Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus from the dead after his crucifixion. In Christian theology, the death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events, a foundation of the Christian faith, and commemorated by Easter. While for the majority of Christians the resurrection is taken to have been a physical resurrection, the appearances of Jesus are often explained as visionary experiences, which gave the impetus to the belief in the exaltation of Jesus and the resumption of the missionary activity of Jesus' followers.
Accounts of the resurrectionEdit
According to the New Testamentical writings, "God raised him from the dead",[note 1] he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God",[note 2] and will return again[note 3] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God.[note 4]
The writings in the New Testament do not contain any descriptions of the moment of resurrection itself, but rather two types of eyewitness descriptions: appearances of Jesus to various people, and accounts of seeing the tomb empty.
Paul and the first ChristiansEdit
The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50–57 (or possibly 48–57). The First Epistle to the Corinthians contains one of the earliest Christian creeds reporting post-mortem appearances of Jesus, and expressing the belief that he was raised from the dead, namely [1 Corinthians]:[note 5]
 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures,[note 6]  and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures,[note 7]  and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.  Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died.  Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles.  Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.
Paul says that Jesus subsequently appeared to him in the same way he did to the others. In 2 Corinthians 12 Paul describes "a man in Christ [presumably Paul himself] who ... was caught up to the third heaven", and while the language is obscure it is plausible that he saw Jesus enthroned at the right hand of God.
It is widely accepted that this creed predates the Apostle Paul. Scholars have contended that in his presentation of the resurrection, Paul refers to an earlier authoritative tradition, transmitted in a rabbinic style, that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth.[note 8] Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he [Paul] has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus". The creed's ultimate origins are probably within the Jerusalem apostolic community, having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection.[note 9] Hans Grass argues for an origin in Damascus, and according to Paul Barnett, this creedal formula, and others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 [AD]" after his conversion.
Gospel and ActsEdit
(c. 2nd-4th cent.)
(c. 3rd cent.)
|Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome go to the tomb, where the stone has been rolled away.[16:1–4]||Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" go to the tomb.[28:1]||"The women who had come with him from Galilee"[23:55-56][24:1] find the stone rolled away and the tomb empty.[24:2-3]||Mary Magdalene goes to the tomb and finds the stone removed.[20:1–10]|
|Mary Magdalene informs "Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved," who go to the tomb, but don't understand that Jesus has been risen.[20:2–10]|
|They see "a young man, dressed in a white robe," who says that "He has been raised; he is not here."[16:6]||An angel appears who rolls back the stone, telling them that "He is not here; for he has been raised, as he said." [28:2-7]||Two man "in dazzling clothes" suddenly appear, say that "He is not here, but has risen."[24:4-5]||Appearance of two angels to Mary Magdalene.[20:11–13]|
|"Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them" tell the apostles what happened, but are not believed. Peter goes to the tomb, sees the linnen cloths, and is "amazed."[24:9-12]|
|Instruction to them to tell the "disciples and" Peter to go to Galilee where they will see Jesus. [16:7]||Instruction to Mary to tell "his disciples" to go to Galilee to meet Jesus.[28:7]|
|[Verse 8] "So they went out and fled from the tomb, for terror and amazement had seized them; and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid."[Mark 16:8]||[Unversed - shorter ending]|
They tell "to those around Peter" what had been commanded to them, whereafter Jesus starts proclaming through them "eternal salvation."[Mark 16:8]
|Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene and the "other Mary" [28:9–10]||Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene, who informs the disciples[20:11–18]||[Verse 9 - longer ending] Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene. She tells "those who had been with him," but they don't believe he's alive and seen by her. [16:9-11]|
|Jesus appears to two disciples [24:13–31]||Jesus appears to two disciples [16:12]|
|"He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. [1 Corinthians 15:7]||Jesus appears to eleven disciples and others in Jerusalem; Great Commission; command to stay in Jerusalem [24:36–50]||Jesus appears to apostles for forty days [1:3]||Jesus appears twice to the disciples in Jerusalem.[20:19–31]||Jesus appears to eleven disciples (unspecified location); Great Commission [16:14–18]|
|Jesus appears to eleven disciples in Galilee; Great Commission [28:16–20]||Jesus appears again in Galilee, to Peter, Tomas, and five other disciples, commanding Peter to take care of his sheep[21:1–22]|
|Jesus orders the apostles to stay in Jerusalem, promising to baptise them with the Holy Spirit[1:4–8]|
|Jesus is taken up into heaven [24:51]||Jesus is taken up into heaven[1:9–11]||Jesus is taken up into heaven [16:19]|
|"Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me."[1 Corinthians 15:8]|
|View * Talk * Edit|
All four gospels climax with appearances of Jesus after his crucifixion, preparing the reader for his resurrection by having Jesus predict it [Mark 8:31–32] [9:31] [10:33–34], or through allusions that only the reader will understand [Mark 2:20], [John 2:19–22] and elsewhere). The moment of resurrection is not described.
In the Little Commission, called to during his life as described in Matthew 10, Mark 6 and Luke 9, Jesus told the disciples to announce the arrival of the kingdom of God and to "heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, and cast out demons." After his resurrection, Jesus starts proclaiming "eternal salvation" through the disciples[Mark 16:8], and subsequently calls the apostles to the Great Commission, as described in [Matthew 28:16–20], [Mark 16:14–18], [Luke 24:44–49], [Acts 1:4–8], and [John 20:19–23], in which the disciples receive the call "to let the world know the good news of a victorious Saviour and the very presence of God in the world by the spirit." Jesus says that they "will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you"[Acts 1:8], that "repentance and forgiveness of sins is to be proclaimed in [the Messiah's] name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem"[Luke 24:46–47], and that "[i]f you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained"[John 20:12–23].
The Gospel of Mark, written c. 65–75, ends with the discovery of the empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome. An angel announces to them that Jesus has risen, and instructs them to "tell Peter and the disciples that he will meet them in Galilee, 'just as he told you'"; yet, Mary does not do so[Mark 16]. There are no appearances, but the author does seem to know of the appearances claimed for Peter and the Twelve. The longer ending, Mark 16:9–20, written c. 2nd century and similar to Luke and John, says that Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene, then to two followers walking outside Jerusalem, and then to the eleven remaining Apostles, commissioning them to spread "the good news": "The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned."[Mark 16:16]
In Matthew, Luke and John, the resurrection announcement is followed by appearances of Jesus to Mary Magdalene and other followers. The Book of Matthew describes a single appearance in Galilee, Luke describes several appearances in Jerusalem, John mentions appearances in both Jerusalem and Galilee. At some point, these appearances ceased in the early Christian community, as reflected in the Gospel-narratives: the "Acts of the Apostles" says that "for forty days he had continued to appear to them".[Acts 1:3] The Book of Luke describe Jesus ascending to heaven at a location near Bethany [Luke 24:50–51].
In the Gospel of Matthew, an angel appears to Mary Magdalene at the empty tomb, telling her that Jesus is not there because he's been raised from the dead, and instructing her to tell the other followers to go to Galilee, to meet Jesus. Jesus then appears to Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" at the tomb; and next, based on Mark 16:7, Jesus appears to all the disciples on a mountain in Galilee, where Jesus claims authority over heaven and earth, and commissions the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Matthew presents Jesus's second appearance as an apotheosis (deification), commissioning his followers to "make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,  and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you."[Matthew 28:16–20] In this message, the end-times are delayed, "to bring the world to discipleship."
In the Gospel of Luke, "the woman who had come with him from Galilee" [Luke 23:55] come to his tomb, which they find empty. Two angelic beings appear to announcing that Jesus is not there, but has been raised.[Luke 24:1–5] Jesus then appears to two followers on their way to Emmaus, who notify the eleven remaining Apostles, who respond that Jesus has appeared to Peter. While telling this, Jesus appears again, explaining that he is the messiah who raised from the dead according to the scriptures, "and that repentance and forgiveness of sins is to be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem."[Luke 24:47] In Luke-Acts (two works from the same author) he then ascends into heaven, his rightful home.
In the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene finds the tomb empty, and informs Peter. She then sees two angels, after which Jesus himself appears to her. In the evening, Jesus appears to the other followers, followed by another appearance a week later.[John 20:1–29] He later appears in Galilee to Peter, Tomas, and two other followers, commanding Peter to take care of his sheep.[John 21:1–19]
In Acts of the Apostles, Jesus appears to apostles for forty days, and commands them to stay in Jerusalem [1:3] whereafter Jesus ascends to heaven, followed by the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, and the missionary task of the early church.
Significance in ChristianityEdit
Foundation of Christian faithEdit
In Christian theology, the death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events, and a foundation of the Christian faith.[note 10] The Nicene Creed states: "On the third day[note 7] he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures". According to Terry Miethe, a Christian philosopher at Oxford University, the question " 'Did Jesus rise from the dead?' is the most important question regarding the claims of the Christian faith." According to John R. Rice, a Baptist evangelist, the resurrection of Jesus was part of the plan of salvation and redemption by atonement for man's sin. Summarizing its traditional analysis, the Catholic Church states in its Catechism:
Although the Resurrection was an historical event that could be verified by the sign of the empty tomb and by the reality of the apostles' encounters with the risen Christ, still it remains at the very heart of the mystery of faith as something that transcends and surpasses history.
For Christians, the resurrection is taken to have been a concrete, material resurrection. According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection. He stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans; with his fellow Pharisees against other Jews." According to Christian apologist Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."[web 2][note 11]
The belief of Jesus' first followers in the resurrection formed the proclamation of the first ekklēsia. The appearances reinforced the impact Jesus and his ministry had on his early followers, giving the impetus to Christ-devotion and the belief in the exaltation of Jesus. They also led to the resumation of the missionary activity of Jesus' followers, with Peter assuming the first leader-role in the first ekklēsia, forming the basis for the Apostolic succession.
Exaltation of Jesus and Christ – devotionEdit
The New Testament writings contend that Jesus was extalted to Divine status with the resurrection. According to Hurtado, the resurrection experiences were powerful religious experiences which "seem to have included visions of (and/or ascents to) God's heaven, in which the glorified Christ was seen in an exalted position."[note 12] They initiated a "new devotional pattern unprecedented in Jewish monotheism," that is, the worship of Jesus next to God, which was only possible because Jesus' ministry, and it's consequences, had a strong impact on his early followers. Revelations, including those visions, but also inspired and spontaneous utterances, and "charismatic exegesis" of the Jewish scriptures, convinced them that this devotion was commanded by God.
Ehrman notes that both Jesus and his early followers were apocalyptic Jews, who believed in the bodily resurrection, which would start when the coming of God's Kingdom was near. According to Ehrman, "the disciples' belief in the resurrection was based on visionary experiences," arguing that visions usually have a strong persuasive power, but also noting that the Gospel-accounts record a tradition of doubt about the appearances of Jesus. Ehrman's "tentative suggestion" is that only a few followers had visions, including Peter, Paul and Mary. They told others about those visions, convincing most of their close associates that Jesus was raised from the dead, but not all of them.[note 13] Eventually, these stories were retold and embellished, leading to the story that all disciples had seen the risen Jesus. The belief in Jesus' resurrection radically changed their perceptions, concluding from his absence that he must have been exalted to heaven, by God himself, exalting him to an unprecented status and authority.
Call to missionary activityEdit
According to Dunn, the appearances to the disciples have "a sense of obligation to make the vision known." Helmut Koester states that the stories of the resurrection were originally epiphanies in which the disciples were called to a ministry by the risen Jesus, and at a secondary stage were interpreted as physical proof of the event. He contends that the more detailed accounts of the resurrection are also secondary and do not come from historically trustworthy sources, but instead belong to the genre of the narrative types. Biblical scholar Géza Vermes argues that the resurrection is to be understood as a reviving of the self-confidence of the followers of Jesus, under the influence of the Spirit, "prompting them to resume their apostolic mission." They felt the presence of Jesus in their own actions, "rising again, today and tomorrow, in the hearts of the men who love him and feel he is near."[note 14] According to Gerd Lüdemann, Peter convinced the other disciples that the resurrection of Jesus signaled that the end-times were near and God's Kingdom was coming, when the dead who would rise again, as evidenced by Jesus. This revitalized the disciples, starting-off their new mission.[web 3]
Leadership of PeterEdit
Peter claimed forcefully that Jesus appeared to him, and legitimised by Jesus' appearance he assumed leadership of the group of early followers, forming the Jerusalem ekklēsia mentioned by Paul. He was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just, "the Brother of the Lord," which may explain why the early texts contain scarce information about Peter.[note 15] According to Gerd Lüdemann, Peter was the first who had a vision of Jesus, noting that Peter and Mary both had appearance-experiences, but argueing that the tradition of Mary's appearance is a later development, and her appearance probably was not the first.[note 13]
According to Christian proto-orthodoxy, Peter was the first to who Jesus appeared, and therefore the rightful leader of the Church. The resurrection forms the basis of the Apostolic succession and the institutional power of orthodoxy, as the heirs of Peter, to who Jesus appeared, and is described as "the rock" on which the church will be built. Though the Gospels, and Paul's letters, describe appearances to a greater number of people, only the appearances to the Twelve Apostles count as lending authority and Apostolic succession.
Paul – participation in ChristEdit
The appearance of Jesus to Paul convinced him that Jesus was the risen Lord and Christ, who commissioned him to be an apostle to the Gentiles. The teachings of the apostle Paul form a key element of the Christian tradition and theology. Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's resurrection, and redemption. According to the Apostle Paul, as stated by Newbigin, "in the ministry, death and resurrection of Jesus God has acted decisively to reveal and effect his purpose of redemption for the whole world." In [1 Corinthians 15:13–14], [15:17], [15:20–22] Paul writes:
If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain [...] If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile [...] But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
The kerygma of 1 Corinthians 15:3 states that "Christ died for our sins." The meaning of that kerygma is a matter of debate, and open to multiple interpretations. Traditionally, this kerygma is interpreted as meaning that Jesus' death was an atonement or ransom for, or propitiation or expiation of, God's wrath against humanity because of their sins. With Jesus death, humanity was freed from this wrath.[web 4][note 16] In the classical Protestant understanding, which has dominated the understanding o Paul's writings, humans partake in this salvation by faith in Jesus Christ; this faith is a grace given by God, and people are justified by God through Jesus Christ and faith in Him.
More recent scholarship has raised several concerns regarding these interpretations. According to E.P. Sanders, who initiated the socalled New Perspective on Paul, Paul saw the faithfull redeemed by particpation in Jesus' death and rising. Though "Jesus’ death substituted for that of others and thereby freed believers from sin and guilt," a metaphor derived from "ancient sacrificial theology,"[web 6][note 17] the essence of Paul's writing is not in the "legal terms" regarding the expiation of sin, but the act of "participation in Christ through dying and rising with him."[note 18] According to Sanders, "those who are baptized into Christ are baptized into his death, and thus they escape the power of sin [...] he died so that the believers may die with him and consequently live with him."[web 6] Just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection.  James F. McGrath notes that Paul "prefers to use the language of participation. One died for all, so that all died (2 Corinthians 5:14). This is not only different from substitution, it is the opposite of it."[web 1]
Paul insists that salvation is received by the grace of God; according to Sanders, this insistence is in line with Judaism of ca. 200 NCE until 200 CE, which saw God's convenant with Israel as an act of grace of God. Observance of the Law is needed to maintain the convenant, but the convenant is not be earned by observing the Law, but by the grace of God.[web 10]
Church Fathers – atonementEdit
The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50–115), Polycarp (69–155), and Justin Martyr (100–165). The understanding of the Greek Fathers of the death and resurrection of Jesus as an atonement is the "classic paradigm" of the Church Fathers, who developed the themes found in the New Testament.
During the first millennium AD, the ransom theory of atonement was the dominant metaphor, both in eastern and western Christianity, until it was replaced in the west by Anselmus' satisfaction theory of atonement. The ransom theory of atonement says that Christ liberated humanity from slavery to sin and Satan, and thus death, by giving his own life as a ransom sacrifice to Satan, swapping the life of the perfect (Jesus), for the lives of the imperfect (humans). It entails the idea that God deceived the devil, and that Satan, or death, had "legitimate rights" over sinful souls in the afterlife, due to the fall of man and inherited sin.
The ransom theory was first clearly enunciated by Irenaeus (c. 130–c. 202), who was an outspoken critic of Gnosticism, but borrowed ideas from their dualistic worldview. In this worldview, humankind is under the power of the Demiurg, a lesser God who has created the world. Yet, humans have a spark of the true divine nature within them, which can be liberated by gnosis (knowledge) of this divine spark. This knowledge is revealed by the Logos, "the very mind of the supreme God," who entered the world in the person of Jesus. Nevertheless, the Logos could not simply undo the power of the Demiurg, and had to hide his real identity, appearing as a physical form, thereby misleading the Demiurg, and liberating humankind. In Irenaeus' writings, the Demiurge is replaced by the devil, while Justin Martyr had already equated Jesus and the Logos.
Origen (184–253) introduced the idea that the devil held legitimate rights over humans, who were bought free by the blood of Christ. He also introduced the notion that the devil was deceived in thinking that he could master the human soul.
Late Antiquity and early Middle AgesEdit
Following the conversion of Constantine and the Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology, helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
Belief in bodily resurrection was a constant note of the Christian church in antiquity. Augustine of Hippo accepted it at the time of his conversion in 386. Augustine defended resurrection, and argued that given that Christ has risen, there is resurrection of the dead. Moreover, he argued that the death and resurrection of Jesus was for the salvation of man, stating: "to achieve each resurrection of ours, the savior paid with his single life, and he pre-enacted and presented his one and only one by way of sacrament and by way of model."
The 5th-century theology of Theodore of Mopsuestia provides an insight into the development of the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection. The crucial role of the sacraments in the mediation of salvation was well accepted at the time. In Theodore's representation of the Eucharist, the sacrificial and salvific elements are combined in the "One who saved us and delivered us by the sacrifice of Himself". Theodore's interpretation of the Eucharistic rite is directed towards the triumph over the power of death brought about by the resurrection.
The emphasis on the salvific nature of the resurrection continued in Christian theology in the next centuries, e.g., in the 8th century Saint John of Damascus wrote that: "... When he had freed those who were bound from the beginning of time, Christ returned again from among the dead, having opened for us the way to resurrection" and Christian iconography of the ensuing years represented that concept.
Lorenzen finds "a strange silence about the resurrection in many pulpits". He writes that among some Christians, ministers and professors, it seems to have become "a cause for embarrassment or the topic of apologetics". According to Warnock, many Christians neglect the resurrection because of their understandable preoccupation with the Cross.
Easter is the preeminent Christian feast that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, and, according to Susan J. White, "is clearly the earliest Christian festival." According to Dunn, "In Easter we celebrate man become God [...] that in the death and resurrection of Christ God has broken the stranglehold of human selfishness, has proved the enduring and conquering strength of divine love." According to Thorwald Lorenzen, the first Easter led to a shift in emphasis from faith "in God" to faith "in Christ". According to Raymond Harfgus Taylor, "focuses upon the consumation of the redemptive act of God in the death/resurrection of Jesus Christ."
Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper. He identified the loaf of bread and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. 1 Corinthians states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast – as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.
The idea of any resurrection at all first emerges clearly in the 2nd-century-BC Book of Daniel, but as a belief in the resurrection of the soul alone. Josephus tells of the three main Jewish sects of the 1st century AD, that the Sadducees held that both soul and body perished at death; the Essenes that the soul was immortal but the flesh was not; and the Pharisees that the soul was immortal and that the body would be resurrected to house it. Of these three positions, Jesus and the early Christians appear to have been closest to that of the Pharisees.
Endsjø notes that the evidence from Jewish texts and from tomb inscriptions points to a more complex reality. For example, when the 2nd century BC author the Book of Daniel wrote that "many of those sleeping in the dust shall awaken" (12:2), he probably had in mind rebirth as stars in God's Heaven, stars having been identified with angels from early times – such a rebirth would rule out a bodily resurrection, as angels were believed to be fleshless. Other texts range from the traditional Old Testament view that the soul would spend eternity in the underworld, to a metaphorical belief in the raising of the spirit. Most avoided defining what resurrection might imply, but a resurrection of the flesh was a marginal belief.
The Greeks held that a meritorious man could be resurrected as a god (the process of apotheosis), and the successors of Alexander the Great made this idea very well known throughout the Middle East through coins bearing his image, a privilege previously reserved for gods. The idea was adopted by the Roman emperors, and in Imperial Roman apotheosis the earthly body of the recently deceased emperor was replaced by a new and divine one as he ascended into heaven. The apotheosised dead remained recognisable to those who met them, as when Romulus appeared to witnesses after his death, but as the biographer Plutarch (c. AD 46–120) explained of this incident, while something within humans comes from the gods and returns to them after death, this happens "only when it is most completely separated and set free from the body, and becomes altogether pure, fleshless, and undefiled".
Physical or spiritual resurrectionEdit
Paul and the GospelsEdit
Dunn notes that there is a great difference between Paul's resurrection appearance, and the appearances described in the Gospels. Where "Paul's seeing was visionary [...], 'from heaven'," in contrast, the Gospel-accounts have a "massive realism" to them. Dunn contends that the "massive realism' [...] of the [Gospel] appearances themselves can only be described as visionary with great difficulty – and Luke would certainly reject the description as inappropriate." According to Dunn, most scholars explain this as a "legendary materialization" of the visionary experiences, "borrowing the traits of the earthly Jesus."[note 19] Yet, according to Dunn, there was both "a tendency away from the physical [...] and a reverse tendency towards the physical." The tendency towards the material is most clear, but there are also signs for the tendency away from the physical, and "there are some indications that a more physical understanding was current in the earliest Jerusalem community."
Scholars argue, primarily from Paul's terminology and the contemporary Jewish, pagan and cultural understanding of the nature of resurrection, that Paul held to a physically resurrected body, like the later Gospel accounts. In the Epistle to the Philippians Paul describes how the body of the resurrected Christ is utterly different to the one he wore when he had "the appearance of a man," and holds out a similar glorified state, when Christ "will transform our lowly body," as the goal of the Christian life – "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," (I Corinthians 15:50) and Christians entering the kingdom will be "putting off the body of the flesh" (Colossians 2:11). Paul opposed the notion of a purely spiritual resurrection, as propagated by some Christians in Corinth, which he adresses in 1 Corinthians. The developing Gospel-tradition emphasized the material aspects to counter this spiritual interpretation.
Paul's views of a bodily resurrection went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid – given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit.
Elaine Pagels notes that the Gospels don't agree about the nature of the resurrection appearances, with Luke and Mark describing Jesus as appearing in another shape, not in his earthly shape, and John describing Jesus as telling Mary not to touch him.
The empty tombEdit
Géza Vermes notes that "[t]he empty tomb and the apparitions are never directly associated to form a combined argument." While the coherence of the empty tomb-narrative is questionable, it is "clearly an early tradition." Vermes rejects the literal interpretation of the story, as being proof of the resurrection, and also notes that the story of the empty tomb conflicts with notions of a spiritual resurrection. According to Vermes, "[t]he strictly Jewish bond of spirit and body is better served by the idea of the empty tomb and is no doubt responsible for the introduction of the notions of palpability (Thomas in John) and eating (Luke and John)."
According to Brown, the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown. New Testament historian Bart D. Ehrman dismisses the story of the empty tomb; according to Ehrman, "an empty tomb had nothing to do with it [...] an empty tomb would not produce faith."[note 20] According to Ehrman, the empty tomb was needed to underscore the physical resurrection of Jesus, but is it doubtfull that Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathea. It is unlikely that a member of the Sanhedrin would have buried Jesus; crucifixin was meant "to torture an dhumiliate a person as fully as possible," and the body was left on the stake to be eaten by animals; criminals were usually buried in common graves; and Pilatus had no concern for Jewish sensitivities, which makes it unlikely that he would have allowed for Jesus to be buried.
Exaltation, adoptionism, and High ChristologyEdit
Some scholars say that the New Testament writings contain two different Christologies, namely a "low" or adoptionist Christology, and a "high" or "incarnation Christology." The "low Christology" or "adoptionist Christology" is the belief "that God exalted Jesus to be his Son by raising him from the dead," thereby raising him to "divine status."[web 11] The other early Christology is "high Christology," which is "the view that Jesus was a pre-existent divine being who became a human, did the Father’s will on earth, and then was taken back up into heaven whence he had originally come,"[web 11] and from where he appeared on earth. The chronology of the development of these early Christologies is a matter of debate within contemporary scholarship.[web 12]
According to the "evolutionary model" c.q. "evolutionary theories," as proposed by Bousset, followed by Brown, the Christological understanding of Christ developed over time, from a low Christology to a high Christology, as witnessed in the Gospels. According to the evolutionary model, the earliest Christians believed that Jesus was a human who was exalted, c.q. adopted as God's Son, when he was resurrected, signaling the nearness of the Kingdom of God, when all dead would be resurrected and the righteous exalted. Later beliefs shifted the exaltation to his baptism, birth, and subsequently to the idea of his eternal existence, as witnessed in the Gospel of John. Mark shifted the moment of when Jesus became the son to the baptism of Jesus, and later still Matthew and Luke shifted it to the moment of the divine conception, and finally John declared that Jesus had been with God from the beginning: "In the beginning was the Word".
Since the 1970s, the late datings for the development of a "high Christology" have been contested, and a majority of scholars argue that this "High Christology" existed already before the writings of Paul. This "incarnation Christology" or "high Christology" did not evolve over a longer time, but was a "big bang" of ideas which were already present at the start of Christianity, and took further shape in the first few decades of the church, as witnessed in the writings of Paul.[web 13][web 11][web 14]
According to Ehrman, these two Christologies existed alongside each other, calling the "low Christology" an "adoptionist Christology, and "the "high Christology" an "incarnation Christology." While adoptionism was declared heresy at the end of the 2nd century, it was adhered to by the Ebionites, who regarded Jesus as the Messiah while rejecting his divinity and his virgin birth, and insisted on the necessity of following Jewish law and rites. They revered James the brother of Jesus (James the Just); and rejected Paul the Apostle as an apostate from the Law. They show strong similarities with the earliest form of Jewish Christianity, and their specific theology may have been a "reaction to the law-free Gentile mission."
In Christian artEdit
In the Catacombs of Rome, artists indirectly hinted at the resurrection by using images from the Old Testament such as the fiery furnace and Daniel in the Lion's den. Depictions prior to the 7th century generally showed secondary events such as the Myrrhbearers at the tomb of Jesus to convey the concept of the resurrection. An early symbol of the resurrection was the wreathed Chi Rho (Greek letters representing the word "Khristos" or "Christ"), whose origin traces to the victory of emperor Constantine I at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, which he attributed to the use of a cross on the shields of his soldiers. Constantine used the Chi Rho on his standard and his coins showed a labarum with the Chi Rho killing a serpent.
The use of a wreath around the Chi Rho symbolizes the victory of the resurrection over death, and is an early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his triumphal resurrection, as seen in the 4th-century sarcophagus of Domitilla in Rome. Here, in the wreathed Chi Rho the death and Resurrection of Christ are shown as inseparable, and the Resurrection is not merely a happy ending tucked at the end of the life of Christ on earth. Given the use of similar symbols on the Roman military banner, this depiction also conveyed another victory, namely that of the Christian faith: the Roman soldiers who had once arrested Jesus and marched him to Calvary now walked under the banner of a resurrected Christ.
The cosmic significance of the resurrection in Western theology goes back to Saint Ambrose, who in the 4th century said that "The universe rose again in Him, the heaven rose again in Him, the earth rose again in Him, for there shall be a new heaven and a new earth". This theme developed gradually in the West, later than in the East where the resurrection had been linked from an earlier date to redemption and the renewal and rebirth of the whole world. In art this was symbolized by combining the depictions of the resurrection with the Harrowing of Hell in icons and paintings. A good example is from the Chora Church in Istanbul, where John the Baptist, Solomon and other figures are also present, depicting that Christ was not alone in the resurrection. The depiction sequence at the 10th-century Hosios Loukas shows Christ as he pulls Adam from his tomb, followed by Eve, signifying the salvation of humanity after the resurrection.
Gallery of artEdit
- For a larger gallery, please see: Resurrection gallery
The resurrection of Jesus has long been central to Christian faith and appears within diverse elements of the Christian tradition, from feasts to artistic depictions to religious relics. In Christian teachings, the sacraments derive their saving power from the passion and resurrection of Christ, upon which the salvation of the world entirely depends.
An example of the interweaving of the teachings on the resurrection with Christian relics is the application of the concept of "miraculous image formation" at the moment of resurrection to the Shroud of Turin. Christian authors have stated the belief that the body around whom the shroud was wrapped was not merely human, but divine, and that the image on the shroud was miraculously produced at the moment of resurrection. Quoting Pope Paul VI's statement that the shroud is "the wonderful document of His Passion, Death and Resurrection, written for us in letters of blood" author Antonio Cassanelli argues that the shroud is a deliberate divine record of the five stages of the Passion of Christ, created at the moment of resurrection.
Views of other religionsEdit
Groups such as Jews, Muslims, Bahá'ís, and other non-Christians, as well as some liberal Christians, dispute whether Jesus actually rose from the dead. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.
Christianity split from Judaism in the 1st century AD, and the two faiths have differed in their theology since. According to the Toledot Yeshu, the body of Jesus was removed in the same night by a gardener named Juda, after hearing the disciples planned to steal the body of Jesus. However, Toledot Yeshu is not considered either canonical or normative within rabbinic literature. Van Voorst states that Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document set without a fixed form which is "most unlikely" to have reliable information about Jesus. The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts as such, and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.
Some Gnostics did not believe in a literal physical resurrection. "For the gnostic any resurrection of the dead was excluded from the outset; the flesh or substance is destined to perish. 'There is no resurrection of the flesh, but only of the soul', say the so-called Archontics, a late gnostic group in Palestine".
Muslims believe that ʿĪsā (Jesus) son of Mariam (Mary) was a holy prophet with a divine message. The Islamic perspective is that Jesus was not crucified and will return to the world at the end of times. "But Allāh raised him up to Himself. And Allāh is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise". The Quran says in Surah An-Nisa [Ch 004: Verse 157] "And because of their saying, "We killed Messiah ʿĪsā, son of Mariam, the Messenger of Allāh", – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts".
- Chronology of Jesus
- Divine Mercy Sunday
- Dying-and-rising god
- Tombs of Jesus:
- The ground on which The Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified. This tomb is venerated as the tomb of Christ by the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, and Oriental Orthodox churches.
- The Garden Tomb, discovered in the 19th century, is considered the actual site of Jesus' grave by some Protestant Christians.
- Talpiot Tomb, discovered in 1980, subject of the controversial documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus
- Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31–32, Acts 3:15, Acts 3:26, Acts 4:10, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:40–41, Acts 13:30, Acts 13:34, Acts 13:37, Acts 17:30–31, 1Cor 6:14, 2Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 1:3, 1 Pet 1:21
- Mark 16:19, Luke 22:69, Acts 2:33, Acts 5:31, Acts 7:55–56, Romans 8:34, Eph 1:20, Col 3:1, Hebrews 1:3, Hebrews 1:13, Hebrews 10:12, Hebrews 12:2, 1Pe 3:22
- [Acts 1:9–11]
- The ‘‘Parousia’‘ is the term used in the Bible, which includes the Thayer's Lexicon definition: "In the N.T. especially of the advent, i.e.,the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God". According to the Bauer lexicon: "of Christ, and nearly always of his Messianic Advent in glory to judge the world at the end of this age".
- The many Pauline references affirming the resurrection include:
- Romans 1:3–4: "...concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and designated the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord".
- 2 Timothy 2:8: "Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead... this is my gospel for which I am suffering even to the point of being chained like a criminal. But God’s word is not chained...".
- 1 Corinthians 15:3–7: "...that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures..."
- The kerygma from 1 Cor.15:3–5 refers to two mythologies: the Greek myth of the noble dead, to which the Maccabean notion of martyrdom and dying for ones people is related; and the Jewish myth of the persecuted sage or righteous man, c.q. the "story of the child of wisdom." The notion of 'dying for' refers to this martyrdom and persecution.
James F. McGrath refers to 4 Maccabees 6, "which presents a martyr praying “Be merciful to your people, and let our punishment suffice for them. Make my blood their purification, and take my life in exchange for theirs” (4 Maccabees 6:28–29). Clearly there were ideas that existed in the Judaism of the time that helped make sense of the death of the righteous in terms of atonement."[web 1]
See also Herald Gandi (2018), The Resurrection: “According to the Scriptures”?, referring to Isaiah 53, among others:
" Surely he has borne our infirmities and carried our diseases; yet we accounted him stricken, struck down by God, and afflicted.  But he was wounded for our transgressions, crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the punishment that made us whole, and by his bruises we are healed [...]  Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him with pain. When you make his life an offering for sin, he shall see his offspring, and shall prolong his days; through him the will of the Lord shall prosper.  Out of his anguish he shall see light; he shall find satisfaction through his knowledge. The righteous one, my servant, shall make many righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities."
- See Why was Resurrection on “the Third Day”? Two Insights for explanations on the phrase "third day." According to Ernst Lüdemann and Pinchas Lapide, "third day" may refer to Hosea 6:1–2:
"Come, let us return to the Lord;
for he has torn us, that he may heal us;
he has struck us down, and he will bind us up.
After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will raise us up,
that we may live before him."
See also 2 Kings 20:8: "Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “What shall be the sign that the Lord will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of the Lord on the third day?”"
According to Sheehan, Paul's reference to Jesus having risen "on the third day [...] simply expresses the belief that Jesus was rescued from the fate of utter absence from God (death) and was admitted to the saving presence of God (the eschatological future)."
- Early creed:
* Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) p. 47
* Reginald Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (New York: Macmillan, 1971) p. 10
* Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90
* Oscar Cullmann, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 64
* Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, translated James W. Leitch (Philadelphia: Fortress 1969) p. 251
* Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol. 1 pp. 45, 80–82, 293
* R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81, 92
* Most Fellows of the Jesus Seminar also concluded that this tradition dates to before Paul's conversion, c AD 33.
- Origins within the Jerusalem apostolic community:
* Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90
* Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) pp. 66–66
* R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) p. 81
* Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118
* Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2
- [1 Cor 15:12–20] [1 Pet 1:3]
- Habermas argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body:
- Paul is a Pharisee and therefore (unlike the Sadducees) believes in a physical resurrection.
- In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis (out-resurrection)" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up".
- In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma (body) to be like unto his soma (body)". According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body then Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma.
- These visions may mostly have appeared during corporate worship. Johan Leman contends that the communal meals provided a context in which participants entered a state of mind in which the presence of Jesus was felt.
- According to Sanders, "there seems to have been a competition: 'I saw him,' 'so did I,' 'the women saw him first,' 'no, I did; they didn't see him at all,' and so on."
- Vermes describes are eight possible theories to explain the resurrection of Jesus, concluding that none of these six possibilities "stands up to stringent scrutiny", and then stating that the resurrection is a "resurrection in the hearts of men."
- According to Lüdemann, in the discussions about the strictness of adherence to the Jewish Law, the more conservative faction of James the Just took the overhand over the more liberal position of Peter, who soon lost influence. According to Dunn, this was not an "usurpation of power," but a consequence of Peter's involvement in missionary activities.
* Briscoe and Ogilvie (2003): "Paul says that Christ's ransom price is his blood."
* Cobb: "The question is whether Paul thought that God sacrificed Jesus to atone for human sins. During the past thousand years, this idea has often been viewed in the Western church as at the heart of Christianity, and many of those who uphold it have appealed to Paul as its basis [...] In fact, the word "atonement" is lacking in many standard translations. The King James Translation uses "propitiation", and the Revised Standard Version uses "expiation." The American Translation reads: "For God showed him publicly dying as a sacrifice of reconciliation to be taken advantage of through faith." The Good News Bible renders the meaning as: "God offered him, so that by his sacrificial death he should become the means by which people's sins are forgiven through their faith in him." Despite this variety, and the common avoidance of the word "atonement," all these translations agree with the New Revised Standard Version in suggesting that God sacrificed Jesus so that people could be reconciled to God through faith. All thereby support the idea that is most directly formulated by the use of the word "atonement."[web 5]
- According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), "The Mishnah says that sins are expiated (1) by sacrifice, (2) by repentance at death or on Yom Kippur, (3) in the case of the lighter transgressions of the positive or negative precepts, by repentance at any time [...] The graver sins, according to Rabbi, are apostasy, heretical interpretation of the Torah, and non-circumcision (Yoma 86a). The atonement for sins between a man and his neighbor is an ample apology (Yoma 85b)."[web 7]
The Jewish Virual Library writes: "Another important concept [of sacrifices] is the element of substitution. The idea is that the thing being offered is a substitute for the person making the offering, and the things that are done to the offering are things that should have been done to the person offering. The offering is in some sense "punished" in place of the offerer. It is interesting to note that whenever the subject of Karbanot is addressed in the Torah, the name of G-d used is the four-letter name indicating G-d's mercy."[web 8]
The Jewish Encyclopedia further writes: "Most efficacious seemed to be the atoning power of suffering experienced by the righteous during the Exile. This is the idea underlying the description of the suffering servant of God in Isa. liii. 4, 12, Hebr. [...] of greater atoning power than all the Temple sacrifices was the suffering of the elect ones who were to be servants and witnesses of the Lord (Isa. xlii. 1-4, xlix. 1–7, l. 6). This idea of the atoning power of the suffering and death of the righteous finds expression also in IV Macc. vi. 27, xvii. 21–23; M. Ḳ. 28a; Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b; Lev. R. xx.; and formed the basis of Paul's doctrine of the atoning blood of Christ (Rom. iii. 25)."[web 9]
- Jordan Cooper: "Sanders sees Paul’s motifs of salvation as more participationist than juristic. The reformation overemphasized the judicial categories of forgiveness and escape from condemnation, while ignoring the real heart of salvation, which is a mystical participation in Christ. Paul shows this in his argument in his first epistle to the Corinthians when arguing against sexual immorality. It is wrong because it affects one’s union with Christ by uniting himself to a prostitute. Sin is not merely the violation of an abstract law. This participationist language is also used in Corinthians in the discussion of the Lord’s Supper wherein one participates in the body and blood of Christ."[web 10]
- According to Sheehan, Paul's account of the resurrection is not meant to be taken as referring to a literal, physical rising from the grave. Paul's understanding of the resurrection, and perhaps Peter's as well, is a metaphorical one, with the stories of Jesus's (figurative) resurrection reflecting his triumphant "entry into God's eschatological presence." Sheehan:
Sheen quotes Helmut Koester:
The word "resurrection" is a metaphor that unfortunately has been taken literally. That's where the confusion begins. In the New Testament the word for "resurrection" means literally "awakening," like waking up your kids in the morning. The New Testament says not that God "resurrected" Jesus from the dead, but that he "awoke" him. Using metaphoric language, the New Testament says God awoke Jesus from the sleep of death and brought him into God's heavenly presence. There's nothing here about an event in space and time. Resurrection doesn't mean coming back to life."
"Resurrection is thus a mythological metaphor for God's victory over the powers of unrighteousness. ... The preaching of Jesus' resurrection was thus the proclamation that the new age had been ushered in": "The Structure and Criteria of Early Christian Beliefs" in Robinson and Koester, Trajectories, 223, 224.
- In an earlier publication (2003), Ehrman recognized that "Some scholars have argued that it's more plausible that in fact Jesus was placed in a common burial plot, which sometimes happened, or was, as many other crucified people, simply left to be eaten by scavenging animals," but further elaborates by stating that "[T]he accounts are fairly unanimous in saying [...] that Jesus was in fact buried by this fellow, Joseph of Arimathea, and so it's relatively reliable that that's what happened."
- Perkins 2014, p. 498.
- Dunn 1985, p. 53.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 107.
- Wright 2003, p. 272; cf. 321.
- Koester 2000, pp. 64–65.
- Vermes 2008b, p. 141.
- Ehrman 2014, pp. 98, 101.
- Ehrman 2014, pp. 109–110.
- Vermes 2008a, pp. 151–152.
- Strong's G3952
- Vermes 2008a, p. 141.
- Barnett 2005, p. 2.
- Cullmann, Oscar (1949). The Earliest Christian Confessions. Translated by J. K. S. Reid. London: Lutterworth.
- Neufeld 1964, p. 47.
- Taylor 2014, p. 374.
- Mack 1995, pp. 86–87.
- Finlan 2004, p. 4.
- Mack 1997, p. 88.
- Lüdemann & Özen 1996, p. 73.
- Sheehan 1986, p. 112.
- oremus Bible Browser, 1 Corinthians 15:3–15:41
- Lehtipuu 2015, p. 42.
- Chester 2007, p. 394.
- Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. Empty Tomb, Appearances & Ascension pp. 449–495.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 121–122.
- Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96
- Barnett, Paul William (2009). Finding the Historical Christ (Volume 3 of After Jesus). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-0802848901.
- Powell 2018, p. unpaginated.
- Castleman, Robbie F. "The Last Word: The Great Commission: Ecclesiology" (PDF). Themelios. 32 (3): 68.
- Boring 2006, pp. 3, 14.
- Telford 1999, p. 148.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 102.
- Cotter 2001, p. 127.
- Cotter 2001, pp. 149–150.
- Burkett 2002, p. 211.
- Brown 1973, p. 103.
- Updated version of the Nicene Creed added at First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD, in Norman Tanner, New Short History of the Catholic Church, p. 33 (Burns & Oates, 2011). ISBN 978-0-86012-455-9
- Terry Miethe in Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? The Resurrection Debate, ed. Terry Miethe (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1987), xi. Quoted by Michael Martin, "The Resurrection as Initially Improbable". In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 44. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- John R. Rice, The Importance of Christ's Resurrection in the Christian Faith. In: Curtis Hutson (2000), Great Preaching on the Resurrection, ISBN 0-87398-319-X pp. 55–56
- Catechism of the Catholic Church 647
- From a debate with Anthony Flew on the resurrection of the Jesus. Transcript[dead link]
- Reginald H. Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (New York: Scribners, 1965), p. 11.
- Pagels 2005, p. 40.
- Hurtado 2005, pp. 53–54, 64–65.
- Hurado 2005, pp. 53–54, 64–65.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 138.
- Pagels 2005, pp. 43–45.
- Lüdemann & Özen 1996, p. 116.
- Hurtado 2005, pp. 64–65, 72–73.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 73.
- Leman 2015, pp. 168–169.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 53.
- Hurtado 2005, pp. 53–54.
- Hurtado 2005, pp. 72–73.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 99.
- Ehrman 2014, pp. 101–102.
- Dunn 1997, p. 131.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 149.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 152.
- Lüdemann & Özen 1996, pp. 180–181.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 100.
- Pagels 2005, p. 45.
- Pagels 2005, pp. 45–46.
- Lüdemann & Özen 1996, pp. 116–117.
- Bockmuehl 2010, p. 52.
- Lüdemann & Özen 1996, pp. 112–113.
- "Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 10 Jan. 2007
- Pagels 2005, p. 43.
- Pagels 2005, pp. 47–48.
- Donaldson 1997, p. 259.
- Dunn 2009, p. 352.
- Hultgren 2011, p. 118.
- The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0-89622-537-2 p. 361
- Newbigin 1989, p. 5.
- Vermes 2008b, p. xv.
- Briscoe & Ogilvie 2003.
- Stubs 2008, pp. 142–143.
- Charry 1999, p. 35.
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- Weaver 2001, p. 2.
- Beilby & Eddy 2009, pp. 11–20.
- Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 124, entry "Atonement". New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Oxenham 1865, p. 114.
- Pugh 2015, p. 5.
- Oxenham 1865, pp. xliv, 114.
- Pugh 2015, p. 4.
- Pugh 2015, pp. 5–6.
- Pugh 2015, p. 6.
- The resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0-88141-149-3 p. 72
- Augustine: ancient thought baptized by John M. Rist 1996 ISBN 0-521-58952-5 p. 110
- Augustine and the Catechumenate by William Harmless 1995 ISBN 0-8146-6132-7 p. 131
- Augustine De doctrina Christiana by Saint Augustine, R. P. H. Green 1996 ISBN 0-19-826334-1 p. 115
- The Trinity by Saint Augustine (Bishop of Hippo.), Edmund Hill, John E. Rotelle 1991 ISBN 0-911782-96-6 p. 157
- Adventus Domini: eschatological thought in 4th-century apses and catecheses by Geir Hellemo 1997 ISBN 90-04-08836-9 p. 231
- Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 p. 189
- Lorenzen 2003, pp. 3–4.
- Warnock, Adrian, Raised With Christ Archived 12 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Crossway 2010
- Foundations of Christian Worship by Susan J. White 2006 ISBN 0-664-22924-7 p. 55
- Dunn 2003, p. 268.
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 p. 224
- John, Revelation, 1 Peter 1:19, 1 Peter 1:2, and the associated notes and Passion Week table in Barker, Kenneth, ed. (2002). Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 1520. ISBN 0-310-92955-5.
- Schäfer 2003, pp. 72–73.
- Schäfer 2003, p. 72.
- Vermes 2001, p. xiv.
- Van Voorst 2000, p. 430.
- Endsjø 2009, pp. 124–125.
- Lehtipuu 2015, pp. 31–32.
- Endsjø 2009, p. 145.
- Cotter 2001, p. 131.
- Cotter 2001, pp. 131, 135–136.
- Collins 2009, pp. 46, 51.
- Dunn 1997, p. 115.
- Dunn 1997, p. 116.
- McClory, Robert (1989). "The Gospel According to Thomas Sheehan". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Sheehan 1986, p. 111.
- Sheehan 1986, p. 261.
- Dunn 1997, p. 116-117.
- Dunn 1997, p. 117.
- Ware, James. "Paul's Understanding of the Resurrection in 1 Corinthians 15: 36–54." Journal of Biblical Literature 133.4 (2014): 809–835.
- Cook, John Granger. "Resurrection in Paganism and the Question of an Empty Tomb in 1 Corinthians 15." New Testament Studies 63.1 (2017): 56–75.
- Lehtipuu 2015, pp. 42–43.
- Endsjø 2009, pp. 141, 145.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 94.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 90.
- Meditation and Piety in the Far East by Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Sverre Holth 2004 ISBN 0-227-17235-3 p. 30
- Pagels 2005, p. 42.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 142.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 143.
- Vermes 2008a, p. 148.
- Brown 1973, p. 147.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 98.
- Bart Ehrman, From Jesus to Constantine: A History of Early Christianity, Lecture 4: "Oral and Written Traditions about Jesus" [The Teaching Company, 2003].
- Ehrman 2014, p. 82.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 82-84.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 85.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 86.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 87.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 125.
- Ehrman 2014, pp. 120, 122.
- Ehrman 2014, p. 122.
- Loke 2017.
- Ehrman 2014.
- Talbert 2011, pp. 3–6.
- Netland 2001, p. 175.
- Loke 2017, p. 3.
- Mack 1995.
- Ehrman 2003.
- Bart Ehrman, How Jesus became God, Course Guide
- Loke 2017, pp. 3–4.
- Talbert 2011, p. 3.
- Brown 2008, p. unpaginated.
- Geza Vermez (2008), The Resurrection, pp. 138–139
- Fredriksen 2008, p. unpaginated.
- Loke 2017, p. 5.
- Harnack, Adolf Von (1889). History of Dogma.
- Edward E. Hindson, Daniel R. Mitchell (2013). The Popular Encyclopedia of Church History: The People, Places, and Events That Shaped Christianity. Harvest House Publishers. p. 23. Retrieved 29 April 2014.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Cross, EA; Livingston, FL, eds. (1989). "Ebionites". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press.
- "Ebionites". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Kohler, Kaufmann (1901–1906). "Ebionites". In Singer, Isidore; Alder, Cyrus (eds.). Jewish Encyclopedia.
- Hyam Maccoby (1987). The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. HarperCollins. pp. 172–183. ISBN 0-06-250585-8., an abridgement
- Dunn 2006, p. 282.
- Understanding early Christian art by Robin Margaret Jensen 2000 ISBN 0-415-20454-2 p. 149
- "Cross and Crucifix in the Christian Assembly – Part I (The Early Christian Period: Crux Invicta, Crux Gemmata)". Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- The passion in art by Richard Harries 2004 ISBN 0-7546-5011-1 p. 8
- Ambrose, On the Belief in the Resurrection, 102
- Images of redemption: art, literature and salvation by Patrick Sherry 2005 ISBN 0-567-08891-X p. 73
- Heaven on Earth: art and the Church in Byzantium by Linda Safran 1998 ISBN 0-271-01670-1 p. 133
- The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milic Lochman, Geoffrey William Bromiley, John Mbiti 2008 ISBN 0-8028-2417-X p. 490
- Charles S. Brown, 2007 Bible "Mysteries" Explained ISBN 0-9582813-0-0 p. 193
- Peter Rinaldi 1972, The man in the Shroud ISBN 0-86007-010-7 p. 45
- Antonio Cassanelli, 2001 The Holy Shroud: a comparison between the Gospel narrative of the five stages of the Passion ISBN 0-85244-351-X p. 13
- Lorenzen 2003, p. 13.
- Michael J. Cook, "Jewish Perspectives on Jesus", in Delbert Burkett (editor), The Blackwell Companion to Jesus, pp. 221–223 (Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2011). ISBN 978-1-4051-9362-7
- Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ, p. 205 (Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2008). ISBN 0-89900-732-5
- Dan, Joseph (2006). "Toledot Yeshu". In Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 20 (2nd ed.) pp. 28–29
- Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 p. 128
- Michael J. Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in "The Blackwell Companion to Jesus" edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-2794-6
- Kurt Rudolph, Gnosis: The Nature & History of Gnosticism, p. 190 (T & T Clark Ltd, 1970, second and expanded edition, 1980; 1998). ISBN 0-567-08640-2
- Qur'an, Sura 4:158
- Qur'an, Sura 4:157
- James F. McGrath (2007), What’s Wrong With Penal Substitution?
- Habermas (2005), Research from 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying?
- Bart Ehrman (5 Oct. 2012), Gerd Lüdemann on the Resurrection of Jesus
- David G. Peterson (2009), Atonement in Paul's writing
- John B. Cobb, Did Paul Teach the Doctrine of the Atonement?
- E.P. Sanders, Saint Paul, the Apostle, Encyclopedia Britannica]
- Jewish Encyclopedia, SIN
- Jeewish Virtual Library, Jewish Practices & Rituals: Sacrifices and Offerings (Karbanot)
- Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), Atonement
- Jordan Cooper, E.P. Sanders and the New Perspective on Paul
- Ehrman, Bart D. (14 February 2013). "Incarnation Christology, Angels, and Paul". The Bart Ehrman Blog. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Larry Hurtado, The Origin of “Divine Christology”?
- Bouma, Jeremy (27 March 2014). "The Early High Christology Club and Bart Ehrman – An Excerpt from "How God Became Jesus"". Zondervan Academic Blog. HarperCollins Christian Publishing. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Larry Hurtado (July 10, 2015 ), "Early High Christology": A "Paradigm Shift"? "New Perspective"?
- Printed sources
- Barton, John; Muddiman, John (2010), The Pauline Epistles, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0191034664
- Beilby, James K.; Eddy, Paul R. (2009), The Nature of the Atonement: Four Views, InterVarsity Press
- Bockmuehl, Markus N. A. (2010), The Remembered Peter: In Ancient Reception and Modern Debate, Mohr Siebeck
- Briscoe, D. Stuatt; Ogilvie, Lloyd J. (2003), The Preacher's Commentary: Romans Vol. 29, Thomas Nelson
- Brown, R.E. (2008), Witherup, Ronald D. (ed.), Christ in the Gospels of the Liturgical Year, Paulist Press
- Brown, R.E. (1973), The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus, Paulist Press
- Burkett, Delbert (2002), An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521007207
- Boring, M. Eugene (2006), Mark: A Commentary, Presbyterian Publishing Corp, ISBN 978-0-664-22107-2
- Charlesworth, James H. (2008), The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide, Abingdon Press, ISBN 978-1426724756
- Charry, Ellen T. (1999), By the Renewing of Your Minds: The Pastoral Function of Christian Doctrine, Oxford University Press
- Chester, Andrew (2007), Messiah and Exaltation: Jewish Messianic and Visionary Traditions and New Testament Christology, Mohr Siebeck, ISBN 978-3161490910
- Collins, Adela Yarbro (2009), "Ancient Notions of Transferal and Apotheosis", in Seim, Turid Karlsen; Økland, Jorunn (eds.), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110202991
- Cotter, Wendy (2001), "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection in Matthew", in Thompson, William G. (ed.), The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0802846730
- De Conick, April D. (2006), "What Is Early Christian and Jewish Mysticism?", in De Conick, April D. (ed.), Paradise Now: Essays on Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism, SBL, ISBN 978-1589832572
- Donaldson, Terence L. (1997), Paul and the Gentiles: Remapping the Apostle's Convictional World, Fortress Press
- Dunn, James D.G. (1985), The Evidence for Jesus, Westminster John Knox Press
- Dunn, James D.G. (1997), Jesus and the Spirit: A Study of the Religious and Charismatic Experience of Jesus and the First Christians as Reflected in the New Testament, Eerdmans
- Dunn, James D.G. (2003), Christology in the Making: A New Testament Inquiry Into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation, Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd
- Dunn, James D.G. (2006), Unity and Diversity in the New Testament (3rd ed.), scm press
- Dunn, James D.G. (2009), Beginning from Jerusalem: Christianity in the Making, Eerdmans
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2003), Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-972712-4
- Ehrman, Bart (2014), How Jesus Became God. The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilea, Harperone
- Endsjø, D. (2009), Greek Resurrection Beliefs and the Success of Christianity, Springer, ISBN 978-0230622562
- Finney, Mark (2016), Resurrection, Hell and the Afterlife: Body and Soul in Antiquity, Judaism and Early Christianity, Routledge, ISBN 978-1317236375
- Fredriksen, Paula (2008), From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus, Yale University Press
- Garrett, James Leo (2014), Systematic Theology, Volume 2, Second Edition: Biblical, Historical, and Evangelical, Volume 2, Wipf and Stock Publishers
- Hultgren, Arland J. (2011), "Paul's Christology and his Mission to the Gentiels", in Burke, Trevor J.; Rosner, Brian S. (eds.), Paul as Missionary: Identity, Activity, Theology, and Practice, Bloomsbury Publishing
- Hurtado, Larry (2005), Lord Jesus Christ. Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, Eerdmans
- Koester, Helmut (2000), Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity, Walter de Gruyter
- Kubitza, Heinz-Werner (2016), The Jesus Delusion: How the Christians created their God: The demystification of a world religion through scientific research, Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag
- Lehtipuu, Outi (2015), Debates Over the Resurrection of the Dead: Constructing Early Christian Identity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198724810
- Leman, Johan (2015), Van totem tot verrezen Heer. Een historisch-antropologisch verhaal, Pelckmans
- Loke, Andrew Ter Ern (2017), The Origin of Divine Christology, 169, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-108-19142-5
- Lorenzen, Thorwald (2003), Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Today, Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys
- Lüdemann, Gerd; Özen, Alf, De opstanding van Jezus. Een historische benadering (Was mit Jesus wirklich geschah. Die Auferstehung historisch betrachtet / The Resurrection of Christ: A Historical Inquiry), The Have/Averbode
- Mack, Burton L. (1995) , Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth
- Mack, Burton L. (1997) , Wie schreven het Nieuwe Testament werkelijk? Feiten, mythen en motieven. (Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth), Uitgeverij Ankh-Hermes bv
- McGrath, Alister E. (2011), Christian Theology: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1444397703
- Netland, Harold (2001), Encountering Religious Pluralism: The Challenge to Christian Faith & Mission, InterVarsity Press
- Newbigin, Lesslie (1989), The Gospel In a Pluralist Society, Eerdmans, ISBN 2825409715
- Neufeld (1964), The Earliest Christian Confessions, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
- Oxenham, Henry (1865), The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green
- Pagels, Elaine (2005), De Gnostische Evangelien (The Gnostic Gospels), Servire
- Parker, D.C. (1997), The Living Text of the Gospels, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521599511
- Pate, C. Marvin (2013). Apostle of the Last Days: The Life, Letters and Theology of Paul. Kregel Academic. ISBN 978-0825438929.
- Powell, Mark Allan (2018). Introducing the New Testament: A Historical, Literary, and Theological Survey. Baker Books.
- Perkins, Pheme (2014). "Resurrection of Jesus". In Evans, Craig A. (ed.). The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317722243.
- Plevnik, Joseph (2009). What are They Saying about Paul and the End Time?. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0809145782.
- Pugh, Ben (2015), Atonement Theories: A Way through the Maze, James Clarke & Co
- Quast, Kevin (1991). Reading the Gospel of John: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0809132973.
- Sanders, E.P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0191034664.
- Schäfer, Peter (2003). The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134403165.
- Sheehan, Thomas (1986), The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity, Random House, ISBN 978-0394511986
- Stubs, David L. (2008), "The shape of soteriology and the pistis Christou debate", Scottish Journal of Theology, 61 (2), doi:10.1017/S003693060800392X
- Swinburne, Richard (2003). The Resurrection of God Incarnate. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0199257454.
- Tabor, James (2013), Paul and Jesus: How the Apostle Transformed Christianity, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-1439123324
- Talbert, Charles H. (2011), The Development of Christology during the First Hundred Years: and Other Essays on Early Christian Christology. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 140., Brill
- Taylor, Mark (2014), 1 Corinthians: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, B&H Publishing, ISBN 978-0805401288
- Telford, W.R. (1999). The Theology of the Gospel of Mark. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521439770.
- Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). "Eternal Life". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-9053565032.
- Vermes, Geza (2001). The Changing Faces of Jesus. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0141912585.
- Vermes, Geza (2008a), The Resurrection, London: Penguin
- Vermes, Geza (2008b), The Resurrection: History and Myth, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6
- Weaver, J. Denny (2001), The Nonviolent Atonement, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
- Wilson, Barrie (2011), How Jesus Became Christian, Hachette UK
- Wright, Tom (2003), The Resurrection of the Son of God, Fortress Press
- Gerd Ludemann (2004), The Resurrection of Christ: A Historical Inquiry
- Ehrman, Bart (2014), How Jesus Became God. The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilea, Harperone
- Hurtado, Larry (2005), Lord Jesus Christ. Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, Eerdmans
- Media related to Resurrection of Christ at Wikimedia Commons