-Baqa Hamzah 1451–1455
Al-Mustanjid Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf 1455 – 7 April 1479
Al-Mutawakkil II Abu al-'Izz 'Abdul 'Aziz 5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497
Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1497–1508
Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1508–1516
Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1516–1517
Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1517

Ottoman Caliphate (1517–3 March 1924)

The head of the Ottoman dynasty was just entitled Sultan originally, but soon it started accumulating titles assumed from subjected peoples.[3][4] Murad I (reigned 1362–1389) was the first Ottoman claimant to the title of Caliph; claimed the title after conquering Edirne.[5]

Image Tughra Name Reign Parents
Selim I 1517 – 21 September 1520
Suleiman I 30 September 1520 – 6 or 7 September 1566
Selim II 29 September 1566 – 21 December 1574
Murad III 22 December 1574 – 16 January 1595
Mehmed III 27 January 1595 – 20 or 21 December 1603
Ahmed I 21 December 1603 – 22 November 1617
Mustafa I 22 November 1617 – 26 February 1618
Osman II 26 February 1618 – 19 May 1622
Mustafa I 20 May 1622 – 10 September 1623
Murad IV 10 September 1623 – 8 or 9 February 1640
Ibrahim 9 February 1640 – 8 August 1648
Mehmed IV 8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
Suleiman II 8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
Ahmed II 22 June 1691 – 6 February 1695
Mustafa II 6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703
Ahmed III 22 August 1703 – 1 or 2 October 1730
Mahmud I 2 October 1730 – 13 December 1754
Osman III 13 December 1754 – 29 or 30 October 1757
Mustafa III 30 October 1757 – 21 January 1774
Abdul Hamid I 21 January 1774 – 6 or 7 April 1789
Selim III 7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807
Mustafa IV 29 May 1807 – 28 July 1808
Mahmud II 28 July 1808 – 1 July 1839
Abdulmejid I 1 July 1839 – 25 June 1861
Abdulaziz 25 June 1861 – 30 May 1876
Murad V 30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876
Abdul Hamid II 31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909
Mehmed V 27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918
Mehmed VI 4 July 1918 – 1 November 1922

[nb 1]
Abdulmejid II 18 November 1922 – 3 March 1924

The Office of the Ottoman Caliphate was transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey which dissolved the office on March 3, 1924, in keeping with the policies of secularism that were adopted in the early years of the Republic of Turkey by its President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

After the abolition of the Caliphate, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey founded the Presidency of Religious Affairs as the new highest Islamic religious authority in the country.

Short-lived and disputed caliphates

Hasan ibn Ali's Caliphate (661)

After the death of Ali, the Muslims selected Hasan ibn Ali as the caliph. He somehow successfully made a treaty with governor Mu'awiyah that led to the latter assuming political power. Later, he abdicated as the caliph after ruling for six or seven months.

Calligraphic/Coin Name (and titles) Birth Reigned from Reigned until Death Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents House
Hasan ibn Ali
(حسن بن علي)

Ahl al-Bayt
Al-Mujtaba
624 661 (six or seven months) 670
  • Grandson of Muhammad
  • Son of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib
Banu Hashim

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr's Caliphate (684–692)

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the nephew of Aisha, the third wife of Muhammad led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in 684 AD. He was proclaimed caliph in Mecca but was defeated and killed there in 692 AD after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[7]

Coin Name (and titles) Birth Reigned from Reigned until Death Parents House
  Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
(عبد الله ابن الزبير)
May, 624 AD November 683 AD November 692 AD November 692 AD Banu Asad

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)

 
The Fatimid Caliphate

(The Fatimids were Isma'ili Shia who claimed to be descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and were seen as heretics by Sunnis. Their claims to a caliphate are also not recognized by the Muslim Ummah as a legitimate successor of the title of Caliph passed down from Muhammad, as no legitimate proof existed they were descendant from Fatimah).[8][9]

Name Reign Parents
Al-Mahdi Billah 909–934
Al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah 934–946
Al-Mansur bi-Nasr Allah 946–953
Al-Muizz Lideenillah 953–975
Al-Aziz Billah 975–996
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah 996–1021
Ali az-Zahir 1021–1036
Al-Mustansir Billah 1036–1094
Al-Musta'li 1094–1101
Al-Amir 1101–1130
Al-Hafiz 1130–1149
  • Muhammad ibn al-Mustansir
Al-Zafir 1149–1154
Al-Faiz 1154–1160
Al-Azid 1160–1171

Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)

(Not universally accepted; actual authority confined to Spain and parts of Maghreb)[10][11]

Name Reign Parents
Abd-ar-Rahman III 929–961
Al-Hakam II 961–976
Hisham II al-Hakam 976–1009
Muhammad II 1009
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam 1009–1010
Hisham II al-Hakam 1010–1013
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam 1013–1016
Abd ar-Rahman IV 1021–1022
Abd ar-Rahman V 1022–1023
Muhammad III 1023–1024
  • Abd ar-Rahman bin Ubayd Allah bin Abd ar-Rahman III, grandson of Abd ar-Rahman III
  • Hawra
Hisham III 1027–1031
  • Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Malik bin Abd ar-Rahman III, grandson of Abd ar-Rahman III
  • 'Ateb

Almohad Caliphate (1145–1269)

 
The Almohad dynasty at its greatest extent (c. 1200)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of North Africa and Iberia)[12][13]

Name Reign
Abd al-Mu'min 1145–1163
Abu Yaqub Yusuf I 1163–1184
Yaqub al-Mansur 1184–1199
Muhammad an-Nasir 1199–1213
Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II 1213–1224
Abd al-Wahid I 1224
Abdallah al-Adil 1224–1227
Yahya 1227–1235
Idris I 1227–1232
Abdul-Wahid II 1232–1242
Ali 1242–1248
Umar 1248–1266
Idris II 1266–1269

Bornu and Songhai Empires (15th/16th century)

 
The Bornu Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1750)
 
Songhai Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1500)

Several rulers of West Africa adopted the title of Caliph. Mai Ali Ghaji ibn Dunama was the first ruler of Bornu Empire to assume the title. Askia Mohammad I of Songhai Empire also assumed the title around the same time.[14]

Indian caliphates (late medieval/early modern)

Since the 12th century, despite the South Asian domination of numerous Muslim empires, kingdoms and sultanates, Islamic caliphates were not fully attempted to be established across the Indian subcontinent. However, under the sharia based reigns of Sunni emperors such as Alauddin Khalji, Mughal Empire's Aurangzeb, and Mysore's rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, absolute forms of caliphates were clearly to have appeared. These largely impacted the French-Italian emperor Napoleone Bonaparte and soldiers of the British Empire.[15][16][17][18]

Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903)

 
The Sokoto Caliphate (pink) at its greatest extent (c. 1800)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of West Africa)

Established by Tariqa Islamic scholar and religious leader Usman dan Fodio through the Fulani War (alternatively known as the Fulani Jihad), which sought to reduce the influence of pre-Islamic religious practices and spread a more vigorous form of Islam through the auspices of a Caliphate.

Ahmadiyya Caliphate (1908–present)

 
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Flag.

The Khalīfatul Masīh (Arabic: خليفة المسيح; Urdu: خلیفہ المسیح; English: Successor of the Messiah), sometimes simply referred to as Khalifah (i.e. Caliph, successor), is the elected spiritual and organizational leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and is the successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who had taken the titles of Mahdi and Messiah of Islam.[nb 2] The Caliph is believed to be divinely guided and is also referred to by members of current Khalifatul Masih is Mirza Masroor Ahmad.

After the death of Ghulam Ahmad, his successors directed the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community from Qadian in Punjab, British India, which remained the headquarters of the community until 1947 with the independence of Pakistan. From this time on, the headquarters moved to and remained in Rabwah, a town built on land bought in Pakistan by the community in 1948. In 1984, Ordinance XX was promulgated by the government of Pakistan which rendered the Khalifatul Masih unable to perform his duties and put the very institution in jeopardy. Due to these circumstances, Khalifatul Masih IV left Pakistan and migrated to London, England, provisionally moving the headquarters to the Fazl Mosque.[22]

Sharifian Caliphate (1924–1925)

 
Map with the kingdom in green and the current region in red.

A last attempt at restoring the caliphal office and style with ecumenical recognition was made by Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz and Sharif of Mecca, who assumed both on 11 March 1924 and held them until 3 October 1924, when he passed the kingship to his son `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi, who did not adopt the caliphal office and style.[23] Like the Fatimid caliphs, he was a descendant of Muhammad through a grandson of Hasan ibn Ali. Hussein's claim for caliphate was not accepted by the Wahhabi and Salafi movements, and in 1925 he was driven from Hejaz by the forces of Ibn Saud as an outcome of the Second Saudi-Hashemite War. He continued to use the title of caliph during his remaining life in exile, until his death in 1931.

Islamic State (2014–present)

On 29 June 2014, the Islamic State proclaimed the return of the Islamic caliphate, with its first "caliph" as Amir al-Mu'minin Abu Bakr Ibrahim bin Awwad Al-Badri Al-Husaini Al-Hashimi Al-Quraishi As-sammera'i al-Baghdadi.[24][25] The caliphate's claimed territory at its peak controlled 12 million people. Territories under the control of the Islamic State included Wilayat Al-'iraq, Wilyat Ash-sham, Wilayat gharb Ifriqiyyah (the state of West Africa), Wilayat Sharq Asia (the State of North Asia), Wilayat Khorasan, Wilayat wasat Ifriqiyyah (the State of Central of Africa), Wilayat Al-Yaman (the State of Yemen), and Wilayat Sina' (the State of Sinai).[26][27][failed verification]

On 7 March 2015, Abubakar Shekau pledged allegiance to The Islamic State via an official audio message.[28][29] Afterwords, jama'ah Ahlu-sunnah lilda'wah wal-jihad assumed the name "Wilāyat Gharb Ifriqiyyah" (Arabic: ولاية غرب إفريقية, "West Africa Province") or "Islamic State of West Africa" (ISWAP).[30]

On 10 April 2018, during a rally of U.S. President Donald Trump in Elkhart, Indiana in support of Mike Braun’s bid for the US Senate, Vice President Mike Pence referred to ISIS as a Caliphate, claiming "ISIS is on the run, their Caliphate has crumbled, and we will soon drive them out of existence once and for all."[31]

No. Image "Caliph" Date of birth Reigned from Reigned until
1   Abu-Bakr Ibrahim bin Awwad al-Baghdadi 28 July 1971 29 June 2014 27 October 2019
2   Abu-Ibrahim Al-Hashimi Al-Quraishi October 1976 31 October 2019 3 February 2022
3 Abu al-Hasan al-Hashimi al-Qurashi Unknown 10 March 2022 present

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Abdulmejid II, the last Ottoman Caliph, lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead.
  2. ^ Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the founder of the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam. The Sunni mainstream and the majority of Muslims reject the sect as it believes in prophethood after Muhammad;[19][20][21] see also Persecution of Ahmadis on this topic.

References

  1. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 7
  2. ^ Houtsma & Wensinck 1993, p. 3
  3. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 195
  4. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 239–240
  5. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  6. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  7. ^ Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O edited by Tony Jacques
  8. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 71
  9. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 63
  10. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 21
  11. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 11
  12. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 47
  13. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 39
  14. ^ Nehemia Levtzion; Randall Pouwels. The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. p. 81.
  15. ^ Jackson, Roy (2010). Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and the Islamic State. Routledge. ISBN 9781136950360.
  16. ^ Shah Muhammad Waseem (2003): هندوستان ميں فارسى تاريخ نگارى: ٧١ويں صدى كے آخرى نصف سے ٨١ويں صدى كے پهلے نصف تک فارسى تاريخ نگارى كا ارتقاء, Kanishka Publishing, original source from the University of Michigan ISBN 9788173915376
  17. ^ Hussein, S M (2002). Structure of Politics Under Aurangzeb 1658–1707. Kanishka Publishers Distributors (2002). ISBN 978-8173914898.
  18. ^ Banarsi Prasad Saksena (1992) [1970]. "The Khaljis: Alauddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206–1526). Vol. 5 (Second ed.). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 31870180.
  19. ^ "Ahmadis – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03. Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the mainstream belief in the finality of Muhammad 's “legislative” prophecy) with a divine mandate for the revival and renewal of Islam ...
  20. ^ "The Ahmadiyyah Movement – Islamic Studies – Oxford Bibliographies – obo". Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  21. ^ "Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-08. Founder of Ahmadi movement in Punjab, India, in 1889... The movement is labeled non-Muslim and fiercely opposed by Muslims, although the group considers itself Muslim.
  22. ^ "Khilafat – Caliphate – The Guided Khilafat – Khilafat e Ahmadiyya – Al Islam Online". www.alislam.org.
  23. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 118
  24. ^ Adam Withnall (2014-06-30). "Iraq crisis: Isis declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East – Middle East – World". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
  25. ^ "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as "Islamic State"". SITE Institute. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  26. ^ "Islamic State-controlled parts of Syria, Iraq largely out of reach: Red Cross". Reuters. 13 March 2015.
  27. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group. Strange, Hannah (5 July 2014). "Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi addresses Muslims in Mosul". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  28. ^ "Nigeria's Boko Haram pledges allegiance to Islamic State". BBC news. BBC. 2015-03-07. Retrieved 2015-03-07.
  29. ^ Adam Chandler (March 9, 2015). "The Islamic State of Boko Haram? :The terrorist group has pledged its allegiance to ISIS. But what does that really mean?". The Atlantic.
  30. ^ "Africa blog: Islamic State strengthens ties with Boko Haram". BBC News. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  31. ^ Trump TV Network (2018-05-10), FULL EVENT: President Donald Trump MASSIVE Rally in Elkhart, Indiana – May 10, 2018, archived from the original on 2018-05-10, retrieved 2018-05-12. See 6:00

Bibliography