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Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, Date: 3rd century CE.

In Abrahamic religions, the Messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ‎, translit. māšîaḥ‎, sometimes spelled Moshiach), is the one chosen to lead the world and thereby save it. The term also appears in the forms Messias (Ancient Greek: Μεσσίας), Christ (Ancient Greek: Χριστός), or Al-Masih (Arabic: المسيح‎‎, ISO 233: al-masih).

The concepts of the Messiah, Messianism, and the Messianic Age grew from Isaiah's writings (4:2 and chapter 11) during the latter half of the 8th century BCE.[1][2][3] The term comes from the Hebrew verb meaning "to apply oil to," to anoint. In the Hebrew Bible, Israel's kings were sometimes called God's "messiah"—God's anointed one.[4] A messiah could also be an anointed high priest or prophet. Messiahs did not even need to descend from Jacob, as the Hebrew Bible refers to Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, as a messiah[5] for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.

In Judaism, the Jewish Messiah (המשיח‎, HaMashiach, "the anointed one"),[6] often referred to as "King Messiah" (מלך המשיח‎, Melekh HaMashiach),[7] is expected to descend from King David and accomplish the unification of the twelve tribes[8] into a re-established nation. The Jerusalem Temple's rebuilding will usher in a Messianic Age[9] of global peace.[10][11]

In Christianity, the Messiah is called the Christ, from Ancient Greek: χριστός, translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning.[12] The concept of the Messiah in Christianity originated from the Messiah in Judaism. However, unlike the concept of the Messiah in Judaism and Islam, the Messiah in Christianity is the Son of God. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth,[13] because Christians believe that messianic prophecies in the Christian Old Testament were fulfilled in his mission, death, and resurrection. They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of the Messianic prophecies in the Second Coming, specifically the prophecy of a future leader who would come from the Davidic line and usher in either a temporary Messianic Age or a permanent World to Come.

In Islam, Jesus was a Prophet and the Masîḥ (مسيح), the Messiah in Islam, sent to the Israelites, and will return to Earth at the end of times, along with the Mahdi, and defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal, the false Messiah.[14]

In Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908),[15] the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, and the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonyms for one and the same person.[16]

In Chabad messianism,[17] Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad Lubavitch, and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah claimants, though neither ever claimed to be the messiah themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they were the messiah.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among adherents of the Chabad movement; his second coming is believed to be imminent.[27][28][29][30]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mashiaẖ, Tiberian Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English spelled Mashiach; Aramaic: משיחא‎‎, Greek: Μεσσίας, Syriac: ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ‎, Məšîḥā, Arabic: المسيح‎‎, al-Masīḥ, Latin: Messias) literally means "anointed one".[31] In Hebrew, the Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח (Meleḵ ha-Mašīaḥ in the Tiberian vocalization, pronounced [ˈmeleχ hamaˈʃiaħ], literally meaning "the Anointed King".

The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" (Mašíaḥ) as Χριστός (Khristós).[12] The New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.[Jn. 1:41][4:25]

al-Masīḥ (proper name, pronounced [mæˈsiːħ]) is the Arabic word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of Jesus. Masīḥ is used by Arab Christians as well as Muslims, and is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح) by Arab Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ (عيسى المسيح) by Muslims. The word al-Masīḥ literally means "the anointed", "the traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing".[32] In Qur'anic scripture, Jesus is mentioned as having been sent down by Allah, strengthened by the holy spirit,[33] and hence, 'anointed' with the task of being a prophet and a "recipient of sacred scripture".[32] The Israelites, to whom Isa was sent, had a traditional practice of anointing their kings with oil. An Imam Bukhari hadith describes Jesus as having wet hair that looked as if water was dripping from it, possibly meaning he was naturally anointed.[34] Muslims believe that this is just one of the many signs that proves that Jesus is the Messiah.

JudaismEdit

The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach (messiah) is "anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it. It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of individuals and objects; for example, a Jewish king, Jewish priests and prophets, the Jewish Temple and its utensils, unleavened bread, and a non-Jewish king (Cyrus king of Persia).[35]

In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil, to be king of God's kingdom, and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Judaism, the Messiah is not considered to be God or a pre-existent divine Son of God. He is considered to be a great political leader that has descended from King David. That is why he is referred to as Messiah ben David, which means "Messiah, son of David". The messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic leader that is well oriented with the laws that are followed in Judaism.[36] He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear".[37]

Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides' 13 Principles of Faith.[38]

Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms:

And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one. If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9)."[39]

Even though the eventual coming of the messiah is a strongly upheld idea in Judaism, trying to predict the actual time when the messiah will come is an act that is frowned upon. These kinds of actions are thought to weaken the faith the people have in the religion. This happened once when Sabbatai Zevi, from Smirna (now İzmir, Turkey), claimed that he was the messiah that the Jewish community have been waiting for. So in Judaism, there is no specific time when the messiah comes. Rather, it is the acts of the people that determines when the messiah comes. It is said that the messiah would come either when the world needs his coming the most (when the world is so sinful and in desperate need of saving by the messiah) or deserves it the most (when genuine goodness prevails in the world).[38]

A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who found the Messiah at the gates of Rome and asked him, "When will you finally come?" He was quite surprised when he was told, "Today." Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, "You said messiah would come 'today' but he didn't come! What happened?" The Messiah replied, "Scripture says, 'Today, if you will but hearken to his voice.'"[40]

A Kabbalistic tradition within Judaism is that the commonly discussed messiah who will usher in a period of freedom and peace (Messiah ben David) will be preceded by Messiah ben Joseph, who will gather the children of Israel around him, lead them to Jerusalem. After overcoming the hostile powers in Jerusalem, Messiah ben Joseph, will reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Then Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah ben Joseph, and slay him. His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah ben David comes and brings him back to life.[41]

ChabadEdit

 
Chabad-"Halachic Ruling" declaring "every single Jew" had to believe in the imminent second coming of the deceased 7th Lubavitcher Rebbe as the Messiah[27]

Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad Lubavitch,[29][30] and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][29][30] are Messiah claimants (mashiah sheker, “false messiah”),[42] though neither ever claimed to be the messiah themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they were the messiah.

As per Chabad-Lubavitch messianism,[17] Menachem Mendel Schneerson openly declared his deceased father-in-law, the former 6th Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch, being the Messiah.[29][30] He published about Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn to be Atzmus u'mehus alein vi er hat zich areingeshtalt in a guf (Yiddish and English for: "Essence and Existence [of God] which has placed itself in a body").[43][44][45] The gravesite of his deceased father-in-law Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, known as "the Ohel", became a central point of focus for Menachem Mendel Schneerson's prayers and supplications.

Regarding the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson, ztz"l, a later Chabad-"Halachic Ruling" claims that it was "incumbent on every single Jew to heed the Rebbe's words and believe that he is indeed King Moshiach, who will be revealed imminently".[27][46] Outside of Chabad messianism, in Judaism, there is no basis to these claims.[29][30] If anything, this resembles the faith in the resurrection of Jesus and his second coming in early Christianity.[28]

Still today, the deceased rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among adherents of the Chabad movement,[19][20][21][24][26] and his second coming is believed to be imminent.[27] He is venerated and invocated to by thousands of visitors and letters each year at the Ohel—especially in a pilgrimage each year on the anniversary of his death.[47][48]

ChristianityEdit

 
The Last Judgment, by Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th century)

The Greek translation of Messiah is khristos (χριστός), anglicized as Christ, and Christians commonly refer to Jesus as either the "Christ" or the "Messiah". Christians believe the Messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus and that he will return to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy.

The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies consider Jesus to be the Son of God and God the Son, a concept of the Messiah fundamentally different from the Jewish and Islamic concepts. In each of the four New Testament Gospels, the only literal anointing of Jesus is conducted by a woman. In the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and John, this anointing occurs in Bethany, outside Jerusalem. In the Gospel of Luke, the anointing scene takes place at an indeterminate location, but context suggests it to be in Galilee, or even a separate anointing altogether.

IslamEdit

While the term "messiah" does appear in Islam, it is important to acknowledge that the meaning is starkly different than that of Christianity and Judaism. "Though Islam shares many of the beliefs and characteristics of the two Semitic/ Abrahamic/monotheistic religions which preceded it, the idea of messianism which is of central importance in Judaism and Christianity is alien to Islam as represented by the Qur'an." [49]

The Quran identifies Jesus as the messiah (Masih), who will one day return to earth. At the time of the second coming, "according to Islamic tradition, Jesus will come again and exercise his power of healing. He will forever destroy falsehood, as embodied in the Daj-jal, the great falsifier, the anti-Christ. Then God will reign forever." [50]

The Muslims refer to Jesus as "Isa".[51] Jesus is one of the most important prophets in the Islamic tradition, along with Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad.[Quran 33:7][Quran 42:13-14][Quran 57:26][51] Unlike Christians, Muslims see Jesus as merely a prophet, but not as God Himself or the son of God. Like all other prophets, Jesus is an ordinary man, who receives revelations from God.[52] According to religious scholar, Mona Siddiqui, in Islam, "Prophecy allows God to remain veiled and there is no suggestion in the Qur'an that God wishes to reveal of himself just yet. Prophets guarantee interpretation of revelation and that God's message will be understood." [53] Prophecy in human form does not represent the true powers of God, contrary to the way Jesus is depicted in mainstream Christianity.[54]

The Quran states that Isa, the Son of Mariam (Arabic: Isa ibn Maryam), is the Messiah and Prophet sent to the Children of Israel.[Quran 3:45] The birth of Isa is described Quran sura 19 verses 1–33,[Quran 19:1-33] and sura 4 verse 171 explicitly states Isa as the Son of Mariam.[Quran 4:171] Sunni Muslims believe Isa is alive in Heaven and did not die in the crucifixion, as depicted in mainstream Christianity. According to religious scholar, Mahmoud Ayoub, "Jesus' close proximity or nearness (qurb) to God is affirmed in the Qur'anic insistence that Jesus did not die, but was taken up to God and remains with God (Q:3:54; 4:157) [55]" [50]

It is believed that Isa will return to Earth to defeat the Masih ad-Dajjal (false Messiah),[14] a figure similar to the Antichrist in Christianity, who will emerge shortly before Yawm al-Qiyāmah ("the Day of Resurrection"). The community leader ("Mahdi") will come shortly before the second coming of Jesus.[56] After he has destroyed ad-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.

A hadith in Abu Dawud (37:4310) says:

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Isa. He will descend (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height & reddish dusky complexion, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops of water were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He will fight for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill the swine, and put an end to war (in another Tradition, there is the word Jizyah instead of Harb (war), meaning that he will abolish jizyah); God will perish all religions except Islam. He [Isa] will destroy the Antichrist who will live on the earth for forty days and then he will die. The Muslims will pray behind him.

Both Sunni[51] and Shia Muslims agree[57] that al-Mahdi will arrive first, and after him, Isa. Isa will proclaim al-Mahdi as the Islamic community leader. A war will be fought—the Dajjal against alMahdi and Isa. This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last Day. After Isa slays alDajjāl at the Gate of Lud, he will bear witness and reveal that Islam is indeed the true and last word from God to humanity as Yusuf Ali's translation reads: "And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them."[Quran 4:159] A hadith in Sahih Bukhari (Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:55:658) says:

Allah's Apostle said "How will you be when the son of Mariam descends among you and your Imam is from among you?"

The Quran refutes the crucifixion of Jesus,[51] claiming that he was neither killed nor crucified.[Quran 4:157] The Quran also emphasizes the difference between Allah (God in Arabic) and the Messiah: "Those who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, are unbelievers. The Messiah said: "O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord... unbelievers too are those who have said that Allah is the third of three... the Messiah, son of Mary, was only a Messenger before whom other Messengers had gone."[Quran 5:72-77]

Shi'i Islam

Shi'i Islam, which significantly values and revolves around the 12 spiritual leaders called Imams, differs significantly from the beliefs of mainstream Islam. Unlike Sunni Islam, "Messianism is an essential part of religious belief and practice for almost all Shi'a Muslims." [49] Shi'i Islam believes that the last Imam will return again, with the return of Jesus. According to religious scholar, Mona Sidique, "Shi'is are acutely aware of the existence everywhere of the twelfth Imam, who disappeared in 874. Shi'i piety teaches that the hidden Imam will return with Jesus Christ to set up the messianic kingdom before the final Judgement Day, when all humanity will stand before God. The Imams and Fatima will have a direct impact on the judgements rendered that day. This will represent the ultimate intercession." [58] There is debate on whether Shi'i Muslims should accept the death of Jesus. Religious scholar Mahmou Ayoub argues "Modern Shi'i thinkers have allowed the possibility that Jesus died and only his spirit was taken up to heaven."[50] Conversely, religious scholar Mona Siddiqui argues that Shi'i thinkers believe Jesus was "neither crucified nor slain." [53] She also argues that Shi'i Muslims believe that the twelfth imam did not die, but "was taken to God to return in God's time," [53] and "will return at the end of history to establish the kingdom of God on earth as the expected Mahdi."[53]

AhmadiyyaEdit

 
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, considered by Ahmadis to be the Promised Messiah of the latter days

In Ahmadiyya theology, the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous terms for one and the same person.[16] The term "Mahdi" means guided by God, thus implying a direct ordainment by God of a divinely chosen individual.[59] According to Ahmadiyya thought, Messiahship is a phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake of God instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from revenge).[citation needed] Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis was given through the person of Jesus and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908).[15] among others.

Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity and Islam, the Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets.[55] The prophecies concerning the Mahdi or the Second Coming of Jesus are seen by Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of Muhammad, who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus, and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the people of Jesus' time and the people of the time of the promised one (the Mahdi) is called by the same name.[60]

Numerous hadith are presented by the Ahmadis in support of their view, such as one from Sunan Ibn Majah, which says, "There is No Mahdi but Jesus son of Mary."[61]

Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Unlike mainstream Muslims, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus is alive in heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah and Mahdi.[62] He also claimed to have appeared in the likeness of Krishna and that his advent fulfilled certain prophecies found in Hindu scriptures. Though he held Krishna to be a prophet of God and a human being, rather than God or an incarnation of God.[63] He stated that the founder of Sikhism was a Muslim saint, who was a reflection of the religious challenges he perceived to be occurring.[64] Ghulam Ahmad wrote Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, in 1880, which incorporated Indian, Sufi, Islamic and Western aspects in order to give life to Islam in the face of the British Raj, Protestant Christianity, and rising Hinduism. He later declared himself the Promised Messiah and the Mahdi following Divine revelations in 1891. Ghulam Ahmad argued that Jesus had appeared 1300 after the formation of the Muslim community and stressed the need for a current Messiah, in turn claiming that he himself embodied both the Mahdi and the Messiah. Ghulam Ahmad was supported by Muslims who especially felt oppressed by Christian and Hindu missionaries.[64]

Other traditionsEdit

  • King Arthur, he is identified as the defender of England. He is expected to return when the Britain will need him again.
  • The Saoshyant is a figure in Zoroastrianism who brings about the final renovation of the world, the Frashokereti. The Avestan language name literally means "one who brings benefit", and is also used as a common noun. The role of the Saoshyant, or Astvat-ereta, as a future saviour of the world is briefly described in Yasht 19.88–96, where it is stated that he will achieve the frasho.kereti, that he will make the world perfect and immortal, and evil and Druj will disappear. He is identified as the son of Vîspa.taurwairî and it is stated that he will come forth from Lake Kansaoya/Kansava and will carry the same weapon Verethragna that a number of Iranian epic heroes and kings have used in the past against various demonic foes. Haurvatat, Ameretat, and other similar entities will be his companions and together, they will vanquish the evil creations of Angra Mainyu.
  • In Buddhism, Maitreya is considered to the next Buddha (awakened one) that is promised to come. He is expected to come to renew the laws of Buddhism once the teaching of Gautama Buddha has completely decayed.[65] He is expected to be, according to page 26 of Digha Nikaya, fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods[ devas] and men, an Exalted One: a Buddha.[66]
  • Krishna is the eighth incarnation of the god Vishnu, the savior, and is one of the special avatars in Hinduism. The followers of Hinduism expect that there will be a new incarnation of the avatar (the Kalki Avatar) who, in different periods in history was known as Vishnu, Rama and Krishna . This avatar will fight the apocalyptic snake and achieve the final victory over evil on earth. He will renew humanity and enable people to lead pure and honorable lives. The expectations of all religions will be fulfilled in him as he will be the world messiah that they all looked forward to.[67]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be the figure prophesied in the scriptures of the world's religions.[68] His name, when translated literally, means "The Glory of God" in Arabic. According to the Baha'i faith, Bahá'u'lláh addressed not only those timeless theological and philosophical questions that have stayed with humanity since old times such as: Who is God? What is goodness? and Why are we here? but also the questions that have preoccupied philosophers of the 20th century: What motivates human nature? Is real peace indeed possible? Does God still care for humanity? and the like.[69] He is considered to be the latest of the messengers that God sent to human beings. He is the one who brought new spiritual and social teachings for our modern age. He taught that there is only one God, that all of the world's religions are from God, and that now is the time for humanity to recognize its oneness and unite.[70]
  • Maitreya, a being that Theosophists believe will physically manifest sometime in the 21st century and who will be the Messiah expected by various religions. The followers of this religion consider Maitreya as "The Messiah" that has been expected for generations by all of the major religions. That is, Christians know him as the Christ, and expect his imminent return; Jews await him as the Messiah; Hindus look for the coming of Krishna; Buddhists expect him as Maitreya Buddha; and Muslims anticipate the Imam Mahdi or Messiah. They expect Maitreya to inspire all human beings to be one family and create a civilization that is based on sharing and cooperation. He (Maitreya) will make the basic needs of human beings such as food, clothing, education and medical care a universal right. According to the beliefs of Theosophy, under Maitreya's inspiration, humanity itself will make the required changes and create a sensible and more just world for all.[71]
  • Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is believed to be the Messiah by followers of the Rastafari movement.[72] This idea further supports the belief that God himself is black, which they (followers of the Rastafarian movement) try to further strengthen by a verse from the Bible. [Jeremiah 8:21]. Even if the Emperor denied being the messiah, the followers of the Rastafari movement believe that he is a messenger from God. To justify this, Rastafarians used reasons such as Emperor Haile Selassie's bloodline, which is assumed to come from King Solomon of Israel, and the various titles given to him, which include Lord of Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah.[73]
  • In Kebatinan (Javanese religious tradition), Satrio Piningit is a character in Jayabaya's prophecies who is destined to become a great leader of Nusantara and to rule the world from Java. In Serat Pararaton,[74] King Jayabaya of Kediri foretold that before Satrio Piningit's coming, there would be flash floods and that volcanoes would erupt without warning. Satrio Piningit is a Krishna-like figure known as "Ratu Adil" (Indonesian King of Justice) and his weapon is a trishula.[75]

Popular cultureEdit

  • The Messiah, a 2007 Persian film depicting the life of Jesus from an Islamic perspective[76]
  • The Young Messiah, a 2016 American film depicting the childhood life of Jesus from a Christian perspective[77]
  • Dune Messiah, a 1969 novel by Frank Herbert, second in his Dune trilogy, also part of a miniseries, one of the widest selling works of fiction in the 1960s

The following works include the concept of a messiah as a leader of a cause or liberator of a people:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Ginsberg, HL, "Encyclopedia Judaica: Messiah," *Jewish Virtual Library*(2008; The Gale Group). Accessed at https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/messiah on 2/13/17.
  2. ^ Potok, C (ed), "P'shat Commentary," *Etz Hayim* (2001; The Rabbinical Assembly), 838 & Kushner, H (ed), "D'rash Commentary," 45.
  3. ^ "Book of Isaiah," *Wikipedia* (2/9/17), Composition-Historical context.
  4. ^ Wright, Robert (June 2009). The Evolution of God (1st ed.). New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-316-73491-2. 
  5. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Cyrus: Cyrus and the Jews: "This prophet, Cyrus, through whom were to be redeemed His chosen people, whom he would glorify before all the world, was the promised Messiah, 'the shepherd of Yhwh' (xliv. 28, xlv. 1)."
  6. ^ Telushkin, Joseph. "The Messiah". The Jewish Virtual Library Jewish Literacy. NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Reprinted by permission of the author. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  7. ^ Flusser, David. "Second Temple Period". Messiah. Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  8. ^ Megillah 17b–18a, Taanit 8b
  9. ^ Sotah 9a
  10. ^ Schochet, Rabbi Prof. Dr. Jacob Immanuel. "Moshiach ben Yossef". Tutorial. moshiach.com. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. "Messiah in Rabbinic Thought". MESSIAH. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Etymology Online
  13. ^ Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity, born c. 4 BC.
  14. ^ a b "Muttaqun OnLine - Dajjal (The Anti-Christ): According to Quran and Sunnah". Muttaqun.com. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Ask Islam: What is the different between a messiah and a prophet? (audio)
  16. ^ a b Messiah and Mahdi - Review of Religions
  17. ^ a b also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism.
  18. ^ a b Susan Handelman, The Lubavitcher Rebbe Died 20 Years Ago Today. Who Was He?, Tablet Magazine
  19. ^ a b c Adin Steinsaltz, My Rebbe. Maggid Books, page 24
  20. ^ a b c Dara Horn, June 13, 2014 "Rebbe of Rebbe's". The Wall Street Journal.
  21. ^ a b c Aharon Lichtenstein, Euligy for the Rebbe. June 16, 1994.
  22. ^ a b The New York Times, Statement From Agudas Chasidei Chabad, Feb 9, 1996.
  23. ^ a b Famed Posek Rabbi Menashe Klein: Messianic Group Within Chabad Are Apikorsim
  24. ^ a b c On Chabad
  25. ^ a b Public Responsa from Rabbi Aharon Feldman on the matter of Chabad messiansim (Hebrew), 23 Sivan, 5763 - http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/feldman.pdf. See also Rabbi Feldman's letter to David Beger: http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg
  26. ^ a b c Berger, David (April 1, 2008). The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. Littman Library Of Jewish Civilization. ISBN 978-1904113751.  for further information see the article: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference
  27. ^ a b c d Berger, Rabbi Prof. Dr. David. "On the Spectrum of Messianic Belief in Contemporary Lubavitch Chassidism". Shema Yisrael Torah Network. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  28. ^ a b Freeman, Charles. The Closing of the Western Mind, p. 133. Vintage. 2002.
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BibliographyEdit

  • Aryeh Kaplan, From Messiah to Christ,, New York: Orthodox Union, 2004.
  • Joseph Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel from Its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1956.
  • Jacob Neusner, William S. Green, Ernst Frerichs, Judaisms and their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

External linksEdit