Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث Osmān-i sālis;‎ 2 January 1699 – 30 October 1757) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.[3]

Osman III
عثمان ثالث
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Illustration of a bearded Turkish man
Depiction of Osman III ,c. 1804-1806
25th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
Reign13 December 1754 – 30 October 1757
PredecessorMahmud I
SuccessorMustafa III
Born2 January 1699
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Died30 October 1757(1757-10-30) (aged 58)
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Burial
ConsortsLeyla Kadın[1]
Zevki Kadın[2]
Ferhunde Emine Kadın[2]
one another wife
Names
Osman bin Mustafa
DynastyOttoman
FatherMustafa II
MotherŞehsuvar Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraOsman III عثمان ثالث's signature

Early lifeEdit

Osman III was born on 2 January 1699 in the Edirne Palace. His father was Mustafa II and his mother was Şehsuvar Sultan. He was the younger half-brother of Mahmud I. When his father was deposed from the throne in 1703, he was taken back to Istanbul and imprisoned in the Kafes. Osman III lived in the Kafes for 51 years. [4]

He was secretly circumcised on 17 April 1705 with the other princes here. He was among the princes in Ahmed's entourage. He also later made trips to the sultan inside and outside the city. Together with his elder brother Mahmud's embassy on 1 October 1730, he became the biggest prince waiting for the throne.[5]

 
Osman.III

ReignEdit

Osman III lived most of his life as a prisoner in the palace, and as a consequence, he had some behavioural peculiarities when he took the throne. Unlike previous sultans, he hated music, and banished all musicians from the palace. According to Baron de Tott, Osman III was an angry and modest type of ruler.[6]

 
Audience of French ambassador Charles de Vergennes with Sultan Osman III in 1755.

Osman III's first activity was to choose government officials to work with. During his reign, the changes he made in high-level government duties, especially Grand Vizier, can be considered as attempts to reduce the extremely weighted role of the charitable authority[vague] in the previous sultan's era.[5]

In the severe storm of March 1756, an Egyptian galleon ran ashore in Kumkapı at dusk. Due to the storm, 600 passengers could not be evacuated. The sultan, who came to the shore, took all the passengers by bringing barges from the shipyard. He ordered the construction of the Ahırkapı Lighthouse in Istanbul to prevent such incidents. [7]

The first procession of his enthronement was held on 14 December 1754. The historians of that time didn't write the events happening in the empire because of severe and freezing cold of January 1755. [8] Osman was responsible for a firman in 1757 that preserved the Status Quo of various Holy Land sites for Christians, Muslims, and Jews.[9]

In the second year of his reign, Osman lost his mother, Şehsuvar Sultan, who had been in contact with his religiousness. Afterward, the oldest prince, Mehmed, died of illness on 22 December 1756. According to various sources, the funeral of the prince, controlled by the quarry, grand vizier and sheikh al-Islam, was attended by 5,000 people. Some contemporary sources said that the prince was poisoned and killed on the initiative of Köse Mustafa Pasha, the next sultan of the third sultan, Köse Mustafa Pasha.[5]

It is noted that, in this period, provisions were sent against banditry in Anatolia and Rumelia, and especially the movements of headless beams, and that the sultan was also interested in these issues. Some measures were taken against the tribes of Bozulus and Cihanbeyli, the Armenians due to the turmoil in Iran, the bandits around Erzurum and Sivas, and the famous leader Karaosmanoğlu Hacı Mustafa Ağa. The latter was captured and executed, and his head was brought to Istanbul on 5 December 1755.[5]

ArchitectureEdit

Osman is famous for building Nuruosmaniye Mosque, whose construction started during the reign of Mahmud I. Nuruosmaniye Complex, also known as Osmaniye for a while, consisted of three schools, madrasahs, a factory, a library, a mausoleum, a temporary room, a mesh house, a fountain, an inn, and shops. Osman built a new neighborhood in 1755-56 where Üsküdar Palace and Garden was located, along with houses and shops. He also built the Ihsaniye Mosque and its masjids, both of which stand today as İhsaniye.[5]

Osman III built a fountain in his name in 1755–56; it was destroyed 122 years after its construction. [10]

DeathEdit

Osman III died on the night of 30 October 1757. In the early morning, a ceremony was held and his cousin Mustafa III was placed on the throne. The new sultan ordered Osman to be buried in the New Mosque Mausoleum, not in Nuruosmaniye. [11]

In popular cultureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Tarih ve toplum: aylık ansiklopedik dergi – Volume 24. İletişim Yayınları/Perka A. Ş. p. 59.
  2. ^ a b Uluçay, Mustafa Çağatay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ankara, Ötüken.
  3. ^ Upham, Edward (1829). "Chapter XV: OTHMAN III Twenty Fifth Reign H 1168 A.D. 1754". History of the Ottoman Empire from its Establishment till the Year 1828. Constable's Miscellany. Vol. XL. Original from Oxford University: Constable and Co. p. 260.
  4. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 325.
  5. ^ a b c d e Saricaoğlu, Fikret (2007). "Osman III". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 33 (Nesi̇h – Osmanlilar) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. pp. 456–459. ISBN 9789753894555.
  6. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 332.
  7. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 330.
  8. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 327.
  9. ^ Michael R. T. Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  10. ^ Haskan 2001, p. 1160.
  11. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 331.

SourcesEdit

  • Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar – Volume 3. Üsküdar Belediyesi. p. 1332. ISBN 978-9-759-76063-2.
  • Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2015). Bu Mülkün Sultanları. Alfa Yayıncılık. ISBN 978-6-051-71080-8.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Osman III at Wikimedia Commons


Osman III
Born: 2 January 1699 Died: 30 October 1757[aged 58]
Regnal titles
Preceded by Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
13 Dec 1754 – 30 Oct 1757
Succeeded by
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
13 Dec 1754 – 30 Oct 1757
Succeeded by